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JAN 25 34 




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rpHE scope and object of Men of the Time, now in its Eleventh 
Edition, axe so clearly indicated on its title-page, that it is 
scarcely necessary to dwell upon them at any length. The work 
was originally undertaken to fill a place till then unoccupied by 
any of the multifarious books of reference which the industry and 
enterprise of tlie age have provided for almost every class of the 
community. We have records of the aristocracy of birth and 
wealth, in the form of Peerages and Histories of the Landed 
Gentry ; we have Court Calendars and Parliamentary Guides, 
which leave no official dignity, no part of the Civil Service, un- 
chronicled ; we have Post Office Directories for the registration of 
commercial and industrial occupations of every kind; we have 
lists also of Military and Naval Officers, and of the Clergy, which 
set forth the rank and services of the members of those profes- 
sions ; Lawyers and Medical Men have likewise their respective 
muster-rolls ; but the aristocracy of intellect had been left, until 
this work first appeared, without any special record. The aim of 
the present volume, then, is to furnish memoirs of eminent living 
persons, of both sexes, in all parts of the civilized world. 

The present edition of Men of the Time is to all intents 
and purposes a new book. Four years have elapsed since the 

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appearance of the Tenth Edition, and ♦ during that period no 
fewer than 434 individuals who were noticed in its columns, have 
been removed by death. Their places are occupied in the present 
edition by memoirs of persons whose names have during the same 
period come prominently before the public. 

Besides preparing these new biographies, the Editor has care- 
fully revised all the memoirs in the work, entirely re-casting 
many, and making additions to nearly all of them. 

At the end of the volume is a Necrology containing the names 
of eminent persons deceased, with the dates of the birth and 
death, and reference to the last edition of this work in which 
their biography is to be found. 

As it is the desire of the Publishers to render the work as 
accurate and complete as possible, suggestions for new names, 
corrections, and additional information, arc respectfully invited. 
All communications, addressed to Mr. Thompson Cooper, F.S.A., 
care of Messrs. Routlcdge and Sons, The Broadway, Ludgate, E.C., 
will be thankfully received. 

London, Jan. 1, 1884. 

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A. See Arnold, M. 

A. B. G. See Airy, Sir G. B. 

Amicus. See Fairbairn, Sir Tho. 

Baptibtkt. See Daudet, A. 
Bard, Samuel A. See Squier, E. G. 
Bede,Cuthbert. See Bradley ,Rev.E. 
Benauly. See A\>bott, Lyman. 
Beranger, Paul. See Collin, 

J. A. S. C. D. 
Bibliophile Jacob. See Lacroix, P. 
Bideford, The Rural Postman of. 

See Capem, E. 
Bon Gaultier. See Martin, Sir T. 

Botham, Miss M. See Howitt, 
Mrs. M. 

Breitman.ii, Hans. See Leland. 

Butler, Mrs- See Kemble, F. A. 

Bystander. See Smith, Goldwin. 

Caldwell, Miss A. See Marsh- 

Caldwell, Mrs. A. 
Candide. See Claretie, J. A. A. 
Carle. See Sardou, F. J. 
Carvalho. See Miolan-Carvalho, 

Madame M. C. 
Clifton, Miss Fanny. See Stirling, 

Clifton, Tom. See Bobbins, A. F. 
Crawley, Captain. See Pardon, 

G. F. 
Croquelardon. See Collin, J.A.S.C.D. 
Cuthbert Bede. See Bradley, Rev. 


Daoonet. See Sims, G. R. 
De Plancy. See Collin, J.A.S.C.D. 
Desire^ Hazard. See Feuillet, O. 
Dunheved. See Robbins, A. F. 

Expebtus. See McColl, M. 

Father Jean. See Beal. 
Felix. See Martin, B. L. H. 
Felix de Salamanca. See Ingram, 

J. H. 
Ferragu8. See Ulbach, Louis. 
Fin-Bee. See Jerrold, W. B. 
" Five," The. See Ollivier, O. E. 
" Flemish Interiors," author of. See 

Byrne, Mrs. W. P. 
Flyggare, Madame. See Carlen, 

Madame E. F. 
Forrester, Gilbert. See Braddon, 

MissM. E. 
Francis, Miss M. See Thorny croft, 

Mrs. M. 

Gail Hamilton. See Dodge. 
Garrow, Miss. 8ee Trollope, T. A. 
Gaston, Marie. See Daudet, A. 
Gigliucci, Countess. See Novello, 

C. A. 
Gilbert" de Voisins, Countess. See 

Taglioni, M. 
Gilbert Forrester. See Braddon, 

Miss M. E. 

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Girl of the Period. See Linton, Mrs. 
Goff, Elijer. See Dawes, W. 
Goward, Miss. See Keeley, Mrs. 
Gower, Lady G. See Fullerton, 

Lady G. 
Greenwood, Grace. See Lippincott. 
Grillo, Marchioness del. See Ristori, 


Hamilton, Gail. See Dodge, M. A. 
Hazard, Desire. See Feuifiet, O. 
Hehl, Miss. See Stirling, Mrs. 
Hertfordshire Incumbent. See 

Blakesley, J. W. 
Historicus. See Harcourt. 
Hope, Stanley. See Hodges, J. S. W. 
Hormisda8-Peath. See Collin, J. A. 

S. C. D. 

Irner. See Martin, B. L. H. 
Isa. See Craig, I. 

Jacob, Bibliophile. See Lacroix, P. 
Jacques Souffrant. See Ulbach, L. 
Jean Froissart. See Daudet, A. 
John Halifax, Author of. See 
Mulock, Miss D. M. 

K. C. See Kent, W. C. M. 

Lancashire Incumbent. See 

Hume, A. 
Limner, Luke. See Leighton, J. 
London Physician. See Guy, W. A. 
Lynn, Miss E. See Linton, Mrs. E. 

Mariotti, L. See Gallenga. 
Mark Rochester. See Kent, C. 
Mark Twain. See Clemens. 
Marvell, Ik. See Mitchell, D. G. 
Maynard, Walter. See Beale, T. W. 
Meredith, Owen. See Lytton, Lord. 
Milnes, Monckton. See Houghton, 

Montague, Miss E. L. See Hervey, 

E. L. 

Myrtle, Minnie. Sez Miller, Joa- 

Nemesis. SecBeal; Robbins,A. F. 
Neveu de mon Oncle. See Collin, 

J. A. S. C. D. 
Novello, Miss M. See Clarke, Mrs. 

M. C. 

O'Keefe. See Belloc, Madame 

A. S. L. 
Oscotian, An. See Kent, W. C. M. 
Ouida. See De la Ramee, L. 

Parkes, Mrs. See Sedgwick, A. 
Pathfinder of the Rocky Mountains, 

The. See Fremont, J. C. 
Paul Beranger. See Collin, J. A. 

S. C. D. 
Postman, The Rural, of Bideford. 

See Capern, E. 
Price, Miss. See Wood, Mrs. H. 

Rioby, Miss E . See Eastlake, Lady. 
Rob Roy. See Macgregor, J. 
Roberts, Captain. See Hobart, A. C. 
Rochester, Mark. See Kent, C. 
Roslyn, Guy. See Hatton, Joshua. 
Rowlands, John. See Stanley, H. M. 

St. L£on, Madame. See Cerito, F. 

Samarrow, Gregor. See Meding, 

Schmidt, Mdlle. See Carlen, Ma- 
dame E. F. 

Scrutator. See McColl, M. 

S. G. O. See Osborne, The Rev. 
Lord S. G. 

Smith, Miss B. L. See Bodichon, 

Smith, Miss C. L. See Gascoigne, 
Mrs. C. L. 

Souffrant, Jacques. See Ulbach, L. 

Stephens, Mrs. S. L. See Duvemay, 
Y. M. L. 

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Templar. See Kent, C. 
Thomas, Annie. See Cudlip, Mrs. 
Toulmin, Miss C. See Crosland, 

Mrs. C. . 
Trevor, Edward. See Lytton, Lord. 
Twain, Mark. See Clemens, S. L. 
Twamley, Miss L. See Meredith, 

Mrs. L. 

Voisins, Countess Gilbert de. See 
Taglioni, M. 

Wooloar, Miss S. J. See Mellon, 
Mrs. A. 

Yankee. See White, E. G. 

Yerax. See Dunckley, H. 

Vermond, Louis de. See Enault, L. I Zeta. See Froude, J. A. 

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LBxcT),waa horn at Constantinople 
in 1830, being the eon of Shekib 
Pasha, a distinguished diplomatist. 
At the age of fifteen he was em- 
ployed as a supernumerary in the 
offices of the Divan, and in 1847 he 
accompanied his father on a mission 
to Koine. Subsequently he went 
with his father to the Embassy at 
Vienna, where he resided for two 
▼ears. On his return to Constanti- 
nople he applied himself assiduously 
to the study of languages ; and he 
was employed in various capacities 
in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
Some years later he accompanied 
Aali-Pasha to Vienna as First Sec- 
retary, and a year afterwards he 
went to discharge the same duty at 
Paris. His knowledge of the French 
language led to his appointment 
as First Translator at Paris to the 
Sublime Porte, and afterwards as 
First Interpreter to the Divan. 
The latter office he held till 1872. 
Subsequently to that date he occu- 
pied several important posts in 
Turkey, being successively Under- 
Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs and Surveyor of Ordnance, 
President of the Executive Chamber 
of Justice, and President of the 
Civil Chamber of the Court of Cas- 
sation. He next resumed his diplo- 
matic career as Ambassador at 
Vienna; and in 1873 he returned 
to the office of First Interpreter to 

the Divan, and held it for about a 
twelvemonth. In 1874 Aarifi Pasha 
was nominated Minister of Public 
Instruction ; three months later, 
Minister of Justice, and then, again. 
Ambassador at Vienna. On the 
establishment of the new Ottoman 
Constitution he was appointed 
President of the Senate, and soon 
afterwards received the portfolio of 
Foreign Affairs. He was accredited 
Ambassador of the Sublime Porte 
at Paris Nov. 5, 1877, in succession 
to Khalil Sheriff Pasha. On July 
28, 1879, the Sultan issued a decree 
abolishing the post of Grand Vizier 
and appointing Aarifi Pasha Prime 
Minister, with Safvet Pasha as 
Minister of Foreign Affairs. The 
new nunistry, however, had but a 
very brief tenure of office. 

ABBOTT, The Ebv. Edwin Ab- 
bott, D.D., born in London in 1838, 
was educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, of which he became a 
Fellow. (B.A. 7th Senior Optime, 
and 1st class in Classics, 1861 ; M.A. 
1864.) He was Assistant Master in 
King Edward's School, Birming- 
ham, from 1862 to 1865, when he 
was appointed Head Master of the 
City of London School. He was 
twice Select Preacher at Cambridge ; 
Hulsean Lecturer in that university, 
1876; also Select Preacher of the 
University of Oxford, 1877. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury conferred 
on him the degree of D.D. in 1872. 


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Dr. Abbott has published the fol- 
lowing theological works : — " Bible 
Lessons," 1872 ; " Cambridge Ser- 
mons/' 1875 ; " Through Nature to 
Christ," 1877. His other works are, 
a " Shakespearian Grammar," 1870 ; 
an edition of Bacon's "Essays," 
1876 ; " Bacon and Essex," 1877 ; 
and an " English Grammar." Dr. 
Abbott is also the author of two re- 
ligious romances, published anony- 
mously : — " PhilochriBtus : Memoirs 
of a Disciple of our Lord," 1878; 
and " Onesimus : Memoirs of a Dis- 
ciple of St. Paul," 1882. 

ABBOTT, Lyman, D.D., son of 
the late Jacob Abbott, born at Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts, Dec. 18, 1835. 
He graduated at the University of 
New York in 1853, was ordained a 
Congregational minister in 18(50, 
and was pastor of various churches 
until 1865, when he became Secre- 
tary of the Freedmen's Commission 
until 1868. Subsequently he de- 
voted himself mainly to literary 
pursuits. He had previously, in con- 
junction with his brothers, written 
two novels, "Conecut Corners," and 
" Matthew Carnaby," under the now 
de guerre of " Benauly ," formed from 
the initial syllables of their respec- 
tive names (Benjamin, Austin, and 
Lyman). Besides several smaller 
works ne has published " Jesus of 
Nazareth : His Life and Teachings," 
1869; "Old Testament Shadows 
of New Testament Truths," 1870 ; 
"A Layman's Story," 1873; "Com- 
mentary on the New Testament," 
1875 — 77; edited two volumes of 
Henry Ward Beecher's Sermons, 
1868 ; a volume of his " Morning 
Exercises," 1870; and, with T. C. 
Conant, a " Dictionary of Religious 
Knowledge." Later he was one of 
the editors of Harper's Monthly 
Magazine, and principal editor of 
the Illustrated Christian Weekly. At 
present he is the editor of the 
Christian Union. Two of his bro- 
thers, Benjamin V. (born in 1830), 
and Austin (born in 1831), are 
prominent lawyers in New York, and 
have prepared several legal works. 

ABDUL-HAMID II., Sultan of 
Turkey, was born Sept. 22, 1842, 
being a younger son and the fourth 
child of Abdul-Medjid, the Sultan 
who died in 1861. On Aug. 31, 
1876, he succeeded his brother, 
Mourad V., who was deposed, on 
proof of his insanity, after a reign 
of three months. He was solemnly 
girt with the sword of Othman, in 
the Eyoub mosque, Constantinople, 
on Sept. 7. About this time the 
Servians, who had been at war with 
the Sublime Porte, were completely 
defeated ; but, after the capture of 
Alexinatz by the Turks, the Russian 
ambassador at Constantinople pre- 
sented an ultimatum to the Turkish 
Government demanding the imme- 
diate conclusion of an armistice for 
six weeks, which was accordingly 
granted, Nov. 1 . The New Turkish 
Constitution, devised by Midhat 
Pasha, providing for the establish- 
ment of representative institutions 
on the West European model, was 
promulgated at Constantinople, and 
in the provinces of the Empire on 
Dec. 23. In the same month a 
Conference of the representatives of 
the Great Powers was held at Con- 
stantinople, but their attempts to 
avert a war were unsuccessful. On 
Jan. 18, 1877, a resolution was 
passed by the Grand Council of 
Turkey, presided over by Midhat 
Pasha, rejecting absolutely all the 
proposals of the European Powers 
for administrative reforms, on the 
ground that their acceptance 
" would sacrifice the independence 
of the Empire : " the result being 
that a week later all the plenipo- 
tentiaries left Constantinople. On 
March 1 a treaty of peace was con- 
cluded between Turkey and Servia 
on the basis of the status quo ante 
bellum. But the Porte had soon to 
face a more formidable antagonist, 
for on April 21 a circular despatch 
from the Russian Government to 
the European Powers announced a 
declaration of war against Turkey. 
During the sanguinary conflict 
which ensued the Turkish troops 

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fought with heroic valour, but they 
were eventually obliged to yield to 
superior numbers, and after the fall 
of Plevna the Porte sued for peace, 
and an armistice was accordingly 
aigned in Feb. 1878. A Treaty of 
Peace was soon afterwards signed at 
San Stefano (March 3), but its pro- 
visions were considerably modified 
by the representatives of the great 
Powers assembled in Congress at 
Berlin. On July 8, 1878, the British 
Ministry announced that five weeks 
before they had concluded a defen- 
sive Treaty with the Porte, by which 
England agreed to guarantee the 
Ap ia t i c dominions of the Sultan, 
who in turn engaged to introduce 
"* necessary reforms," and to cede 
the island of Cyprus to be occupied 
and administered by Great Britain. 
ABDY, John Thomas, LL.D., son 
of Lient.-Colonel James Nicholas 
Abdy, was born July 5, 1822, and 
educated at the Proprietary School, 
Kensington, whence he proceeded 
to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where 
he graduated as Senior in the Civil 
Law in 1844. In 1847 he took the 
degree of LL.B., and was created 
LL.D. in 1852. In 1850 he was 
elected a fellow of his college, and 
in January of that year was called 
to the bar by the Inner Temple. 
For a short time he went the Home 
circuit, but subsequently chose the 
Norfolk circuit. In 1854 he was ap- 
pointed Regius Professor of the 
Civil Law in the University of 
Cambridge, and he held that office 
till the close of the year 1873. He 
is Lecturer on Law at Gresham Col- 
lege, London, and a magistrate for 
Hertfordshire and for the borough 
of Cambridge. In 1870 he was ap- 
pointed Recorder of Bedford, and in 
the following year was promoted to 
be County Court Judge of Circuit 
No. 88. Dr. Abdy has published 
"A Historical Sketch of Civil Pro- 
cedure among the Romans," 1857 ; 
and an edition of " Kent* s Commen- 
tary on International Law," 1866. 
In collaboration with Mr. Bryan 
Walker, M.A., he edited, translated, 

; and annotated " The Commentaries 
of Gaius." 1870. 

A BECKETT, Abthub William, 
youngest surviving son of the late 
Gilbert Abbott a Beckett, the well- 
known metropolitan police magis- 
trate and author, was born at 
Hammersmith, Oct. 25, IK 14, and 
educated at Kensington, at Honiton, 
and lastly at Felstead School. At 
17 he entered the War Office, but 
he left the Civil Service after three 
years' experience of it, and at the 
age of 20 he was editor of the Glow- 
worm, a London evening paper. 
During the next ten years he edited 
with much success several comic 
periodicals and monthly magazines. 
In 1870-71 he was special corre- 
spondent to the 8tandard and Qlob* 
during the Franco-German war. 
For the next two years he was 
private secretary to the Duke of 
Norfolk, an appointment he relin- 
quished to give his uninterrupted 
attention to other work. Since 1874 
he has been on the staff of Punca. 
Mr. a Beckett is author of " Fallen 
among Thieves," a novel, 1870 ; " Our 
Holiday in the Scottish Highlands," 
(illustrated by Mr. Linley Sam- 
bourne) ; " The Modern Arabian 
Nights " (with the same illustrator) 
1876; "The Ghost of Greystone 
Grange," 1877 ; and "The Mystery 
of Mostyn Manor," 1878. In con- 

i 'unction with Mr. F. C. Burnand 
te wrote "The Doom of St. Querec," 
1875 ; and " The Shadow Witness," 
1876. He is also author of two three- 
act comedies, " L.S.D." (Royalty 
Theatre, 1872), and "About Town " 
(which was produced at the Court 
Theatre in 1873, and ran for over 
150 nights) ; a domestic drama in 
one act, " On Strike " (Court 
Theatre, 1873) ; " Faded Flowers," 
produced at the Haymarket; and 
" Long Ago " (Royalty, 1882) . He 
has also dramatised (in conjunction 
with Mr. J. Palgrave Simpson) his 
novel "Fallen among Thieves," 
under the title of " From Father 
to Son," 3 acts, (Liverpool 1881). 
He is a captain in the Cheshire 
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militia, and has been called to the 
bar by the Hon. Society of Gray's 

ABERCORN (Duke of), his 
Grace James Hamilton, K.G., 
Duke of ChAtelherault in France, 
and head of the ancient and illus- 
trious house of Hamilton, is the 
eldest son of James Viscount Hamil- 
ton, by Harriet, second daughter 
of the late Hon. John Douglas. 
He was born in London, Jan. 21, 
1811. When he was three years 
old he lost his father, and at the 
age of seven he succeeded to the 
title of his grandfather, the first 
Marquis of Abercorn. He was care- 
fully brought up under the guar- 
dianship of his stepfather, the 
Earl of Aberdeen, who afterwards 
became Prime Minister of England. 
His academical education he re- 
ceived at Christ Church, Oxford. 
In politics he has always been a 
consistent Conservative, the first 
vote he ever gave in the House of 
Lords having been recorded against 
the Whig Reform Bill. In 1844 he 
was created a Knight of the Gar- 
ter, and from 1846 to 1859 he held 
the office of Groom of the Stole to 
the late Prince Consort. In 1861 
he made a claim to the old Duke- 
dom of Chatelherault in France, 
which was created in 1548, but 
Napoleon III. assigned it to his 
own kinsman, the twelfth Duke of 
Hamilton, grandson of the Grand- 
Duchess of Baden, who was a 
Beauharnais. There seems to be 
no doubt, however, that the Duke 
of Abercorn is the male descendant 
and representative of the Regent 
Arran, first Duke of Chatelherault. 
When the Conservatives came into 
office in 1866 the Marquis of Aber- 
corn was nominated to the im- 
portant post of Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland. The appointment gave 
great satisfaction in that country, 
where he is a large landed pro- 
prietor, being the possessor of more 
than 80,000 acres in the counties 
of Tyrone and Donegal. A lead- 
ing incident during his vice-royalty 

was the visit of the Prince and. 
Princess of Wales to Ireland. He 
held the office of Lord Lieutenant; 
till Dec. 1868, having been in. 
August of that year raised to the 
Dukedom of Abercorn in the peer- 
age of Ireland, in recognition of his 
very able administration of the 
government of the country during 
a critical and difficult period. On 
the return of the Conservatives to 
power under Mr. Disraeli in Feb. 
1874, his Grace was again appointed 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and he 
held that office till Dec. 1876, when 
he resigned, and was succeeded by 
the Duke of Marlborough. In Feb. 
1878 he was sent by Her Majesty 
on a special mission to Rome to 
present King Humbert with the 
Order of the Garter. He married 
in 1832 Lady Louisa Jane Russell, 
second daughter of the sixth Duke 
of Bedford, K.G. The Duke of 
Abercorn is Lord Lieutenant of 
Donegal ; Grand Master of the Free- 
masons of Ireland (elected Nov. 5, 
1874) ; a Major-General of the Royal 
Archers (the Queen's Body Guard 
of Scotland) ; and captain of the 
London Scottish Rifle Volunteers. 

ABERDARE (Lord), The Right 
Hon. Henby Austin Bruce, is the 
second son of the late Mr. John 
Bruce Pryce, of Duffryn St. Nicho- 
las, Glamorganshire, who assumed 
the name of Bruce in lieu of his 
patronymic Knight, in 1805, and 
the name of Pryce in 1837. He was 
born at Duffryn on April 16, 1815. 
At the age of six years he was 
taken by his family to France, 
where he remained till 1827. Re- 
turning to England in that year 
he began his regular studies at the 
Swansea Grammar School, and con- 
tinued at that establishment till 
1832, when he was removed to 
London, where he read for two 
years in the chambers of his uncle, 
the late Lord Justice Knight Bruce. 
He was called to the bar at Lin- 
coln's Inn in 1837, but after prac- 
tising for about six years, he 
withdrew his name altogether in 

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1*43 from the ranks of the pro- 
fession. He was Police-Magistrate 
of Merthyr-Tydvil and Aberdare, 
Glamorganshire, from 18i7till 1852, 
when he entered the House of 
Commons as member for Merthyr- 
TydTil. That borough he repre- 
sented in the Liberal interest till 
the general election of December, 
18ti8, when he lost his seat ; but in 
the following month he was re- 
turned for Renfrewshire. Mr. Bruce 
was Under-Secretary of State for 
the Home Department from Nov. 
1862, to April, 1864; and Vice- 
President of the Committee of 
Council on Education from the 
latter date to July, 1866. He was 
also in 1864 appointed a Charity 
Commissioner for England and 
Wales, and sworn a member of the 
Privy Council. Prom Nov. 1865, to 
Aug. 1866. he held the post of 
second Church Estates Commis- 
sioner. On the formation of Mr. 
Gladstone's cabinet, in Dec. 1868, 
he took office as Secretary of State 
for the Home Department, and the 
following year he was appointed 
an Ecclesiastical Commissioner. In 
Aug. 1873, he was raised to the 
peerage by the title of Lord Aber- 
dare, in order to enable him to 
hold the high post of Lord Presi- 
dent of the Council, in the place of 
Lord Ripon, resigned. However, 
he was only destined to retain that 
exalted position a very short time, 
as he of course went out of office on 
the defeat of the Liberal party in 
Feb. 1871. He presided over the 
meeting of the Social Science Asso- 
ciation held at Brighton in 1875. 
His Lordship edited the " Life of 
General Sir Wm. Napier, K.C.B., 
author of ' Historv of the Penin- 
sular War/" 2 vols., 1864; and 
has published "National Educa- 
tion : an Address delivered to the 
National Association for the Pro- 
motion of Social Science," 1866 ; 
and his " Speech on the Second 
Beading of the Education of the 
Poor Bill/; 1867. He has been 
twice married; firstly, in IS 16, to 

Annabeila, daughter of Mr. Richard 
Beadon (she died in 1852) ; and, 
secondly, in 1854, to Norah, daugh- 
ter of the late Lieutenant-General 
Sir William P. Napier, K.C.B. His 
son and heir is Mr. Henry Campbell - 
Bruce, who was born in 1H51. 

Bishop of : 8ee Douglas. 

ABNEY, Captain, William dk 
Wiveleslie, F.R.S., was born at 
Derby in 1843, and educated at Ros- 
sall.and privately, and at the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich. 
He was appointed lieutenant in the 
Royal Engineers in 1861, and cap- 
tain in 1873. He was formerly 
Instructor in Chemistry to the 
Royal Engineers, Chatham, and is 
now Inspector for Science in the 
Science and Art Department. He 
was one of the scientific observers 
of the Transit of Venus in 1874. 
His works are : — " Instruction in 
Photography ; " " Emulsion Photo- 
graphy ; " and " Thebes and its 
Five Greater Temples/' He is also 
the author of many papers in the 
Philosophical Transactions, and the 
Proceedings of the Royal Society 
and the Philosophical Magazine. 
He obtained the Ruinford Medal of 
the Royal Society in 18S3, for his 
researches in photography and 
spectrum analysis. He served as 
a juror in the Electric Exhibition. 

ABOUT, Edmond-Fban«;ois- 
Valentin, a French author, born at 
Dieuze (Meurthe), Feb. 11, 1S28, 
pursued his studies at the Lycee 
Charlemagne, won the prize of ho- 
nour in 1848, and passed in 1S51 
to the French School of Athens. 
In Greece he directed his attention 
to archaeological studies, and made 
his first appearance as an author 
with "La Grece Contemporaine " 
(1855), which was well received. 
In the Revue des Deux Mondes he 
published a kind of autobiographi- 
cal novel, " Tolla," in 1855. This 
led to a charge of plagiarism being 
brought against M. About. In 1841 , 
it was said, there was published at 
Paris a book founded on facts, en- 

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titled " Vittoria Savorelli : istoria 

del secolo XIX." A Prince D 

bought up the whole edition, and 
destroyed all but a few copies. One 
of these fell into the hands of M. 
About, who founded " Tolla" upon 
it, supposing, as was alleged by his 
accusers, that his copy was unique, 
and that he was, therefore, secure 
from detection. However, a fierce 
controversy arose on the subject, 
and M. About ultimately avowed 
the obligations concerning which he 
had long been silent. " Tolla" was 
followed by " Les Manages de 
Paris" in 1856, and " Germaine" in 
1857. His well-known pamphlet, 
" La Question Romaine," which 
urged the abolition of the Pope's 
temporal power, and was supposed 
to have been inspired by the Em- 
peror, appeared soon after. In 1860 
he published two other political 
pamphlets, "The New Map of Eu- 
rope," and "Prussia in 1860." "Les 
Coquins d' Agents de Change" was 
published in 1861, the third edition 
of "Le Cas de M. Guerin," "Made- 
Ion," and "Dernieres Lettres d'un 
bon jeune homme k sa cousine Ma- 
deleine," in 1863; "Le Progres" in 
1864; "La Vicille Roche" in the 
Moniteur du Soir in 1865 ; " Le Tur- 
co"in 1866; "L'Infame" in 1867; 
"Les Mariages de Province" in 
1868; "L'A,B,CduTravailleur,"a 
popular handbook of political eco- 
nomy, in the same year; and 
"L'Homme a l'Oreille cassee," 
translated into English with the 
title of " Colonel Fougas' Mistake." 
M. About, who received the Legion 
of Honour August 15, 1858, married 
Mdlle. de Guillerville, May 2 1, 1864. 
He has written several vaudevilles 
and other dramatic pieces. In 1866 
M. About was commissioned by the 
Emperor to draw up a report on the 
state of public opinion in France. 
In 1868 he became one of the 
leading contributors to the Oaulois 
newspaper. On the commencement 
of the conflict between France and 
Prussia he went to the seat of war 
as special correspondent of thefltoir, 

and sent, to that journal a series of 
articles, which attracted much at- 
tention. In May, 1872, he left the 
Soir, to assume the chief editorship 
of the well-known Radical journal 
Le XI Xc Siecle. M. About's arrest 
by the Germans, while he was on a 
visit to Strasbourg in Sept. 1872, 
was for a brief period the main topic 
of newspaper comment in Europe. 
His work, entitled "Alsace," ap- 
peared in 1872. After the decease 
of M. Philarete Chasles in 1873, M. 
About succeeded that accomplished 
journalist as Paris correspondent of 
the London Athenasum. 

ABRAHAM, The Right Rev. 
Charles John, D.D., son of the late 
Captain Abraham, R.N., of Farn- 
borough, Hants, born in 1815, and 
educated at Eton and King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, of which he was 
successively Scholar and Fellow, was 
appointed Assistant Master at Eton 
College. He was archdeacon of 
Waitemata, New Zealand, from 1852 
till 1857, and on the subdivision in 
the latter year of the diocese of 
New Zealand, was consecrated first 
Bishop of Wellington. In 1870 he 
resigned his see, returned to Eng- 
land, and was appointed a Coad- 
jutor Bishop in the diocese of Lich- 
field. He held a prebend in the 
cathedral church of Lichfield from 
1872 till 1876, when he was ap- 
pointed Canon Residentiary and 
Precentor. He was rector of Taten- 
hill, Staffordshire, in 1875-6. Bishop 
Abraham is the author of " Festival 
and Lenten Lectures in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor," 1848-49. 

ACHENBACH, Andrew, artist, 
born at Cassel, Sept. 29, 1815, studied 
at Diisseldorf, under Schadow. In 
the Paris "Exposition" of 1855, M. 
Achenbach had five pictures, viz., 
"Maree haute k Ostende," " Vuede 
Corleone en Sicile," " Mer orageuse 
sur la Cdte de Sicile," "Kermesse 
en Hollande," and " Clair de Lune." 
In 1841 M. Achenbach obtained a 
third-class medal at the "Exposi- 
tion" at Paris, and a medal of the 
first-class in 1855. He is a member 

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of the Royal Academies of Berlin, 
Amsterdam, Philadelphia, and Ant- 
werp; and was decorated with the 
Cross of the Legion of Honour, Aug. 

ACLAND, H-ENTtY Wentwobth, 
M.D., F JB.S., Hon. D.C.L., of Edin- 
burgh and Cambridge, and Hon. 
M.D.Dublin, C.R. Empire of Brazil, 
fourth son of Sir Thomas Dyke 
A eland. Bart., was born in 1815, 
and educated at Harrow and Christ 
Church. Oxford. He was elected, 
in 1841, to a fellowship at All 
Souls. He took the degree of M.D. ( 
at Oxford in 1H4S, having been 
appointed Lee's Reader in Anatomy i 
in 1S4.J. In that capacity, with 
several able assistants, especially | 
Professors Beale. Victor Cams, i 
Melville, and Mr. Charles Robert- I 
son, he made the extensive Christ 
Church Physiological Series, on 
the plan of John Hunter, now in 
the Oxford University Museum. 
That institution owes its existence 
in great measure to his labours. 
Dr. Acland became Regius Pro- 
fessor of Medicine in 1858, and 
Badcliffe Librarian ; was appointed 
a member of Mr. Gathorne Hardy's 
Cubic Space Commission in 1866, 
and of the Royal Sanitary Com- 
mission from 1869 to 1872. He 
represented the University of I 
Oxford on the Medical Council ; 
from 1858 to 1875 ; has been 
President of the British Medical 
Association and President of the 
Physiological section of the British 
Association, and Public Health 
Lecturer of the Social Science As- 
sociation. He published a treatise 
on the " Plains of Troy " in 1839. 
He has written several works on 
medical, scientific, and sanitary | 
subjects, including an important 
44 Memoir on the Visitation of 
Cholera in Oxford in 1854." He 
accompanied the Prince of Wales 
to America in 1860 as his medical 
attendant, and on his return was 
appointed honorary physician to 
his Royal Highness. Dr. Acland 
was Physician to H.R.H. Prince 

Leopold during his Oxford career. 
He has been President of the 
Medical Council. 

ACTON (Lord), Thx Eight 
Hon. John E me rich Edwabd 
Dalbirg Acton, son of Sir Ferdi- 
nand Richard Edward Acton, Bart., 
of Aldenhain, Shropshire, by the 
only daughter of the Duke of Dai- 
berg (afterwards wife of the second 
Lord Granville), was born at Naples, 
in 1834, and when about three 
years of age succeeded to the baro- 
netcy on the death of his father. 
For a few years he was a student 
in the Catholic College of St. 
Mary's, Oscott, at the time when 
Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Wiseman 
was at the head of that institution ; 
but his education was mainly due 
to the renowned ecclesiastical his- 
torian, Dr. Dollinger, of Munich, 
with whom he lived for a consider- 
able time. Sir John Acton repre- 
sented Carlow in the House of 
Commons from 1859 to 18*35. In 
the latter year he stood as a candi- 
date for the borough of Bridgnorth, 
when he announced, in a speech 
delivered to the electors, that he 
represented, not the body, but the 
spirit, of the Catholic Church. He 
was successful at the poll by a 
majority of one, but, on a scrutiny, 
was unseated. In 1869, on the 
recommendation of Mr. Gladstone, 
he was created a peer of the United 
Kingdom by the title of Baron 
Acton of Aldenham. In the same 
year he repaired to Borne, on tho 
assembling of the (Ecumenical 
Council, and while there rendered 
himself conspicuous by his hostility 
to the definition of the doctrine of 
Papal Infallibility, and by the ac- 
tivity and secrecy with which he 
rallied, combined, and urged on 
those who appeared to be favourable 
to the views entertained by Dr. 
Ddllinger. It is believed that he 
was in relation with the AUgcmeinc 
Zeitung, and that much of the 
news published by that journal on 
the subject of the Council was 
communicated by his lordship. 

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Lord Acton may be regarded as the 
leader of the self-styled "Liberal 
Catholics," who are more or less 
out of accord with the traditions 
of the Holy See. He was the editor 
of the Home and Foreign Review, 
a trimestral periodical, commenced 
in 1862, and carried on till 1864, 
when it ceased to appear, owing to 
its having been condemned by the 
English Catholic hierarchy. At a 
later date he edited the Chronicle, 
a weekly newspaper, which had a 
brief existence, for want of adequate 
support ; and still more recently he 
conducted the North British Re- 
view, formerly an organ of the 
Congregationalists, which expired 
under his management. His lord- 
ship also published, in September, 
1870, " A Letter to a German 
Bishop present at the Vatican 
Council" (Sendschreiben an einen 
Deutschen Bischof des Vaticanis- 
chen Concils, Nordlingen, Sep- 
tember, 1870). This elicited from 
Bishop Ketteler, of Mayence, a 
spirited reply, which has been 
translated into English. His lord- 
ship zealously advocated the cause 
of Dr. Dollinger, his former pre- 
ceptor, and of the " Old Catholic " 
party ; and, consequently, upon the 
occasion of the Jubilee of the Uni- 
versity of Munich, in August, 1872, 
the Philosophical Faculty conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of 
Doctor. In 1874 he rendered him- 
self conspicuous by the prominent 
part he took in the controversy 
which was raised by the publication 
of Mr. Gladstone's pamphlet on 
the Vatican Decrees. His lordship 
did not hesitate, in a series of 
letters to the Times, to bring 
grave charges against several of 
the Popes, although he took care 
to state that there was nothing in 
life which he valued more than 
communion with the Roman Catho- 
lic Church. Lord Acton is the 
author of the article on " Wolsey 
and the Divorce of Henry VIII." 
in the Quarterly Review for Jan. 
1877. A French translation of 

Lord Acton's two letters on Liberty 
was published with a preface by 
M. de Laveleye, under the title of 
" Histoire de la Liberte* dans l'An- 
tiquite et le Christianisme," 1878. 

ADAMS, Charles Francis, 
LL.D., grandson of John Adams, 
second President, and son of John. 
Quincy Adams,sixth President of the 
United States, was born at Boston, 
August 18, 1807. His father hold- 
ing diplomatic positions in Europe, 
he spent most of his first ten years 
abroad, returning to America in 
1817, when he entered Harvard Col- 
lege, graduating in 1825. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1838, but 
never engaged in practice, having- 
previously married the daughter of 
Peter C. Brooks, a wealthy mer- 
chant of Boston. Previous to 184S 
he had served as a member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature for five 
years. In 1848 he was nominated 
by the newly organized " Free 
Soil " party for the Vice-Presi- 
dency of the United States. This 
party, composed mainly of Demo- 
crats who were opposed to the ex- 
tension of slavery, cast but few 
votes ; but its members finally 
coalescing with most of the North- 
ern members of the Whig party 
formed the Republican party, 
which came into power in I860. 
Meanwhile, in 1858, Mr. Adams 
was elected a member of Congress. 
In 1861 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln Minister to Great 
Britain, a post which he retained 
until 1868, when he was recalled at 
his own request. In 1871 — 72 he 
acted as arbitrator for the United 
States in the Commission to settle 
the respective claims of Great 
Britain and the United States 
growing out of the civil war. He 
was one of the originators of the 
" Liberal Republican " movement 
in 1872, but was defeated by Mr. 
Greeley in securing the presiden- 
tial nomination. He subsequently 
joined the Democratic party, by 
whom he was nominated for Gover- 
nor of Massachusetts in 1876. He 

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has furnished many contributions 
to the North American Review and 
to the Christian Examiner, and in 
1*70 delivered before the New York 
Historical Society an able discourse 
oo " American Neutrality," which 
has been printed. He has pub- 
lished "The Life and Works of 
John Adams " (10 vols., 1850—56), 
and "The Life and Works of John 
tyiiney Adams" (13 vols., 1874— 
76). His son, John Qtjinct Adams, 
born in Boston, Sept. 22, 1833, 
graduated at Harvard College in 
1S53, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1855. In 1866 he was elected to 
the State Legislature as a Republi- 
can, but having favoured the " re- 
construction ** policy of President 
Andrew Johnson, failed of re-elec- 
tion in the following year. He has 
since been a prominent leader in 
the Democratic party, by which he 
was sent to the Massachusetts 
Legislature in 1S69 — 70, and nomi- 
nated for Governor in 1867, and 
1871, but he was not elected. 
Another son, Charles Francis 
Adams, jun., born at Boston, May 
27, 1835, graduated at Harvard 
College in 1856, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1858. During the 
Civil War he was in command of a 
regiment of coloured troops, and 
tos brevetted Brigadier-General. 
He has since been identified with 
railroad development, has served as 
Railroad Commissioner of Massa- 
chusetts, and ranks high as an au- 
thority upon all matters pertaining 
to railroad management. He has 
been a contributor to the North 
American Review, and is the 
author of " The Railroad Problem," 
1875, and, with his brother Henry, 
of " Chapters of Erie," 1871. The 
residence of the family is Quincy, 

.ADAMS, John Couch, F.E.S., is 
the son of a small farmer near Bod- 
min, in Cornwall, where he was born 
about 1818. He entered at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, was 
Senior Wrangler in 1843, was soon 
after elected to a fellowship, and 

became one of the mathematical 
tutors of his college. In 1841 he 
applied himself to the investiga- 
tion of the irregularities in the 
motion of Uranus, in order to find 
out whether they might be attri- 
buted to the action of some un- 
known planet, and thence, if pos- 
sible, to determine approximately 
the elements of its orbit. In 1814, 
through Professor Challis, a cor- 
respondence was opened with the 
Astronomer Royal ; and in October, 
1845, Mr. Adams sent to the Green- 
wich Observatory a paper of re- 
sults, showing that the perturba- 
tions of Uranus were caused by 
some planet within certain assumed 
limit 8. The Astronomer Royal 
wrote to him, Nov. 5, inquiring 
whether the perturbation would 
explain the error of the radius 
vector of Uranus ; but from sonic 
unexplained cause, Mr. Adams de- 
layed his reply. On the 10th of 
the same month M. Le Verrier pub- 
lished in the "Comptes Rendus" 
of the French Academy, a paper on 
" The Perturbation of Uranus pro- 
duced by Jupiter and Saturn ; " 
and the place assigned by him to 
the disturbing planet was the 
same, within one degree, as that 
calculated by Mr. Adams. The 
Council of the Royal Society 
doubted whether their annual 
medal was due to Mr. Adams or to 
M. Le Verrier ; but ultimately, as 
there was no precedent in favour of 
bestowing a double medal, they de- 
cided on conferring a testimonial 
on each claimant instead. In 
January, 1847, Mr. Adams privately 
circulated a paper explanatory of 
" The observed Irregularities in 
the Motion of Uranus," which was 
subsequently reprinted in the 
"Nautical Almanack" for 1851. 
In 1858 he succeeded the late Dean 
Peacocke as Lowndean Professor of 
Astronomy at Cambridge. 

ADAMS, William, F.R.C.S., was 
born in London February 1, 1820; 
his father practised as a surgeon in 
Finsbury Square. He was educated 

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at Mr. W. Simpson's, Hackney ; and 
afterwards at King's College, Lon- 
don. He was appointed in 1842 De- 
monstrator of Morbid Anatomy at St. 
Thomas's Hospital ; in 1851, assist- 
ant surgeon ; and in 1857 surgeon to 
the Royal Orthopcedic Hospital ; in 
1851 lecturer on surgery at the 
Grosvenor Place School of Medi- 
cine ; in 1855 surgeon to the Great 
Northern Hospital ; and in 1874 
surgeon to the National Hospital 
for the Paralysed and Epileptic. 
Mr. Adams was elected vice-presi- 
dent of the Pathological Society of 
London in 1867 ; president of the 
Harveian Society of London in 
1873 ; and president of the Medical 
Society of London in 1870. He is 
author of " A Sketch of the Prin- 
ciples and Practice of Subcutaneous 
Surgery," 1857 ; " On the Repara- 
tive Process in Human Tendons 
after Division," 1860 ; " Lectures 
on Pathology and Treatment of 
Lateral Curvature of the Spine," 
1865; " On the Pathology and 
Treatment of Club-foot," 1866 
(being the Jacksonian prize essay 
of the Royal College of Surgeons 
for 1864) ; " Subcutaneous Division 
of the Neck of the Thigh-Bone, for 
Bony Anchylosis of the Hip-Joint," 
1871 ; and " On the Treatment of 
Dupuytren's Contraction of the 
Fingers ; and on the Obliteration 
of Depressed Cicatrices by Subcu- 
taneous Operation," 1879. 

ADAMS, William Henry 
Davenport, author and journalist, 
born 1829, began his career as the 
editor of a provincial newspaper, 
and, removing to the metropolis at 
an early age, became connected 
with several influential journals 
and periodicals. Of late years he 
has devoted himself almost entirely 
to book- writing, producing nume- 
rous works of a miscellaneous 
character, and an annotated edition 
of the Plays of Shakspere. His 
adaptations from the French of 
Louis Figuier and Arthur Mangin 
have done good service to the cause 
of popular science in this country. 

and his translations of those famous 
rhapsodies of the late M. Michelet, 
"The Bird," "The Sea," "The 
Mountain," and " The Insect," have 
obtained popularity. Mr. Daven- 
port Adams has also reproduced in 
English, from the manuscript of 
MdLme. Michelet, her charming 
monograph on " Nature, or the 
Poetry of Earth and Sea." His 
other publications, numbering up- 
wards of a hundred, cannot, of 
course, be mentioned in detail ; 
but we may refer to "The Bird 
World," "The Arctic World," 
"The Mediterranean Illustrated," 
" Episodes of Anglo-Indian His- 
tory," " Woman's Work and 
Worth," " Women of Fashion and 
Representative Women in Letters 
and Society," 1878 j " English 
Party-Leaders and English Parties, 
from Walpole to Peel," 2 vols., 
1878 ; "Hours of the Cross," 1880 ; 
and " Plain Living and High Think- 
ing," 1881. Mr. Adams was editor 
of The Scottish Guardian from 
June, 1870, to Dec., 1877. His son, 
Mr. W. Davenport Adams, has 
produced a " Dictionary of English 
Literature," and a work on 
" Famous Books," besides publish- 
ing three collections of annotated 
poetry, entitled "Lyrics of Love 
from Shakspere to Tennyson," 
"The Comic Poets of the Nine- 
teenth Century," and " Latter- Day 

ADAMS-ACTON, John, sculptor, 
born Dec. 11, 1833, at Acton, Mid- 
dlesex, and educated at Ealing 
Grove School, was admitted to the 
Royal Academy in 1853, where he 
gained the first silver medal in each 
school, and also the gold medal for 
an original composition in sculpture. 
He was sent to Rome by the Koyal 
Academy as travelling student. 
His principal works in ideal sculp- 
ture produced in Rome and in Eng- 
land are "The Lady of the Lake," 
"The First Sacrifice" (Abel), "II 
Giuocatore di Castelletto," " Pha- 
raoh's Daughter ; " " Zenobia," 
" Cupid," " Psyche," from Morris's 

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"Earthly Paradise." Mr. Adams- 
Acton has executed portrait statues 
or busts of Mr. Gladstone (St. 
George's Hall, Liverpool), Lord 
Brougham (Reform Club and Fish- 
mongers' Hall), Mr. Bright (Sea- 
forth Hall), Mr. Cobden, Sir Wil- 
frid Lawson, George Cruikshank, 
John Gibson (Royal Academy), 
George Moore, Charles Dickens, Dr. 
Jobson, and John Prescott Knight, 
R.A. ; also the following statues 
and busts for India : — Prince of 
Wales, Lord Napier of Magdala, 
and E. Powell (for Madras). The 
most important monuments exe- 
cuted by him are the Angel of the 
Resurrection, Mausoleum of Sir 
Titus Salt at Saltaire, Memorial to 
John and Charles Wesley in West- 
minster Abbey, the Waldegrave 
Memorial in Carlisle Cathedral,' 1 
Charles Prest in the City Road 
Chapel, a bust of Mr. George Rout- 
ledge, J.P., aaid a "half-length 
portrait, reading a book," of Mr. 
John Landseer, A.R.A. Mr. Adams- 
Acton was elected a member of the 
Society of British Artists in 1883. 

ADELAIDE, Bishop op. (See 
Kennion, Dr.) 

ADLER, The Rev. Hermann, 
Ph.D., M.A., son of Dr. Nathan 
Marcus Adler, was born in Hanover 
in 1839, and in 1845 accompanied 
his father to London. He studied 
at University College, London, and 
subsequently at the universities of 
Prague and Leipzig. He obtained 
his B. A. degree at the University 
of London in 1859, and that of 
Doctor of Philosophy at Leipzig in 
1861. In 1863 Dr. Adler was ap- 
pointed Principal of the Jews' Col- 
lege in London, and in the follow- 
ing year Chief Minister of the 
Bayswater Synagogue. He has 
published " Sermons on the Pas- 
sages in the Bible adduced by 
Christian Theologians in support of 
their Faith," 1869, " The Jews in 
England," '« Ibn Gabirol, the Poet 
Philosopher ; " a sermon, " Is Juda- 
ism a Missionary Faith ? " in reply 
to Professor Mar Muller ; besides 

many lectures and articles which 
have appeared in various periodical? . 
ADLER, Nathan Marcus, D.D., 
Chief Rabbi, was born at Hanover 
in 1803, and received his education 
in the universities of Gottingen, 
Erlangen, and Wurzburg. He was 
appointed Chief Rabbi of Olden- 
berg, 1829 ; of Hanover and its 
provinces, 1830 ; and on the 9th of 
July, 18 i5, was installed Chief 
Rabbi of the United Congregations 
of the British Empire. Dr. Adler 
is the author of " Sermons on the 
Jewish Faith/' and of several 
Hebrew works, the principal of 
which is " Nethina Lager/' a com- 
mentary on the Targum of Onkelos. 
sau, Duke of.) 

AD YE, Lieutenant-Genera i, 
Sir John Miller, G.C.B., son of 
the late Major James P. Adye, R.A., 
was born on Nov. 1, 1819, at Seven- 
oaks, Kent, received his education 
at the Military Academy, Woolwich , 
entered the Royal Artillery at the 
close of the year 1836, and, passing 
through the regular grades, eventu- 
ally attained the rank of Brigadier- 
General. Throughout the Crimean 
War and the Indian Mutiny he was 
J Adjutant-General of the Royal 
' Artillery. He also served in the 
I Sitana Campaign of 1863-4, for 
' which he received a medal ; and he 
| has received, besides, the Crimean, 
j Turkish, and Indian Mutiny medals, 
! and the 4th Class of the Medjidie. 
{ He was created a C.B. in 1855, and 
] a K.C.B. in 1873. In Feb., 1874, 
the Queen granted to Sir J. M. Adye 
I her royal licence and authority to 
, accept and wear the insignia of 
Commander of the Order of the 
| Legion of Honour conferred upon 
| him by the President of the French 
( Republic as a promotion from the 
class of Officer of the same order 
', which he received for his services 
| during the Crimean War. He was 
{ appointed Governor of the Royal 
| Military Academy at Woolwich, in 
June, 1875, and in December of that 
year he attained the brevet rank of 

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Major-General . He became a Lieu- 
tenant-General in the army in 1879. 
In 1880 he resigned the post of 
Governor of the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, on being 
appointed Surveyor-General of Ord- 
nance. The following year he 
became Colonel Commandant of the 
Royal Artillery. He was Chief of 
the Staff and second in command of 
the expeditionary force sent to 
Egypt in 1882 under the command 
of Sir Garnet Wolseley, and for his 
services he received the thanks of 
Parliament and the Grand Cross of 
the Order of the Bath. In Dec, 
1882, he was appointed Governor of 
Gibraltar, in succession to Lord 
Napier of Magdala. Sir John Adye 
is the author of " The Defence of 
Cawnpore by the Troops under the 
Orders of Major - General C. A. 
Windham in Nov., 1857," Lond., 
1858 j " A Review of the Crimean 
War to the Winter of 1854-5/' 
Lond., 1860 ; " Sitana : a Mountain 
Campaign on the Borders of Af- 
ghanistan in 1863," Lond., 1867; 
and " The British Army in 1875 ; a 
reply to Mr. John Holms," 1876. 
He married in 1856 Mary Cordelia, 
eldest daughter of the late Vice- 
Admiral Sir Montagu Stopford, 

AIKINS, Thk Hon. James Cox, 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Pro- 
vince of Manitoba^in the Dominion 
of Canada, was born in the town- 
ship of Toronto, county Peel, On- 
tario, March 30, 1823. He was 
educated at Victoria College, Co- 
bourg, and entered public life in 
1854, by representing his native 
county in the Canadian Assembly, 
which he continued to do until 
1861. In the following year he 
was elected a member of the Legis- 
lative Council for the " Home " 
Division, comprising the counties of 
Peel and Hal ton. He continued to 
sit in the Council until it was 
abolished by Confederation, after 
which he was raised to the Senate. 
In December, 1869, he became a 
member of the Privy Council, and 

entered the Macdonald Government 
as Secretary of State, remaining in 
that office until the fall of the 
Government in 1873. In 1872 he 
framed and carried through Parlia- 
ment the Public Lands Act of that 
year, and subsequently organized 
the Dominion Lands Bureau, a de- 
partment of government entrusted 
with the management of the lands 
acquired in the North- West, chiefly 
from the Hudson's Bay Company, 
a department which is now con- 
trolled by the Canadian Minister of 
the Interior. On the return of the 
Macdonald Government to power, 
in 1878, Senator Aikins resumed the 
portfolio of Secretary of State, 
exchanging it two years later for 
the office of Minister of Inland 
Revenue. In 1882 he accepted the 
Lieutenant - Governorship of the 
province of Manitoba. 

AINSWORTH, William Fran- 
cis, Ph.D., L.R.C.S., F.S.A., 
F.R.G.S., was born in 1807. Hav- 
ing travelled abroad, he became, in 
1829, editor of the Journal of Natu- 
ral and Geological Science. On 
the breaking out of cholera in Sun- 
derland, in 1832, he was one of the 
first to repair thither in order to 
study the new epidemic, and he 
published the result of his observa- 
tions in a work "On Pestilential 
Cholera." He was successively ap- 
pointed surgeon to the cholera hos- 
pitals at St. George's, Hanover 
Square, and at Westport, Ballin- 
robe, Claremorris, and Newport, in 
Ireland. Whilst in that country 
he lectured on geology in Dublin 
and Limerick. In 1835 he was ap- 
pointed surgeon and geologist to 
the Euphrates Expedition, and pub- 
lished " Researches in Assyria, 
Babylonia, and Chaldaea," 1838, in 
which year he was also sent by the 
Royal Geographical Society, and 
the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, to the Nestorian Chris- 
tians in Kurdistan. His " Travels 
in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and 
Armenia," 1842, and " Travels in 
the Track of the Ten Thousand 

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Greeks/' of which an analysis was 
also given in Bonn's edition of 
Xenophon's "Anabasis," were the 
result of the two journeys, extend- 
ing over a period of seven years. 
Mr. Ainsworth has edited " Claims 
of the Oriental Ch^istians/ , " Lares 
and Penates; or, Cilicia and its 
Governors," " The Euphrates Val- 
ley Route to India/' " On an Indo- 
European Telegraph by the Valley 
of the Tigris" (since carried out by 
the Turkish Government), "All 
Bound the World/' "The Illus- 
trated Universal Gazetteer/' &c. 
Mr. Ainsworth is a member of many 
foreign societies. He was one of 
the founders of the " West London 
Hospital/' of which he is at present 
the Treasurer and one of the Trus- 

AIBY, Sir Geobge Biddkll, 
K.C.B., F.B.S., the late Astronomer 
Royal, a native of Alnwick, North- 
umberland, born June 27, 1801, was 
educated at private schools at Here- 
ford and Colchester, and at the Col- 
chester Grammar School, whence 
be proceeded to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1819. In 1822 he 
*as elected Scholar, and in 1824 
Fellow, of Trinity, having gradu- 
ated BJL in the previous year, 
when he came out senior wrangler. 
In 1826 he took his degree of M.A., 
and was elected Lucasian Professor. 
This office, rendered illustrious by 
having been filled by Barrow and 
Newton, had become a sinecure. 
No sooner was Professor Airy elec- 
ted, than he resolved to turn it to 
account, and to deliver public lec- 
tures on Experimental Philosophy. 
He commenced this good work in 
1827, and continued it to 1836, the 
series being known as the first in 
which the Undulatory Theory of 
Light was efficiently illustrated. 
In 1828 he was elected to the Plu- 
mian Professorship, and in that 
capacity was intrusted with the en- 
tire management of the Cambridge 
Observatory. On taking charge of 
this poet he commenced a course of 
observations, and introduced im- 

provements in the form of the cal- 
culation and publication of the 
observations, which have served as 
a pattern at Greenwich and other 
observatories. Professor Airy also 
superintended the mounting of the 
Equatorial, the Mural Circle, and 
the Northumberland Telescope (the 
last entirely from his own plans), 
at the Cambridge Observatory. 
When the question of admission of 
Dissenters to Academical Degrees 
was first raised about 1831, Mr. 
Airy was one of the sixty-three 
Members of the Senate who sup- 
ported it. In 1835 he succeeded 
Mr. Pond as Astronomer Royal. 
In this capacity he distinguished 
himself by giving greater regu- 
larity to the proceedings in the 
Observatory at Greenwich, by main- 
taining the general outline of the 
plan which its essential character 
and its historical associations have 
imposed upon that institution, 
while he introduced new instru- 
ments and new modes of calcu- 
lation and publication, by which 
the value of the Observatory to 
science is much increased. It is 
not our province to describe in de- 
tail the Transit Circle, the Altazi- 
muth, the Reflex Zenith Tube, the 
Water-Telescope, and the large 
first-class Equatorial, erected from 
Sir G. B. Airy*s plans, and under his 
superintendence. It is sufficient to 
say that the latter was, at the date 
of its erection, the most magnificent 
instrument of its kind in the world ; 
though now surpassed in size by 
later instruments. A double-image 
micrometer, invented by him, has 
been found very valuable, for its 
accuracy and convenience. Sir G. 
B. Airy, who computed, edited, 
and published the observations of 
Groombridge, Catton, and Fallows, 
and reduced the Greenwich obser- 
vations of planets and observations 
of the moon from 1750 down to the 
present time, has also thrown much 
light on ancient chronology, by 
computing several of the most im- 
portant eclipses of former ages. 

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Three times (viz., in 1842, 1851, | 
and 1860) has he visited the Con- 
tinent for the purpose of observing 
different solar eclipses ; and on the 
last-named occasion he organised an 
expedition of English and foreign 
astronomers to Spain, which is 
known as the " Himalayan Expe- 
dition/' from the name of the ship 
lent for the purpose by the Admi- 
ralty. Sir G. B. Airy has illus- 
trated the Newtonian theory of 
gravitation, and approximated the 
great object of ascertaining the 
weight of the earth, by a series of 
experiments on the relative vibra- 
tions of a pendulum at the top and 
at the bottom of a deep mine 
(the Harton Colliery, near South 
Shields) ; has paid great attention 
to the testing and improvement of 
marine chronometers ; and to the 
diffusion, by galvanic telegraph, of 
accurate time-signals. In 1838 he 
was consulted by the Government 
respecting the disturbance of the 
compass in iron-built ships, and 
the result of the experiments and 
theory developed by him on that 
occasion was the establishment of a 
system of mechanical correction by 
means of magnets and iron, which 
has since been adopted universally. 
He was chairman of the Commis- 
sion appointed to consider the 
general question of standards, and 
of the Commission intrusted with 
the superintendence of the construc- 
tion of new Standards of Length 
and Weight, after the great fire 
which destroyed the former national 
standards in the Houses of Parlia- 
ment in 1834. The account of the 
proceedings on these occasions, 
published in the " Philosophical 
Transactions," is from his pen. He 
advocated the establishment of a 
decimal coinage and, acting as one 
of three Royal Commissioners on 
Railway Gauge, recommended the 
narrow as opposed to the broad 
gauge on our railways; conducted 
the astronomical operations pre- 
paratory to the definition of the 
boundary between Canada and the \ 

United States, and aided in tra- 
cing the Oregon boundary. Sir C . 
B. Airy contributed to the " Cam- 
bridge Transactions," " The Philo- 
sophical Transactions," "The Me- 
moirs of the Royal Astronomical 
Society," the Philosophical Maga- 
zine, and the AthencBum (often 
under the signature of A.B.G.). In 
the Athenaeum are several papers 
on antiquarian subjects, especially 
British. He also wrote strongly in 
the Athenceum and elsewhere in 
opposition to the legislation pro- 
posed by the University Commis- 
sioners in reference to his own 
university, and more especially to 
his own college. In 1869 he com- 
municated a remarkable discovery 
to the Royal Astronomical Society, 
in a " Note on Atmospheric Chro- 
matic Dispersion, as affecting Tele- 
scopic Observation, and on the 
Mode of Correcting it." He was 
intrusted with the entire direction 
of the British portion of the enter- 
prise for observing the Transit of 
Venus in Dec. 1874 ; on the results 
of which a Report was communi- 
cated to the House of Commons in 
1877. More recently he has sug- 
gested a new method of treating 
the Lunar Theory. He added to 
the original course of labours at the 
Royal Observatory a very complete 
system of magnetic, meteorological, 
photoheliographic, and spectro- 
scopic observations. The principal 
works written by Sir G. B. Airy are, 
" Gravitation," for the Penny Cyclo- 
paedia, published separately ; also, 
"Mathematical Tracts" (fourth edi- 
tion), " Ipswich Lectures on Astro- 
nomy " (fourth edition), " Treatise 
on Errors of Observation" (1861), 
"Treatise on Sound "(1869), "Trea- 
tise on Magnetism " (1870) ; also 
"Trigonometry," "Figure of the 
Earth," and "Tides and Waves," 
in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 
since republished separately; and 
" Notes on the early Hebrew Scrip- 
tures." Sir G. B. Airy has re- 
ceived the Lalande medal of the 
French Institute, for discoveries in 

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istronomy ; the Copley medal of tne 
Royal Society, for optical theories ; 
the Royal medal of the same, for 
tidal investigations ; the Medal of 
the Royal Astronomical Society on 
two occasions, for discovery of an 
inequality of long period in the 
movements of Venus and the Earth, 
and for reduction of the planetary 
observations ; the Albert Medal, 
presented by the Prince of Wales ; 
and the medal of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers for suggestions on 
the construction of bridges of very 
wide span. From the Universities 
of Oxford, Cambridge, and Edin- 
burgh he has also received the 
honorary degrees of D.C.L. and 
LL.D. ; he is a F.R.S., a Member of 
the Royal Astronomical Society, 
and of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society, and an Honorary Member 
of the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers ; is one of the eight Foreign 
Associates of the Institute of 
France ; and has long been con- 
nected, as Foreign Correspondent, 
with many other foreign academies. 
Appointed one of the first members 
of the Senate of the University of 
London, he soon after resigned the 
office. He served on the Royal 
Commission appointed in 1868 to 
inquire into the standard weights 
and measures ; was nominated a 
Companion (Civil) of the Bath, May 
17, 1871 ; and created a Knight 
Commander of the same order, July 
30, 1872. On Dec. 1, 1873, Sir G. 
B. Airy resigned the position of 
President of the Royal Society 
which he had held for two years. 
Ue was honoured by admission to 
the freedom of the City of London 
in 1875; and he was elected a 
Foreign Associate of the Butch 
Academy of Sciences in 1878. On 
his resignation of the post of As- 
tronomer Royal in 1881 the Trea- 
sury awarded him a pension of 
£1100 per annum in consideration 
of his long and valuable services. 

AITCHI80N, George, A.R.A., 
architect, was born Nov. 7, 1825, 
at 52, Edgeware Road, London, 

and educated at Merchant Tay- 
lors' School and University Col- 
lege, London. He graduated B. A. 
at the London University in 
1850, having previously been ap- 
pointed a student at the Royal 
Academy in 1817. From 1853 to 
1S55 he travelled in France and 
Italy. He was elected a member 
of the Royal Institute of British 
Artists in 18152, and afterwards 
became a member of the Council. 
He was appointed examiner for the 
Voluntary Architectural examina- 
tion, and also examiner for the Na- 
tional Art Prizes at South Kensing- 
ton. Mr. A i to hi son gained medals at 
the Philadelphia, Sydney and Mel- 
bourne Exhibitions ; was made an 
officer of Public Instruction by the 
French Government in 1879; and 
on June 2, 1881, was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Academy in 
the place of the late William Sur- 
ges. He gave lectures on Archi- 
tecture at the Royal Academy in 
1882. Mr. Aitchison has built large 
warehouses for the London and St. 
Katherine Dock Co/s offices, Mark 
Lane, Mincing Lane ; workmen's 
restaurants in the Borough and 
Whitechapel ; schools at Farley 
and Knoyle ; houses for Lord R. 
Grosvenor at Stalbridge ; for Sir 
F. Leighton, P.R.A. at Kensington, 
and for Mr. J. Stewart Hodgson ; a 
studio for Mr. P. H. Calderon, R.A. ; 
a picture gallery for Mr. G. F. 
Watts, R.A. ; and a Board room 
with furniture for the Thames Con- 
servancy. He has also altered 
and decorated houses for Mr. P. 
Wyndham, M. P., the Duke of Mon- 
trose, the Princess Louise, Mr. F. 
Lehman, Mr. T. Eustace Smith, Mr. 
John Aird, and the Arab Hall for 
Sir F. Leighton. He likewise 
designed the fittings and furniture 
for the British Art section of the 
Paris Exhibition. 

ALBANI, Madame, vocalist, is a 
French Canadian, being a native of 
Montreal, and her real name is 
Emma la Jeunesse. She was trainrd 
in the study of music from eaely 

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childhood, by her father who was 
himself a skilful musician. Losing 
their mother while still of tender 
age, she and her sisters were sent 
to the convent of the Sacre Coaur at 
Montreal to complete their educa- 
tion. Her father afterwards sent 
her to Europe for musical instruction 
not obtainable elsewhere. Under 
the care of Baroness Lafitte, she was 
two years at Paris , where she studied 
under the famous Duprez . She then 
became a pupil of the old maestro 
Lamperti at Milan. Several years 
of hard study followed till at length, 
in 1870, she made her debut at Mes- 
sina under her present name, with 
entire success. Immediately after- 
wards she was engaged for Malta. 
In the winter of 1871-72 she sang 
at the theatre of La Pergola at 
Florence with great success. Her 
crowning effort was in the " Mi- 
gnon " of Ambroise Thomas, already 
condemned in four theatres in Italy, 
but which in Madame Albani's hands 
obtained a complete success among 
the jealous Italians. She appeared 
at the Royal Italian Opera, London, 
in 1872, and since then has been a 
great favourite both in this country 
and the United States. In Feb. 
1883, Madame Albani was singing 
in opera at Washington with great 
success, appearing in " Faust " and 
" Rigoletto." She closed her Ameri- 
can operatic tour at Philadelphia, 
April, 10, 1883, in the "Flying 
Dutchman. " 

Prince Leopold George Duncan 
Albert, K.G., Earl of Clarence, 
and Baron Arklow, Prince of Saxe 
Coburg and Gotha, fourth son of 
Queen Victoria, was born at Buck- 
ingham Palace, April 7, 1853. He 
matriculated at the University of 
Oxford in 1872, and was created a 
D.C.L. in 1876. Parliament voted 
him a grant of J&15,000 a year on 
his attaining his majority, with an 
addition of .£10,000 a year on his 
marriage. In May, 1881, his Royal 
Highness was created a peer of the 
realm with the title of Duke of 

Albany. His marriage with the 
Princess Frederica Augusta, daugh- 
ter of His Serene Highness the 
Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont 
was celebrated at Windsor Castle, 
April 27, 1882. 

ALBEMARLE (Earl of), Thb 
Right Hon. George Thomas Kep- 
pel, third, but eldest surviving son 
of William Charles, the fourth earl, 
was born in London, June 13, 1799, 
and educated at Westminster 
School. When less than sixteen 
years old he was gazetted an officer 
of the 14th Regiment of Foot, and 
a few months later he escaped un- 
scathed from the field of Waterloo, 
and entered Paris shoeless and al- 
most in rags. In 1821 he became 
aide-de-camp to the Governor- 
General of India, the Marquis of 
Hastings. Subsequently he made 
an extensive tour through Arabia, 
Persia, and Russia (1824), and on 
his return to England he obtained 
from the Duke of Wellington an 
unattached majority, which left 
him free to go where he pleased. 
In 1825 he was appointed aide-de- 
camp to Lord Wellesley, then Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland. At the 
same time he held a similar posi- 
tion with the Duke of Sussex in 
England, and he divided his time 
between the two countries. Soon 
after the accession of Queen Vic- 
toria he was appointed Groom-in- 
Waiting to Her Majesty. He rep- 
resented East Norfolk in the first 
reformed Parliament (1832-5), and 
afterwards sat for Lymington (1847- 
50). For a short period he acted 
as private secretary to Lord John 
Russell (1846-7). On the death of 
his brother, the fifth earl, in 1851, 
he succeeded to the earldom of 
Albemarle. His lordship became a 
Major-General in 1858, Lieutenant- 
General in 1866, and General in 
1874. He is the author of " Per- 
sonal Narrative of a Journey from 
India to England, by Bussorah, 
Bagdad, the Ruins of Babylon, 
Curtistan, the Court of Persia, the 
western shore of the Caspian Sea, 

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Jstrakhan, Niskney Novogorod. •■ 
Hoscnv, and St. Petersburgh, in i 
the year 1821/' second edition, 2 \ 
t-tU.. 1827 ; " Narrative of a Jour- 
ney across the Balcan ; also, of a I 
Visit to Azani, and otbor newly- 
discovered Ruins in Asia Minor, in 
1829.30/' 2 vols. 1831 ; "Memoirs ! 
of the Marquis of Rockingham and 
his Contemporaries/' 2 vols., 1852 ; 
and " Fifty Years of my Life," an 
autobiography, 2 vols., 1876, third 
edition, 1877. 

ALBERT (Archduke op Aus- 
tria), Frederick Rodolph, born 
August 3, 1817, is the son of the late 
Archduke Charles and the Princess 
Henrietta of Nassau- Weilburg. He 
married, in 184 J., the Princess 
Hildegarde, of Bavaria, who died 
April 2, 186 1, leaving two daughters. 
At an early age he entered the 
&rmy f commanded a division in 
Italy in 1S49, took an important 
part in the battle of Novara, re- 
ceived at the end of the campaign 
the command of the 3rd Corps 
d'Armee, and was afterwards ap- 
pointed Governor-General of Hun- 
gary. During a leave of absence 
accorded to Field-Marshal Benedek, 
in 1861, he was appointed to the 
command of the Austrian troops in 
Lombardy and Venetia. During 
the campaign of 1866 he gained a 
victory over the Italian army at 
Custozza, and, after the battle of 
Sadowa, he was made (13th July, 
1866) Commander-in-Chief of the 
Austrian army, which title he re- 
tained till March, 1869, when he 
exchanged it for that of Inspector- 
General of the army. He pub- 
lished, in 1869, a work on " Respon- 
sibility in War" (Ueber die Yerant- 
wotilichkeit im KrUge). This has 
been translated into French by L. 
Dufour, captain of artillery, and an 
English translation of it is given 
in Capt. W. J. Wyatt's "Reflections 
on the Formation of Armies, with 
a View to the Re-organization of 
the English Army/' 1869. 

ALBONI, Maria, was born at 
Cesena, in the States of the Church, 

in 1824. Her father, who held a 
post in the customs department, 
gave her a good education . Having, 
at an early age, given proof of pos- 
sessing an exquisite taste for music 
and singing, she liecame the pupil 
of Rossini, and at fifteen made her 
debut at the Communal Theatre at 
Bologna. It was a great success , 
and led to her being engaged at the 
theatre of La Scala, at Milan, 
where she established her reputa- 
tion so firmly that she undertook a 
professional tour through most of 
the capitals of Europe, and ap- 
peared, in 1S46, at Covent Garden 
Theatre, London, then under the 
direction of Mr. Delafield. Here 
she presented a counter attraction 
to Jenny Lind at the rival house of 
Her Majesty's Theatre, and was at 
once enrolled amongst the leading 
singers of Europe. In 1847 she 
went to France, and in October 
rave three or four concerts at the 
Parisian Opera, and succeeded in 
attaining the highest position . She 
accepted an engagement, on her 
own terms, from M. Vatel, the 
director of the Italian Opera, and 
played in succession the parts of 
Artace in " Semiramide " ; of Mal- 
colm in " Donna del Lago ; " and of 
Orsinia in " Lucrezia Borgia ; " 
besides appearing in "Cenerentola," 
"II Barbiere," and other pieces. 
Madame Alboni has visited America 
and other countries, in all of which 
she has experienced an enthusiastic 
reception, and has appeared during 
provincial tours at Dublin, Edin- 
burgh, Birmingham, Manchester, 
and most of the larger cities of the 
three kingdoms. During the last 
few seasons of her professional 
career Madame Alboni was engaged 
at Her Majesty's Theatre, and there 
was scarcely an opera of high merit 
in which she did not appear, 
Madame Alboni's celebrity as a 
lyric artiste is chiefly owing to the 
power, fine quality, flexibility, and 
compass of her rich contralto voice, 
which ranges as high as that of a 
mezzo-soprano; and her florid style 

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of singing is rendered the more 
effective by her vivacity and grace. 
Some vears since this lady became 
the wife of Count Pepolo, of the 
Roman States, though she retained 
upon the stage to the last that 
maiden name under which she first 
became a favourite, and she retired 
from public life in 1863. 

ALCESTER (Baron) The Right 
Hon. Frederick Beauchamp Pa- 
fjET Seymour, G.C.B., is the only 
surviving son of the late Sir Horace 
Beauchamp Seymour, M. P., by his 
first wife, Elizabeth Mallett, 
daughter of the late Sir Lawrence 
Palk, Bart. ; and a grandson of 
Vice- Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour. 
He was born in Bruton Street, 
fxmdon, on April 12, 1821, was edu- 
cated at Eton, and entered the 
Royal Navy in Jan., 1834, receiving 
his lieutenant's commission in 
March, 18J-2. He became a captain 
in 1854, rear-admiral in 1870, vice- 
admiral in 1876, and admiral in 
1882. He served as a volunteer in 
the Burmese war of 1852-3 as aide- 
de-camp to General Godwin, and 
led the storming party of Fusiliers 
at the capture of the works and 
pagoda of Pegu. He was also pre- 
sent in numerous other engage- 
ments on land and water, was four 
times gazetted, and awarded the 
Burmese medal with the clasp for 
Pegu, at the close of the campaign. 
In 1854 he served against the Rus- 
sians in the operations in the White 
Sea, and is in receipt of the Baltic 
medal. A few years later, viz., 
1860-1, as commodore in command 
of the Australian station, he took 
part in the operations of the Naval 
Brigade in New Zealand, again dis- 
tinguishing himself, and receiving 
the New Zealand medal and the 
Companionship of the Bath. In 
1866 he was appointed an aide-de- 
camp to the Queen. From 1868 till 
1870 he was private secretary to 
the First Lord of the Admiralty, 
and he commanded the Detached 
Squadron from December, 1870, till 
May, 1872, from which date till 

March, 1874, he was one of the 
Lords of the Admiralty. From 
October, 1874, till November, 1877, 
when he was made a K.C.B., he 
commanded the Channel Squadron, 
and he was appointed commander- 
in-chief in the Mediterranean in 
February, 1880. In September of 
the same year he assumed the 
supreme command of the Allied 
Fleet of the European Powers, 
which made a naval demonstration 
off the Albanian coast in conse- 
quence of the refusal of the Porte 
to agree to the cession of Dulcigno 
to Montenegro. Eventually the 
Turks consented to the cession, and 
the object for which the European 
fleet had been assembled in the 
Adriatic having thus been achieved, 
it dispersed on Dec. 5. Sir Beau- 
champ Seymour received the thanks 
of Her Majesty's Government for 
the manner in which he performed 
his duty on this occasion, and he 
was created a Grand Cross of the 
Bath in the following year (1881). 
In the warlike operations in Egypt 
in 1882 he took a conspicuous part, 
as commander-in-chief of the 
Mediterranean fleet. On the 6th 
of July he demanded of Arabi 
Pasha the instant cessation of the 
works on the forts at Alexandria, 
under penalty of bombardment ; 
and on the 10th he dispatched 
an ultimatum to the Egyptian 
Ministry, demanding, not only the 
cessation of all defensive works, 
but also the surrender of the forts 
at the mouth of the harbour. Early 
on the morning of the 11th eight 
British ironclads and five gunboats 
advanced to the attack, and al- 
though the Egyptian gunners 
fought their guns exceedingly well, 
the forts were, in a few hours, laid 
in ruins or silenced, with slight loss 
on the British side, and with trifling 
damage to the ships. On the fol- 
lowing day flags of truce were 
hoisted on shore, and in the after- 
noon one of the British officers, 
being sent to treat with the enemy, 
discovered that the city had been 

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completely abandoned by Arabi and 
his troops, and that the flags had 
been merely used, as devices to 
enable the army to withdraw from 
the city without further molesta- 
tion. Six Beauchamp Seymour re- 
mained in supreme command at the 
occupation and arrangement of 
affairs in Egypt until the arrival of 
the army under the command of 
General Sir Garnet Wolseley. For 
his distinguished services he re- 
ceived the thanks of Parliament, 
and was elevated to the peerage by 
the title of Baron Alcester of Al- 
cester, in the county of Warwick. 

ALCOCK, Sib Rutherford, 
K.C.B., D.C.L., son of Thomas 
Alcock, Esq., a medical practitioner 
of some eminence in his day, was 
born in London in 1809. He him- 
self was educated for the medical 
profession, and after taking his 
diploma in 1831 he spent some 
years on the medical staff of the 
British auxiliary forces employed 
in Portugal and Spain, in further- 
ance of the policy of the Quadruple 
Treaty with regard to the MigueHte 
and Carlist wars of that time. He 
rose rapidly in hoth services ; re- 
tired in 1837 with the rank of 
Deputy Inspector-General of Hos- 
pitals, and subsequently received 
her Majesty's permission to receive 
and wear the insignia of the 
Tower and Sword of Portugal, the 
Cross of Charles III., and the 
Commander's Cross of the Order of 
Isabella II. of Spain, conferred 
upon him for his services in the 
field. On his return home he was 
appointed British Commissioner in 
the two "Mixed Commissions/' 
which sat in succession to settle the 
claims of the British auxiliary 
forces, naval and military, on the 
governments of Spain and Portu- 
gal, for which his knowledge of the 
two languages, and of the services, 
especially recommended him. Both 
these Commissions were Drought to 
a satisfactory termination, and in 
1814 he entered the Consular ser- 
vice, being appointed Her Majesty's 

Consul at Foochow ; afterwards he 
was appointed in succession Consul 
at Shanghae and Canton ; in 1858 
he was selected to establish Treaty 
relations with Japan as her Ma- 
jesty's Consul-General. In 1869 he 
was promoted to the rank of Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary — the first instance on 
record, we believe, of such a pro- 
motion from the consular service to 
the diplomatic. He occupied this 
post until 1805, under a perpetual 
menace of violence and assassina- 
tion. In 186*1 an armed force of 
Lonins stormed the British Lega- 
tion in the middle of the night, 
killing and wounding many of the 
inmates. But when he left the 
country, commerce and friendly re- 
lations had been formally estab- 
lished, after the decisive blow, 
struck under his direction, at the 
confederacy of hostile Daimios, in 
the attack on Simonoseki, which, 
as the event proves, changed the 
whole course of Japanese policy 
and history. He was made a C.B. 
in 1800, and a K.C.B. in 1802 ; in 
1805 he was transferred to Peking 
as Her Majesty's Minister and 
Chief Superintendent of Trade in 
China. This post he held until 1871 , 
when he resigned, after twenty- 
seven years' service in the " Far 
East." Both in Japan and China 
he has left his mark in more than 
one direction. The municipal 
government of Shanghae, which 
has earned it the complimentary 
title of the "Model Settlement," 
took in his hands in 1853 the form 
it has since retained, with little 
material change. And the Foreign 
Inspectorate of Customs is an in- 
stitution which will always be as- 
sociated with his name, as its 
originator at Shanghae. In 1803 
the University of Oxford conferred 
on him the honorary degree of 
D.C.L., and in 1870 he was elected 
President of the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society. He was appointed one 
of the British Commissioners for 
the Paris Exposition of 1878. Ho 
c 2 

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was a member of the Royal Com- 
mission appointed in 1881 to en- 
quire into the condition of the 
London Hospitals for small-pox 
and fever cases, and into the means 
of preventing the spread of infec- 
tion ; and in 1882 he presided over 
the Health department at the Con- 
gress of the Social Science Associa- 
tion held at Nottingham. Sir 
Kutherford is the author of " Notes 
on the Medical History and Statis- 
tics of the British Legion of Spain," 
1838 ; "Elements of Japanese Gram- 
mar/' 18G1 j " The Capital of the 
Tycoon : a narrative of a Three 
Years' Residence in Japan," 2 vols., 
1863 ; " Familiar Dialogues in Ja- 
panese, with English and French 
Translations," 1863 ; and " Art and 
Art Industries in Japan," 1878. He 
also edited, and added a concluding 
chapter to, "The Journey of Au- 
gustus Raymond Margary from 
Shanghae to Bhamo, and back to 
Manwyne," 1876 ; and he has been 
a frequent contributor to the Quar- 
terly and Edinburgh Reviews. 

ALCOTT, Amos Bronson, teach- 
er and philosopher, was born in 
Woloott, Connecticut, November 
20, 1799. After a brief mercantile 
experience he began teaching, at 
first in Connecticut, afterwards 
(1828) in Boston, and ultimately in 
Concord, Massachusetts, where he 
still resides. Mr. Alcott's cele- 
brity is founded not only on the 
success of his school and his 
methods of teaching, but also upon 
his fame as a philosophical thinker 
and conversationalist. In 1836 he 
published " Conversations with 
Children on the Gospels " (2 vols.) ; 
in 1868 "Tablets;" and in 1872 
" Concord Days." A description of 
his school may* be found in E. P. 
Peabody's "Record of a School" 

ALCOTT, Louisa May, daughter 
of Amos Bronson A-lcott, born at 
Germantown, Pennsylvania, in 1833. 
She began to write at an early age, 
and her first book, " Fairy Tales," 
was published in 1855. During the 

civil war she Mas a hospital nurse, 
and in 1863 published a volume of 
" Hospital Sketches," made up 
from letters which she had written 
to her family. In 1863 she became 
a contributor to the Atlantic 
Monthly. She has published several 
novels, among which are " Moods," 
1861, "Morning Glories and other 
Stories," 1867, " Little Women," 

1868, "An Old-Fashioned Girl," 

1869, " Little Men," 1871 ; "Work: 
a Story of Experience," 1873 ; 
" Cupid and Chow-Chow : and other 
Stories," 1873 j "Eight Cousins: 
or the Aunt Hill," 1875 ; "-Silver 
Pitchers and other Stories," 1876 ; 
" Rose in Bloom," a sequel to 
" Eight Cousins," 1877 ; " Under 
the Lilacs," 1878 ; " Jack and 
Jill," 1880 ; and a series of short 
stories under the general title of 
" Aunt Jo's Scrap-Bag." 

ALDRICH, Thomas Bailey, born 
at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
Nov. 11, 1836. He entered the 
counting-house of his uncle, a New 
York merchant, where he remained 
three years, during which period he 
began to write for the journals, and 
was afterwards for a time proof- 
reader. He has contributed prose 
and verse to various periodicals, 
most of which have subsequently 
been published separately. Among 
the collected volumes are "The 
Bells," 1855 ; " The Ballad of Baby 
Bell and other Poems," 1856 ; " The 
Course of True Love never did Run 
Smooth," 1858 ; " Pampinea and 
other Poems," 1861 ; a volume of 
"Poems," 1865; "Cloth of Gold 
and other Poems," 1874 ; " Flower 
and Thorn," 1876 ; " Lyrics and Son- 
nets," 1880 ; and " Friar Jerome's 
Beautiful Book," 1881. Among his 
prose tales are "Daisy's Necklace 
and What Came of it," 1857 ; " Out 
of his Head, a Romance in Prose," 
1862 j " The Story of a Bad Boy," 
1869 ; " Margery Daw," 1878 j " Pru- 
dence Palfrey," 1874 ; " The Queen 
of Sheba," 1877 ; and " Stillwater 
Tragedy," 1880. He is now editor 
of the Atlantic Monthly, Boston. 

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ALEXANDER III.(Alexandro- 
vitch), Empekob and Autocrat 
ov All thb Russias, who suc- 
ceeded to the throne on the murder 
of his father by Nihilist conspirators 
on March 13, N.S. 1881, was born 
March 10. 1845. Since his eleva- 
tion to the throne he has seldom 
appeared in public, but has lived in 
the closest retirement at Gatchina, 
being in constant dread of the 
machinations of the secret societies 
of Socialists. His coronation took 
place at Moscow, May 27, 1883. 
He married, in 1866, Mary-Feodo- 
rovna (formerly Mary Sophia Fre- 
derica Dagmar), daughter of Chris- 
tian IX., King of Denmark. 

ALEXANDER I., Prince op 
Bulgaria, is the son of Prince Alex- 
ander of Battenberg ( Hesse), brother 
of the late Empress of Russia, and 
was born April o, 1857. His 
mother, born Countess von Kauck, 
was the daughter of a former Polish 
Minister of War, and was raised to 
the rank of Princess on her mor- 
ganatic marriage with the ruler of 
Hesse. The Prince of Bulgaria is a 
second son of this union, an elder 
brother serving in the English 
Navy. Prince Alexander served 
with the Russian army during the 
war with Turkey. Part of the time 
he rode in the ranks of the 8th 
Regiment of Uhlans, and he was 
also attached to the staff of Prince 
Charles of Roumania, as well as to 
the Russian head-quarters. He was 
present with Prince Charles at the 
siege of Plevna, and crossed the 
Balkans with General Gourko. 
Soon after returning to Germany 
from the Russo-Turkish campaign 
he was transferred from the Hessian 
Regiment of Dragoons, to which he 
had belonged, to the Prussian Life 
Guards, and did garrison duty in 
Potsdam. He was elected heredi- 
tary Prince of Bulgaria by the As- 
sembly of Notables at Tirnova, 
April 29, 1879, and by a vote of the 
Grand National Assembly on July 
13, 1881, he was invested with ex- 
traordinary legislative powers for 

seven years. He was appointed an 
honorary Knight Companion of the 
Order of the Bath in June, 1879. 

ALEXANDER, Likut.-Gkn. Sir 
Jakes Edward, C.B., of Westerton, 
co. Stirling, eldest son of the late 
Mr. Edward Alexander, of Powis, 
co. Clackmannan (a descendant of 
the Alexanders of Menstrie, after- 
wards Earls of Stirling), was born 
in 1803, and educated at the col- 
leges of Edinburgh, Glasgow, anil 
Sandhurst. Having entered the 
army, he held several staff and 
other appointments in India, at the 
Cape, and in North America, and 
took part in the Burmese, Persian, 
' Turkish. Portuguese, and Kaffir 
wars. He was employed in 1836-7 
i on an expedition of discovery in the 
! interior of Africa, receiving for his 
services the honour of knighthood, 
I and he also explored for the govern- 
! ment in the forests of America. He 
j commanded the 14th regiment at 
; the siege and capture of Sebastopol, 
, and held a command in New Zea- 
land during the war. Sir James 
i is the author of several volumes 
of travel, including " Excursions 
I in Western Africa," "An Expedi- 
tion into Southern Africa," " Ex- 
I plorations in British America,'* 
i "Sketches in Portugal," "Trans- 
I atlantic Sketches," "Travels from 
India to England," "Travels 
I through Russia and the Crimea," 
I and of "Translations from the 
Persian," a "Life of the Duke of 
I Wellington," and " Passages in the 
1 Life of a Soldier." Sir James, who 
1 is a lieutenant-general in the army, 
has been decorated for his public 
, services with several foreign orders 
j and war medals, and is a Fellow of 
1 the Royal Society of Edinburgh and 
| of the Scottish Antiquaries, and of 
the Royal Geographical and Royal 
Asiatic Societies. In 1875 he pro- 
ceeded to Egypt to arrange for the 
transport of Cleopatra's Needle to 
London. He was nominated a C.B. 
in 1873. 

ALEXANDER, Stephen, LL.D., 
born at Schenectady, New York, 

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September 1, 1800. He graduated 
at Union College, in 1824 ; and in 
1831 was elected Adjunct Professor 
of Mathematics in the College of 
New Jersey. In 1840 the Professor- 
ship of Astronomy was created, and 
he was assigned to it. In 1845 he 
was transferred to the chair of 
Mathematics, but in 1854 exchanged 
it for the Professorship of Mechanics 
and Astronomy, which he retained 
until he was retired in 1878. He 
has published numerous papers on 
astronomy, mathematics, physics, 
&c, which have attracted the atten- 
tion of eminent astronomers in 
Europe and America. Among these 
are : — " Physical Phenomena atten- 
dant upon Solar Eclipses," " Funda- 
mental Principles of Mathematics," 
" On the Origin of the Forms and 
the present Condition of some of 
the Clusters of Stars," and " Har- 
monies in the Arrangement of the 
Solar System which seem to be con- 
firmatory of the Nebular Theory of 
La Place." He has conducted two 
expeditions to make observations on 
solar eclipses, one to Labrador in 
July, 1860, and one to the West, to 
observe the solar eclipse of August, 

ALEXANDER, The Right Rev. 
William, D.D., Bishop of Derry 
and Raphoe, son of a clergyman 
beneficed in the north of Ireland, 
and nephew of Dr. Alexander, late 
Bishop of Meath, and cousin of the 
late Earl of Caledon, was born at 
Londonderry in April, 1S21-. He 
was educated at Tunbridge School, 
and at Exeter and Brasenose Col- 
leges, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. and M.A. Having entered 
holy orders, he served a curacy in 
the north of Ireland, and was pre- 
ferred to one or two livings in 
the gift of the Bishop of Derry. 
He was formerly Rector of Camus- 
juxta-Moroe, co. Tyrone, and Chap- 
lain to the Marquis of Abercorn, 
Lord- Lieutenant of Ireland. In 
1804 he was nominated to the 
Deanery of Emly, and in 1S07 was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the 

chair of poetry at Oxford. He was 
appointed to the Bishopric of Derry 
and Raphoe, rendered vacant by the 
death of Dr. Higgin, July 12, 1S67, 
being consecrated in St. Columb's 
Cathedral, Londonderry, Oct. 13 
following. Soon after his elevation 
to the episcopal bench he was 
created D.D. at Oxford. He ob- 
tained, in 1860, the university prize 
at Oxford for a poem on a sacred 
subject ; has published a Theologi- 
cal Prize Essay, a volume of poems, 
several lectures and sermons, papers 
on the Irish Church, and on dog- 
matic teaching from the pulpit, 
among the proceedings of the 
Church Congresses at Norwich and 
York, and has been a frequent con- 
tributor of prose and verse to pe- 
riodical literature. His Bampton 
Lectures for 1876 were published 
under the title of " The Witness of 
the Psalms to Christ and Chris- 
tianity." He is married to Miss 
Cecil Frances Humphries, who is 
herself well known as the author 
of " Moral Songs," " Hymns for 
Children," and " Poems on Old 
Testament Subjects." 

ALEXANDER, The Rev. Wil- 
liam Lindsay, D.D., F.R.S.E., an 
Independent minister, was born at 
Edinburgh, August 24, 1808 ; and 
after a preliminary training in the 
High School of Leith, continued 
his studies at the universities of 
Edinburgh and St. Andrews. In 
1828 he was appointed Classical 
Tutor in the Lancashire College, 
then situate at Blackburn, but sub- 
sequently removed to Manchester. 
He became minister of a Congre- 
| gational Church in Edinburgh in 
I 1835 ; Professor of Theology to the 
, Congregational ists of Scotland in 
| 1854; Examiner in Philosophy at 
St. Andrews University in 1861 ; 
and a member of the Old Testa- 
ment Revision Company in 1870. 
Dr. Alexander's writings are — 
" Congregational Lecture for 1840 
on the Connection and Harmony of 
the Old and New Testament," 2nd 
edit., 1853 j " Anglo-Catholicism 

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not Apostolical/' 1S43 ; "Christ 
and Christianity," 1S54; "Life of 
Dr. WanUaw." 1S0<S; "Christian 
Thought and Work/* 1862; "St. 
Paul at Athens, 1S65; and the 
articles on " Moral Philosophy/* 
** Scripture/* and " Theology," in 
the eighth edition of the " Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica." He also 
brought out the third edition of 
Kitto'a " Biblical Cyclopedia." 

ALFONSO M. (Ajlponso Fban- 
cisco dx Asstsi Fkbdinando Pio 


Gthkoorio, &c), King of Spain, 
eldest son of the ex-Queen Isabella 
IT., was born Nov. 2S, 1857. When 
his mother was driven from the 
throne by the revolution of 1868, 
he accompanied her to Paris, where 
he resided with her for some time, 
bat subsequently he went to Austria, 
in order to prosecute his studies in 
the Theresianum, or nobleman's 
academy, at Vienna, to which he 
was admitted Jan. 20, 1872. He 
remained there three months. On 
June 25, 1870, Queen Isabella for- 
mally abdicated her right to the 
throne of Spain in favour of her 
son, but no open steps were taken 
at that time to secure for him the 
position which this abdication left 
open to him. His pretensions were, 
however, opposed by his cousin, the 
eldest son of the Ihike of Mont- 
pensier, and his aunt the Infanta 
Luisa, but as so many pretenders 
were calculated to complicate mat- 
ters, the claim of Louis Philippe's 
grandson was ultimately waived in 
favour of the heir of Isabella. Early 
in 1874 the Prince of the Astnrias, 
as he was then styled, visited this 
country, was entered as a strident 
at the Military College at Sand- 
hurst, and witnessed the autumn 
manoeuvres at Aldershot, partmoor, 
and other places in the fall of the 
year. On Dec. 29, 1874, General 
Martinez Campos proclaimed him 
Kimr of Spain in Valencia, and a 
fewdays later Alfonso, who had 
«>ne over to Paris in order to spend 
L Jour de I' An with his mother, 

left France for Spain, arriving at 
Madrid Jan. 14, 1875. He was 
most enthusiastically received. On 
Feb. 16, 1876, he departed from 
Madrid to take the command of the 
troops operating against the Car- 
lists, and on the 20th of the follow- 
ing month he returned in triumph 
to the capital at the head of 25,000 
men, having subdued the Carliat 
insurrection. In the same year the 
ex-Queen Isabella returned to Spain, 
and was received by her son at San- 
tander (July 29). King Alfonso 
married on Jan. 23, 1878, at Madrid, 
his cousin the Princess Maria de las 
Mercedes, Infanta of Spain, daugh- 
ter of the Due de Montpensier. 
(She was born June 24, 1860). The 
ex-Queen Isabella was much op- 
posed to this union, and to mark 
her disapproval she left Spain and 
went to Paris before the marriage 
ceremony took place. Queen Mer- 
cedes died on June 26, 1878. King 
Alfonso married secondly on Nov. 
29, 1879 Maria Christina daughter 
of the late Archduke Charles Ferdi- 
nand of Austria. (She was born 
July, 21, 1858). On Oct. 25, 1878, 
King Alfonso was fired at in Madrid 
by Juan Moncasi, a workman, but 
escaped unhurt. On Dec. 30, 1879, 
as the King and Queen were driving 
in an open carriage through the 
palace gates at Madrid, a youth 
named Francisco Otero Gonzalez 
Igans fired two pistol shots at the 
royal pair, one passing between 
them, and the other through an 
attendant's hat ; but fortunately 
without doing further damage. 
Otero was tried in Feb. 1880, and 
sentenced to death. King Alfonso 
was invested with the Order of the 
Garter, at Madrid, by the Marquis 
of Northampton, Oct. 11, 1881. 
Queen Christina has given birth to 
two daughters — Maria de las Mer- 
cedes, Princess of the Asturias 
(born Sept. 12, 1880), and the In- 
fanta Maria Teresa Isabel, born 
Nov. 12, 1882. 

ALFOED, The Right Rev. 
Charles Richard, D.D., formerly 

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Bishop of Victoria, Hong Kong, 
was born in 1810 at West Quantox- 
head, Somersetshire, of which parish 
his father was rector. From St. 
Paul's School he was sent to Trinity 
College, Cambridge (B.A., 1839; 
M.A., 1842; D.D., 1807). After 
taking orders he became Incumbent 
of St. Matthew's, Rugby, in 1841 ; 
Incumbent of Christ Church, Don- 
caster, in 1846 ; Principal of the 
Metropolitan Training Institution 
at Highbury, in 1854 ; and Incum- 
bent of Holy Trinity, Islington, in 
1865, where he had a high reputa- 
tion as an Evangelical preacher. 
He was consecrated Bishop of Vic- 
toria, Hong Kong, Feb. 2, 1867, in 
place of Dr. George Smith, who had 
resigned that see in the previous 
year. He himself resigned the see 
of Victoria in 1872. He was vicar 
of Christ Church, Claughton, near 
Birkenhead, from June, 1874, till 
Sept. 1877, when he accepted the 
incumbency of the new district of 
St. Mary, Sevenoaks, Kent. In the 
winter of 1877 he acted for a few 
Sundays as Chaplain of Trinity 
Protestant Church, Rome, but re- 
signed that post on finding that the 
Bishop of Gibraltar was unable to 
licence him to the chaplaincy, in 
consequence of the want of legally 
appointed trustees to the church. 
He was appointed Commissary of 
the diocese of Huron, Canada, in 
1880. Dr. Alford is the author of 
" First Principles of the Oracles of 
God ; " a " Charge " on China and 
Japan ; and various sermons and 

ALFRED, Prince. (See Edin- 
burgh, Duke of.) 

ALGER, William Rounckville, 
born at Freetown, Massachusetts, 
Dec. 11, 1823. He graduated at 
Harvard College and at the Cam- 
bridge Divinity School, 1847, and 
became pastor of a Unitarian 
Church at Roxbury, near Boston. 
In 1855 he succeeded Theodore 
Parker as minister of the Society 
of " Liberal Christians " in Boston ; 
and in 1876 became minister of the 

Unitarian Church of the Messiah 
in New York, where he remained 
until 1879. He then preached for 
a year at Denver, and after a few 
weeks' stay in Chicago went to 
Portland, Maine. He is now (Nov. 
1882), about to return to Boston to 
devote himself to literature. He 
has published "A Symbolic His- 
tory of the Cross of Christ," 1851 ; 
" The Poetry of the Orient," 1856 ; 
" A Critical History of the Doctrine 
of a Future Life," 1861 ; " The 
Geniusof Solitude," 1866 ; " Friend- 
ships of Women," 1867 ; " Prayers 
offered in the Massachusetts House 
of Representatives," 1868 ; " Life 
of Edwin Forrest," 1877 ; and " The 
School of Life," 1881. 

ALI PASHA, a Turkish diploma- 
tist, commenced his political career 
by being one of the referendaries 
of the Imperial Divan. In 185s, 
when Fuad Pasha went to Paris as 
Plenipotentiary representing the 
Porte at the Conference which had 
assembled to draw up the conven- 
tions respecting the United Prin- 
cipalities, he attached Ali Bey to 
his mission, and the latter rendered 
himself conspicuous by his general 
, intelligence and aptitude for diplo- 
I macy. In 1861 he was appointed 
First Secretary to the Ottoman 
Embassy at Paris, and when in 
1862 he went on leave of absence 
to Constantinople, the Government 
entrusted him with the delicate 
mission of Commissioner to Servia 
after the bombardment of Belgrade. 
Owing to his address and tact he 
succeeded in settling nearly all the 
difficulties. Whilst performing 
these functions, he was in 1865 
placed in charge of the political 
direction of the province of Bosnia. 
In 1868 he was appointed member 
of the Council of State, and after- 
wards undertook several other mis- 
sions. In 1869 he was nominated 
to the important post of Under- 
Secretary of State at the Ministry 
of Public Works. He remained in 
that office until 1870, when he was 
made governor' of Erzeroum, and 

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afterwards of Trebizond, on which * the bombardment of Alexandria by 

occasion he was raised to the dignity ' Sir fieancbamp Seymour a small 

of Pasha. In 1872 he became Prefect ! body of British troops was landed 

of Constantinople, where he intro- (July 17), under the command of 

dueed several important reforms, Sir Archibald Alison, who was, 

and in September, 1873, he was however, neither able nor autho- 

dent as ambassador from the Otto- { rized to strike a blow at Arabi'a 

man Porte to the French Republic, army. He confined his proceedinga 

He was recalled in Jan. 1876, and ' at first to occupying the line of 

appointed Governor-General of the ! railway which connected Alexandria 

Herzegovina. A few days before with the suburb of Ramleh. At the 

his deposition by the Softas (30 decisive battle of Tel-el- Kebir he 

May, 1876), tbe late Sultan Abdul- , led the Highland brigade which 

Aziz appointed Ali Pasha Governor- | fought so gallantly on that niemor- 

General of Scutari, in Northern i able occasion ; and after Arabi's 

Albania. surrender a British army of oeeu- 

ALISON, Lieutenant-General t pation, consisting of # 12,000 m<»n, 

8ia Archibald, Bart., K.C.B., son under the command of'Sir Archibald 

of Sir Archibald Alison, the first Alison, was left in Egypt to restore 

liaronet, author of " The History of order and to protect the Khedive. 

Europe," was born at Edinburgh, Sir Archibald was included in the 

Jan. 21, 1826, and received his thanks of Parliament for his energy 

education in the Universities of and gallantry, and was promoted 

Glasgow and Edinburgh. Entering to the rank of lieutenant-general 

the military service of his country (Nov. 1882). In May 1883, he was 

in 18445, he became a captain in the compelled by the state of his health 

72nd Highlanders in 1853 ; brevet- to relinquish the command of the 

major in 1856; lieutenant-colonel army of occupation in Egypt, and to 

in 1853; and colonel in 18G7. In return home. He published an able 

the latter year he succeeded to the treatise, " On Army Organization," 

baronetcy on the death of his in 1869. 

father. He served in the Crimea ALLEN, Grant, was born at 
at the siege and fall of Sebastopol ; , Kingston, Canada, Feb. 21, 1818, 
in India, during the mutiny, as and educated at Merton College, 
Military Secretary on the staff of \ Oxford. He has written the fol- 
the late Lord Clyde ; and on the i lowing books : — " Physiological 
Gold Coast as Brigadier-General of JEsthetics," 1877 ; " Colour Sense." 
the European Brigade, and second , 1879 ; " Evolutionist at Large," 
in command of the Ashantee Expe- , 1881 ; " Anglo-Saxon Britain," 
dition in 1873-1. He commanded ! 1881 ; " Vignettes from Nature," 
his brigade at the battle of Amoa- j 1881 ; " Colours of Flowers," 1882 ; 
ful. the capture of Bequah, the , and " Colin Clout's Calendar," 
action of Ordahsu, and the fall of 1883. He has contributed largely 
Coomas8ie. He lost an arm at the j to periodi«al literature and the 
relief of Lucknow. Sir Archibald j daily newspapers, 
was Deputy Adjutant-General in I ALLIBONE, Sam o el Austin, 
Ireland from Oct. 1874 to Oct. 1877, i LL.D., born in Philadelphia, April 
when he was promoted to the rank 17, 1816. Early in life he acquired 
of Major-General. Subsequently j a high reputation for his attain- 
he was appointed Chief of the i ments in English literature, and 
Intelligence Department at the ! though engaged in mercantile pur- 
War Office. He commanded the suits, his favourite studies were 
1st brigade, 2nd division, in the I not neglected. The first volume of 
military expedition dispatched to his great work, " A Critical Die- 
Egypt in 1882. A few days after | tionary of English Literature, and 

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British and American Authors/' 
was published in 1858, and the 
third (the last) in 1871 . The three 
large volumes contain notices of 
40,499 authors, and 40 classified 
indexes of subjects. He has con- 
tributed articles to the North 
American Review, and other periodi- 
cals, and has published several 
tracts and religious essays. He 
was, for several years, the editor of 
the publications of the American 
Sunday School Union, and has pub- 
lished " Alphabetical Index to the 
New Testament," 1869; "Union 
Bible Companion," 1871 ; " Poetical 
Quotations from Chaucer to Tenny- 
son," 1873 ; * " Prose Quotations 
from Socrates to Macaulay," 1876 ; 
and " Great Authors of AJ1 Ages," 
1879. He is now connected with 
the Lenox Library, New York. 

ALLIES, Thomas William, the 
son of a gentleman of Bristol, was 
born in 1813, and educated at Eton, 
where he obtained the Newcastle 
Scholarship. He afterwards became 
in succession Scholar and Fellow of 
Wadham College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1832, taking a 
first-class in classics. He became 
examining chaplain to Dr. Bloin- 
field, Bishop of London, who 
appointed him, in 1842, to the 
rectory of Launton, Oxfordshire, 
which he resigned in 1850, on 
becoming a Roman Catholic. He 
had previously published a volume 
of sermons, a work, entitled, " The 
Church of England cleared from the 
charge of Schism, upon testimonies 
of Councils and Fathers of the first 
six centuries," 1&K>, 2nd ed., 1848 ; 
and "Journal in France in 1815 
and 1848, with Letters from Italy 
in 1847 — of Things and Persons 
concerning the Church and Educa- 
tion," 1849. To give the grounds 
of his conversion he wrote, " The 
See of St. Peter, the Bock of the 
Church, the Source of Jurisdiction, 
and the Centre of Unity," 1850 ; 
preceded by, "The Royal Supre- 
macy viewed in reference to the 
two Spiritual Powers of Order and 

Jurisdiction," 1850. Since, he has 
written " St. Peter, his Name and 
Office as set forth in Holy Scrip- 
ture," 1852, 2nd ed., 1871; "The 
Formation of Christendom," 3 
parts, 1865-75 ; " Dr. Pusey and 
the Ancient Church," 1866; "Ger- 
many, Italy, and the Jesuits. A 
speech delivered before the Catho- 
lic Union, July, 1872 " ; " Per Cru- 
cem ad Lucem, the Result of a 
Life," 2 vols. 1879; " A Life's De- 
cision," 1880; and "Church and 
State as seen in the Formation of 
Christendom," 1882. Mr. Allies 
was appointed Secretary to the Ca- 
tholic Poor-School Committee for 
Great Britain in 1853. 

ALLINGHAM, Mas. Hblbn, 
eldest child of Alexander Henry 
Paterson, M.D., was born near 
Burton-on-Trent, Sept. 26, 1848. 
The family removed to Altrincham, 
Cheshire, and after "Dr. Paterson's 
death, to Birmingham. At the 
commencement of 1867, Miss Pater- 
son came to reside in London under 
the care of her aunt, Miss Laura 
Herford, who was an artist, and 
who, some five years previously, 
had practically opened the schools 
of the Royal Academy to women. 
Miss Paterson herself entered the 
Royal Academy schools in April, 
1867. She afterwards drew on wood 
for several illustrated periodicals, 
and eventually became one of the 
regular staff of the Graphic. She 
also furnished illustrations to novels 
running in the Cornhill Magazine — 
" Far From the Madding Crowd " 
and " Miss Angel." In the inter- 
vals of drawing on wood she pro- 
duced several water-colour draw- 
ings. "May," "Dangerous Ground," 
&c, were exhibited at the Dudley 
Gallery; "The Milkmaid" and 
" Wait for Me " at the Royal Aca- 
demy, 1874. "Young Customers," 
1875, attracted much attention ; as 
did also " Old Men's Gardens, 
Chelsea Hospital," at the Old 
Water -Colour Exhibition, 1877. 
Miss Paterson was married, Aug. 22, 
1874, to Mr. William Allingham. 

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In IS75 she was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Society of Painters in 
Water-Colours. Mrs. Allingham 
has also exhibited •• The Harvest 
Moon," " The Clothes-Line/' "The 
Convalescent/* " The Lady of the 
Manor," "The Children's Tea," 
** The Well," and many scenes of 
English rural life. Among her 
recent works are several portraits 
of Thomas Carlyle. 

ALLINGHAM, William, born 
at Bally shannon, on the picturesque 
River Erne, in the north-west of 
Ireland, a locality to which many 
of his lyrics refer, and where Ins 
family, originally English, had been 
settled during many generations. 
After contributing to the Athe- 
narum, Household Words (in the first 
number of which "The Wayside 
Well" appeared), and other perio- 
dicals, his first volume, " Poems/' 
was published in 1850 ; in 1854 
appeared " Day and Night Songs," 
and in 1855 an enlarged edition of 
the same, with illustrations by D. G. 
Rossetti, Millais, and A. Hughes ; 
" Laurence B loo infield in Ireland : a 
Modern Poem, in twelve chapters," 
first appeared in Fraser's Magazine, 
and subseqrently in a volume, 1809. 
It extends to nearly 5,000 lines in 
decasyllabic couplets, and sketches 
the characteristic features of con- 
temporary Irish life, a subject 
entirely new in narrative poetry. 
Mr. AUingham was for some years 
editor of Fraser, to which he also 
contributed many prose articles. A 
volume entitled, " Songs, Poems, 
and Ballads," was published in 
1K77, and contains revised versions 
of many former pieces, with the 
addition of many others " now first 
collected." The marriage of Mr. 
Allinghain and Miss Helen Pater- 
son, the artist, took place in 1874. 
They have three children, two boys 
and a girl, and reside at Witley, 
near Godalming, in Surrey. 

ALLMAN~, Gboboe James, M.D., 
LL.D., F.B.C.S.I., F.R.S., P.R.S.E., 
M.K.I. A., F.L.S., and member of 
various foreign societies, born at 

Cork in 1812, was educated at the 
Belfast Academic Institution, and 
graduated in Arts and Medicine in 
the University of Dublin. His 
early attachment to civil and reli- 
gious liberty and his sense of the 
injustice of the laws then affecting 
Roman Catholics, caused him to 
throw himself warmly into the libe- 
ral side of Irish politics, and mainly 
decided him in studying for the 
Irish bar. His love of biological 
science, however, which had from an 
early age taken possession of him, 
proved too strong, and, before he 
had completed the required number 
of terms, he gave up the study of 
law for that of medicine. In 1844 
he graduated in Medicine in the 
University of Dublin, and in tht» 
same year was appointed to the 
Regius Professorship of Botany in 
that university, when he relin- 
quished all further thought of medi- 
cal practice. In 1854 he was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society, and 
in 1855 he resigned his professor- 
ship in the University of Dublin on 
his appointment to the Regius Pro- 
fessorship of Natural History in the 
University of Edinburgh, which ho 
held until 1870, when the state of 
his health obliged him to resign it. 
Shortly after this the honorary de- 
gree of LL.D. was conferred on him 
by the University of Edinburgh. 
His chief scientific labours have 
been among the lower members of 
the animal kingdom, to the in- 
vestigation of whose structure and 
physiology he has specially devoted 
himself. For his researches in this 
department of biology the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh awarded to 
him in 1872 the Brisbane Prize ; in 
the following year a Royal Medal 
was awarded to him by the Royal 
Society of London ; and in 1878 
he received the Cunningham Gold 
| Medal from the Royal Irish Aca- 
| demy. He was one of the Com- 
i missioners appointed by Govern - 
| ment in 1870 to inquire into the 
i state of the Queen's Colleges in 
i Ireland, and he holds an honorary 

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appointment as Commissioner of 
Scottish Fisheries. On the occasion 
of the general election in 187*, the 
committee for securing the return 
of a Liberal member for the borough 
of Bandon selected him for nomi- 
nation, at the same time offering to 
relieve him from the necessity of 
pledging himself on any of the 
special questions which then formed 
a prominent element in Irish poli- 
tics, but he declined the proffered 
honour. The same year, on the 
resignation of Mr. Bentham, he was 
elected to the presidency of the 
Linnean Society, and President of 
the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science at the meeting 
held at Sheffield in 1879. On the 
completion of the exploring voyage 
of the " Challenger/' the large col- 
lection of Hydroida made during 
that great expedition was assigned 
to him for determination and de- 
scription — a service which he had 
already performed for the Hydroida 
collected during the exploration of 
the Gulf Stream under the direction 
of the United States Government. 
Results of his original investiga- 
tions are contained in memoirs pub- 
lished in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, the Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, and 
the Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy, as well as in Reports 
presented to the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, 
and to the Mus. Conip. Zool. Harvard 
University, and in communications 
to the Annals of Natural History, 
the Quarterly Journal of Microscopic 
Science, and other scientific jour- 
nals. His more elaborate works are 
"A Monograph of the Freshwater 
Polyzoa," fol. 1856, and " A Mono- 
graph of the Gymnoblastic Hy- 
droids," fol. 1871-72, both pub- 
lished by the Ray Society,* and 
largely illustrated with coloured 

ALLON, The Rev. Henby, D.D., 
Congregational minister, was born 
on the 13th of Oct. 1818, at Welton, 
near Hull, Yorkshire, and educated 

for the ministry at Cheshunt Col- 
lege, Hertfordshire. In Jan., 1844. 
he was appointed minister of Union 
Chapel, Islington, officiating at first 
as co-pastor with the Rev. Thomas 
j Lewis, on whose death, in 1852, he 
{ became sole pastor. He was chair- 
man of the Congregational Union 
in 1864-5. Although for the space 
of thirty-eight years he has been 
actively engaged in the pastoral 
and public duties of his ministry, 
he has found time to contribute 
largely to periodical literature, in- 
cluding the Contemporary Review 
and CasselVs Biblical Educator. He 
• also contributed an Essay on Wor- 
ship to " Ecclesia," a volume of 
| E 8 say 8 edited by Dr. Reynolds. He 
1 wrote a ** Memoir of the Rev. J. 
Sherman," which was originally 
published in 1863, and has passed 
i through three editions ; also a cri- 
tical biography of the Rev. Dr. 
Binney, prefixed to a posthumous 
volume of his sermons, which he 
edited. In 1876 he published a 
volume of sermons, entitled " The 
Vision of God," which has gone 
through three editions. He has 
done much to promote church mu- 
sic in the Nonconformist churches, 
and compiled the " Congregational 
Psalmist," which is very extensively 
used in dissenting places of worship. 
Since 1865, he has been editor of the 
British Quarterly Review. In 1871 he 
received the honorary degree of D . D . 
from Yale College, New Haven. 
Connecticut. A new church, or 
"Congregational Cathedral," erec- 
ted for him in Compton Terrace, 
Islington, at a cost of JE41,466, was 
opened in Dec., 1877. In 1881 he 
was for the second time chairman of 
the Congregational Union in its 
Jubilee year. 

ALMA - TADEMA, Lawbence. 
I R.A., a distinguished painter, was 
born at Dronryp, in the Nether- 
lands, Jan. 8, 1836. He was inten- 
j ded for one of the learned profes- 
I sions, and in training for it the 
I works of the ancient classical 
I writers of course engrossed much 

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of his attention. In 1852 he went 
to Antwerp, and entered the Aca- 
demy there as a student. After- 
wards he placed himself with the 
late Baron Henry Leys, whom he 
assisted in painting several of the 
Wge pictures with which the 
Baron's name is associated. Sub- 
sequently he came to London, where 
he has resided for many years. He 
obtained a gold medal at Paris in 
1861; a second-class medal at the 
International Exhibition at Paris 
in 1867 ; a gold medal at Berlin in 
1872, and the grand medal in 1S74. 
Mr. Alma-Tadema became a mem- 
ber of the Academy of Fine Arts at 
Amsterdam in 1862 ; Knight of the 
Order of Leopold (Belgium) in 
1866 ; Knight of the Dutch Lion in 
1868; Knight First Class of the 
Order of St. Michael of Bavaria in 
1869; member of the Royal Aca- 
demy of Munich in 1871 : Knight 
of the Legion of Honour (France) 
in 1873 ; member of the Society of 
Painters in Water Colours in 1873 ; 
and member of the Royal Academy 
of Berlin in 1874. In Jan., 1873, 
he received letters of denization 
from the Queen of England, having 
resolved to reside permanently in 
this country. He was nominated a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour 
in 1873, and elected an Associate of 
the Royal Academy of London, 
Jan. 26, 1876. In the latter year, 
also, he was elected a Knight of 
the Third Class of the Golden Lion 
of Nassau ; in 1877, a Knight of 
the Third Class of the Crown of 
Prussia, and an honorary member 
of the Royal Scottish Academy ; in 
1878, he obtained a first-class medal 
at the Paris International Exhibi- 
tion, and he was nominated an 
Officer of the Legion of Honour in 
the same year. Mr. Alma-Tadema 
was elected a Royal Academician 
June 19, 1879. He is an honorary 
member of the Royal Academies of 
Madrid, Vienna, Stockholm, and 
Naples. The Emperor of Germany, 
in Jan., 1881, appointed him a 
foreign Knight of the Order Pour 

U Mirit*: (Art and Sciences Pi vi- 
sion) ; and in the following month 
the French Academy of Fine Arts 
elected him its London correspon- 
dent in the section of Painting. 
His principal paintings are : — " En- 
trance to a Roman Theatre/' 1806 ; 
"Agrippina Visiting the Ashes of 
Gennanicus," 1866 ; •* A Roman 
Dance," 1806; "The Mummy,' 
1867 ; " TarquiniuB Superbus," 
1867; "The Siesta," 1868; "Phi- 
dias and the Elgin Marbles," 1868 ; 
" Flowers/' 180S ; " Flower Mar- 
ket/' 1868 ; " A Roman Amateur/' 

1868 : " Pyrrhic Dance," 1869 ; 
" A Negro," 1869 ; " The Conva- 
lescent," 1869 ; " A Wine Shop," 

1869 ; " A Juggler," 1870 ; " A Ro- 
man Amateur," 1870; "The Vin- 
tage," 1870; "A Roman Emperor," 
1871 ; " Une Fete intime," 1871 ; 
"The Greek Pottery," 1871 ; "Re- 
proaches," 1872 ; " The Mummy " 
(Roman period), 1872; "The Im- 
proviaatore," 1872 ; " A Halt," 1872 ; 
"Death of the Firstborn," 1872; 
" Greek Wine," 1872 ; " The Din- 
ner," 1873; "The Siesta," 1873; 
" The Cherries," 1873 ; " Fishing," 
1873 ; " Joseph Overseer of Pha- 
raoh's Granaries/' 1874; "A Sculp- 
ture Gallery," 1874; "A Picture 
Gallery," 1874; "Autumn," 1874; 
"Good Friends," 1874; "On the 
Steps of the Capitol," 1874 ; " Water 
Pets," 1875 ; " The Sculpture Gal- 
lery," 1875 ; " An Audience at 
Agrippa's," 1876 ; " After the 
Dance," 1876; "Cleopatra," 1876; 
" The Seasons " (4 pictures), 1877 ; 
" Between Hope and Fear," 1877 ; 
"A Sculptor's Model (Venus Esqui- 
lina) ; " A Love Missile," 1878 ; 
" A Hearty Welcome," " Down to 
the River," "Pomona Festival," 
"In the Time of Constantine," 
1879;" Spring Festival," "Not 
at Home," " Fredegonda," 1880; 
" Sappho," 1881 ; " An Oleander," 
and " The Way to the Temple " (his 
diploma work) 1883. At the Grosve- 
nor Gallery in 1876 he exhibited a 
series of three pictures — " Archi- 
tecture," " Sculpture," and " Paint- 

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ing ; " also " Cherries." Mr. Alnia- 
Tadema married in 1871, Laura, 
youngest daughter of Dr. George 
N. Epps. This lady is an accom- 
plished artist, and has exhibited 
several works at the Exhibitions 
of the Royal Academy, and the 
Society of French Artists in Bond 

Ferdinando Maria, Duke of 
Aosta, formerly King of Spain, is 
the second son of the late Victor 
Emmanuel, King of Italy, and was 
born May 30, 1845. Entering the 
army, he became Captain of a Bri- 
gade of Infantry at Aosta, then 
Lieutenant-General and Chief of a 
Brigade of Cavalry. In 1869 he 
was also appointed Vice- Admiral. 
Marshal Prim, after the revolution 
of 1868, offered the Spanish crown 
first to the King of Portugal, next 
to the Duke of Genoa, and after- 
wards to the Prince Leopold, all of 
whom refused it. Finally, he fixed 
on the young Duke of Aosta, who, 
on, Oct. 19, 1870, formally an- 
nounced his candidature to the 
Regent Serrano. On the 16th of 
the following month the Cortes 
elected him King of Spain by 191 
votes against 120 ; 64 deputies 
voting for the Republic, 22 for the 
Duke de Montpensier, 8 for Mar- 
shal Espartero, 2 for the Infant 
Alfonso, and 1 for the Duke de 
Montpensier's daughter, while 18 
deputies abstained from voting. A 
deputation immediately proceeded 
to Florence to convey to the Duke 
of Aosta the offer of the crown, 
which he formally accepted Dec. 4, 
1870. The young king landed at 
Cartagena on Dec. 30, the very day 
Marshal Prim expired from the 
wounds received at the hands of 
an assassin a few hours previously. 
His reign was a brief and troublous 
one. He was unpopular with the 
masses of the Spanish people, whose 
dislike to foreigners is a marked 
trait in their character; and his 
position, which had never been se- 
cure, became extremely dangerous 

in the summer of 1872, when a 
Carlist rising took place in the 
northern provinces, and an insur- 
rection . broke out almost simul- 
taneously among the sailors and 
the workmen in the arsenal at 
Ferrol, who hoisted the red flag, 
and for some time set the govern- 
ment at defiance. On the 19th of 
July in that year an unsuccessful 
attempt to assassinate the King and 
Queen was made by five men, who 
posted themselves in the Calle 
Arnal in Madrid, and fired upon 
the carriage of their Majesties. At 
length Amadeo prudently resolved 
to abdicate. On Feb. 11, 1873, he 
addressed to the Cortes a message, 
in which he stated that in con- 
sequence of the incessant struggles 
of contending parties his efforts to 
give peace and prosperity to the 
country must prove futile, and that 
therefore he had determined to de- 
pose the crown. The very next 
day the Duke and his consort left 
Madrid, and proceeded first to Lis- 
bon, and thence to Genoa, where 
they landed on the 9th of March. 
The Duke arrived in Florence on 
the 16th. Immediately on his re- 
turn from Spain, he resumed the 
status of an Italian citizen. On 
March 14, 1873, his Royal Highness 
was again enrolled in the list of 
Senators ; and in the Chamber of 
Deputies, Signor Sella, the Minister 
of Finance, presented a bill for re- 
storing to him his allowance from 
the civil list, viz., 400,000 lire. The 
bill passed almost unanimously. 
At this period, also, King Victor 
Emmanuel conferred on the Duke 
of Aosta the rank of lieutenant- 
general. The Duke married, May 
30, 1867, the Princess Mary (born 
Aug. 9, 18 17), daughter of Prince 
Charles Emmanuel del Pozzo della 
Cisterna (she died Nov. 7, 1876) ; 
and has three sons, Emmanuel 
Philibert Victor Eugene Albert 
Genova Joseph Mary, Duke of Apu- 
lia, born Jan. 13, 1869; Victor Em- 
manuel Turin John Mary, Count of 
Turin, born Nov. 24, 187a ; and 

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Louis Amadeus Joseph Mary Ferdi- 
nand Francis, born Jan. 31, 1873. 

AMARI. Michkle, was born at 
Palermo, July 7, 1806. Having 
obtained a knowledge of English, 
he published at Palermo, in 1832, a 
translation of Sir Walter Scott's 
" Marmion.*' His " Guerra del 
Vespro Siciliano," in 1812, was sup- 
pressed, and Amari was ordered to 
repair to Naples. Instead, however, 
of doing so, he took refuge in 
France, where he wrote '* A History 
of the Mussulmans in Sicily." In 
1518 he returned to Palermo, having 
l>een appointed Professor of Public 
Law, and Bhortly afterwards was 
elected Vice-President of the Com- 
mittee of War. He was sent on a 
diplomatic mission by the provi- 
sional government to England and 
France. While at Paris he pub- 
lished a pamphlet, entitled, " La 
vSieQe et lea Bourbons/' 1849, relat- 
ing to the rights of the Neapolitan 
sovereign and the Sicilians. On the 
r**ramption of hostilities, he re- 
turned to Palermo in 1849, but the 
cause of the Sicilians was by that 
time hopeless, and Signor Amari 
hastened back to the French capital, 
whereho devoted himself to literary 
pursuits until 1860, when he was 
enabled to return to his native 
country. In the following year 
King Victor Emmanuel conferred 
upon him the rank of Senator. He 
gave his support to Count Cavour, 
through whose interest he was ap- 
pointed President of the Lieuten- 
ancy of Sicily, with the port- 
folio of Finance ; and subsequently 
Governor of Modena. In 1862 he 
1>ecame Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion . Signor Amari has contributed 
many papers on the language and 
history of the Arabs to the Revue 
arcK4ologique, and Le Journal 
asiatique. He has also published 
an English translation of the 
"Solwan" of Ibn Djafer. His 
" History of the Sicilian Vespers/' 
mentioned above, was translated 
into English by Lord Ellesmere. 
In 1871, Signor Amari was elected 

one of the foreign members of the 
French Academy, and in 1873 he 
received the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy and Litera- 
ture from the University of Ley den. 
He was president of the Congress 
of Orientalists held at Florence in 
Sept. 1878. 

AMHEEST, The Right Ret. 
Francis Eerril, D.D., a Roman 
Catholic prelate, born in London, 
21st March, 1819. He was educated 
at St. Mary's College, Oscott, where, 
after his ordination in 1846, he be- 
came a Professor. Afterwards he 
resided for some time in a Dominican 
monastery at Leicester, and in 1K56 
he was appointed missionary rector 
of the church of St. Augustin, at 
Stafford. He was consecrated 
Bishop of Northampton, in succes- 
sion to the Right Rev. William 
Wareing, the first bishop, on 4th 
July, 1858. He has published •' Len- 
ten Thoughts, drawn from the Gos- 
pel for Each Day of Lent," 1873. 

AMICIS, Edmondo De. See De 


AMPHLETT, Sir Richard Paul, 
eldest son of the late Rev. Richard 
Holmden Amphlett, of Wychbold 
Hall, Worcestershire, and rector of 
Hadzor, in the same county, by his 
first wife, Sarah, daughter of Na- 
thaniel Paul, Esq., was born in 1809. 
He was educated at Brewood Gram- 
mar School, in Staffordshire, and 
subsequently at Peter house, Cam- 
bridge, where he took his B.A. 
degree in 1831, coming out in the 
mathematical tripos as sixth wran- 
gler. He was elected a Fellow of 
Peterhouse, and was called to the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn, in Trinity 
term, 1834, and had an extensive 
practice at the equity bar. He re- 
ceived the honour of a silk gown in 
1858 ; became a magistrate and De- 
puty Lieutenant for Worcestershire, 
and was for several years a Deputy 
Chairman of the Quarter Sessions 
for that county. He took a great 
interest in the improvement of pro- 
fessional education, and when Sir 
Roundcll Palmer (now Lord Sel- 

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borne) became Lord Chancellor, 
Mr. Amphlett was chosen his suc- 
cessor in the presidency of the Legal 
Education Association . At the ge- 
neral election in 1868 he was chosen 
M.P. for East Worcestershire, in. 
the Conservative interest. In Jan. 
1874, he was appointed the successor 
of Baron Martin in the Court of 
Exchequer, being, with the excep- 
tion of the late Lord Cran worth, the 
only Equity barrister who, up to 
that period, had been promoted to a 
seat on the Common Law bench. 
He retired in 1877, in consequence 
of ill health. Mr. Amphlett mar- 
ried, in 1840, Frances, only daughter 
and heiress of the late Edward Fer- 
rand, Esq., of St. Ives, Yorkshire. 

AMPTHILL (Lord), The Right 
Hon. Odo William Leopold Rus- 
sell, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., is the third 
and youngest son of the late Major- 
Genera! Lord George William Rus- 
sell, G.C.B. (formerly ambassador at 
Berlin), by Elizabeth Anne, only 
child of the late Hon. John Theophi- 
lus Rawdon, and the niece of the first 
Marquis of Hastings. He is, there- 
fore^ grandson of John, sixth Duke 
of Bedford and brother of the present 
Duke. He was born at Florence, Feb. 
20, 1829, and received his education 
at Westminster School . He entered 
the diplomatic service in 1849 as 
attache to the embassy at Vienna, 
but returned to England in 1850, 
and served for nearly two years in 
the Foreign Office. In 1852 he was 
attached in succession to the em- 
bassies at Paris and Vienna. He 
became second paid attache at Paris, 
in 1853, and first paid attache at 
Constantinople in the following 
year. He was charged with the 
affairs of the embassy during Lord 
Stratford de Redcliffe's two visits to 
the Crimea in 1855. Accompanying 
Lord Napier to the United States 
in the spring of 1857, he was for a 
time paid attache at Washington, 
whence, in Nov., 1858, he was trans- 
ferred to Florence, with instructions, 
however, to reside at Rome, with a 
commission as Secretary of Legation, 

He was temporarily attached in 1859 
to Mr. (now Sir Henry George) 
Elliot's special mission to congratu- 
late Francis II., King of the Two 
Sicilies, on his accession to the 
throne. In 1860 he was transferred 
to Naples, but continued to reside at 
Rome; and on the withdrawal of 
Her Majesty's mission from Naples 
in Nov., 1860, he continued to bf* 
"employed on special service" at 
Rome till Aug. 9, 1870, when he 
was appointed Assistant Under- 
Secretary of State for Foreign Af- 
fairs. He was employed on a special 
mission to Prince Bismarck at the 
head-quarters of the German Army 
at Versailles from Nov., 1870, till 
the following March. In Oct., 1871 . 
he was appointed to succeed Lord 
Augustus Loftus as ambassador to 
Berlin . Lord Odo Russell was sworn 
of the Privy Council Feb. 5, 1872 j 
was raised by royal warrant to the 
rank of a duke's son in 1873 ; was 
nominated a Knight Grand Cross of 
the Order of the Bath (civil divi- 
sion) in 1874 ; and created a Knight 
Grand Cross of the Order of SS. 
Michaeland George in 1879. In Feb., 
1881, he was raised to the Peerage 
as Baron Ampthill of Amp thill, 
in the county of Bedford. The 
"honour" and manor of Ampthill, 
from which he takes his title, is an 
historic spot, associated with the 
memory of the first and much- 
wronged wife of Henry VIII., Queen 
Katherine ; it was subsequently, in 
the last century, the seat of the 
Earls of Upper Ossory, from whom 
it passed to Lord Holland, and from 
him again to Francis, seventh Duke 
of Bedford, uncle of the present 
Duke and of Lord Ampthill. He 
married, in 1868, Lady Emily The- 
resa Villiers, third daughter of 
George, fourth Earl of Clarendon, 
by whom he has a daughter and 
four sons. 

ANDERDON,The Rev. William 
Henry, S.J., an English divine of 
the Roman Catholic communion , was 
born in New Street, Spring Gardens, 
London, Dec. 26, 1816. Being grand- 

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son of the late William Manning, 
Esq., for some years M.P. for Eve- 
sham and Penrhyn, and formerly 
Governor of the Bank of England, 
he is, therefore, nephew to the pre- 
sent Cardinal Archbishop of West- 
minster. On the father's side he is 
descended from a Somersetshire 
family, several members of which 
have belonged to the Society of 
Friends, more than one of them 
being writers and sufferers for its 
tenets, in the seventeenth century. 
He matriculated at Balliol College, 
and soon after was elected to two 
successive scholarships in Univer- 
sity College, Oxford, graduating 
B.A. (2nd class in classics) in 1840, 
and M.A. in 1843. After taking 
orders in the Established Church, 
he was presented in 1846 to the 
vicarage of St. Margaret's with 
Knighton, Leicester, but resigned 
that living in 1850, and the same 
year was received, at Paris, into the 
Roman Catholic Chnrch. He then 
studied theology in Borne, and in 
1853 was ordained priest. From 
1S56 to 1S6± he held office in the 
Catholic University, Dublin, and 
subsequently spent two years in a 
mission to America, returning to 
this country in 1870. He received 
his degree of D.D. from Borne in 
1869, but ceased to be so designated 
on entering the Society of Jesus, in 
which, after the usual two years' 
noviciate, he took the first vows in 
1874. Father Anderdon has ac- 
quired considerable reputation as a 
preacher. He is at present stationed 
at Stony hurst College. Since join- 
ing the Catholic Church he has 
edited " St. Francis and the Francis- 
cans," and "Purgatory Surveyed," 
and has written the following works, 
most of which have passed through 
several editions in England, Ireland, 
or America, and have been, or are 
being, translated into French and 
German: — " Bonne val, a Story of 
the Fronde," 1857; "Owen Evans, 
the Catholic Crusoe," 1862; "After- 
noons with the Saints," 1863 ; " In 
the Snow: Tales of Mount St. 

Bernard," 1866; "The Seven Ages 
of Clarewell," 1867; "The Chris- 
tian JEsop," 1871; "Is Ritualism 
Honest? " 1877 ; " Bracton " (a Tale 
of 1812), 1882 ; and various contro- 
versial pamphlets and articles in 
the Dublin Review, the Month, and 
other Catholic serials. He is en- 
gaged in preparing for the press, 
"Fasti Apostolici," a chronological 
work, and "Evenings with the 

ANDEBSON, The Bight Bev. 
David, D.D., formerly Bishop of 
Rupert's Land, is a son of Captain 
Archibald Anderson, H.E.I.C.S., and 
was born in London, 10th Feb. 1814. 
He was educated at the Edinburgh 
Academy, and at Exeter College, 
Oxford (B.A., 1836; M.A., 18:30; 
D.D., 1848). From 1841 to 1847 he 
was Vice-Principal of St. Bee's Col- 
lege, Cumberland, and in 1848-9 
incumbent of All Saints, Derby. On 
the 29th May, 1849, he was conse- 
crated the first Bishop of Bupert's 
Land, but he resigned that see in 
1864, when he was appointed Vicar 
of Clifton. In 1866, he was ap- 
pointed Chancellor of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. Bishop Anderson is the 
author of "Notes on the Flood;" 
"Net in the Bay;" five Charges; 
and some Ordination Sermons. Bi- 
shop Anderson resigned the vicar- 
age of Clifton in 1881. 

ANDEBSON, Elizabeth Gar- 
rett-, M.D., eldest daughter of 
Newsom Garrett, Esq., of Alde- 
burgh, Suffolk, was born in London 
in 1837, and educated at home, and 
at a private school. Miss Elizabeth 
Garrett commenced the study of 
medicine at Middlesex Hospital in 
1860 ; completed the medical cur- 
riculum at St. Andrews, Edinburgh, 
and the London Hospital ; and 
passed the examination at Apothe- 
caries' Hall, receiving the diploma 
of L.S.A. in Oct. 1865. Miss Gar- 
rett was appointed General Medical 
Attendant to St. Mary's Dispensary 
in June, 1866 ; she obtained the 
degree of M.D. from the University 
of Paris in 1870, and in the same 

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year was appointed one of the 
visiting physicians to the East 
London Hospital for Children and 
Dispensary for Women. On Nov. 29, 

1870, Miss Garrett was elected a 
member of the London School Board, 
being returned by a large majority 
at the head of the poll for Maryle- 
bone. She was married Feb. 9, 

1871, to Mr. I. G. S. Anderson, of 
the Orient line of steam-ships to 
Australia. Mrs. Garrett-Anderson 
continues to practise in London as 
a physician for women and children. 
She has written various papers on 
medical and social questions. 

ANDRASSY (Count), Julius, a 
Hungarian statesman, born at Zem- 
plin, on March 8, 1823, the son of 
Count Charles Andrassy, whose 
efforts to promote the scientific and 
industrial progress of his country 
are well known. He succeeded his 
father (who died in 1845) as Presi- 
dent of the Society for Regulating 
the Course of the River Theiss j 
and was returned by his native 
town to the Diet of 1847, where he 
rose to distinction in consequence 
of his oratorical powers and poli- 
tical tact. To the revolutionary 
movement of 1848 he lent all his 
influence ; and, after the Hungarian 
Government had fled to Debreczin, 
in 1849, he was despatched on a 
mission to the Porte. On the de- 
feat of the revolution he went into 
exile, and resided in France and 
England until the general amnesty 
of 1857 enabled him to return to 
his native country. Being elected 
' a member of the Hungarian Diet 
in 1860, he gave a hearty support 
to the Deack party, and was nomi- 
nated Vice-President. On the re- 
organization of the Austrian Empire, 
and the constitution of a Hungarian 
ministry in 1867, he was appointed 
Prime Minister of Hungary, and 
charged with the department of the 
defence of the country. Among 
the principal events of his adminis- 
tration were the civil and political 
emancipation of the Jews, and the 
raising of a large sum of money to 

extend and complete the railway 
system in Hungary. At the general 
election of 1869 he was unanimously 
returned, by the electors of Perth 
to the Hungarian Chamber of Re- 
presentatives. Count Andrassy 
succeeded Count Beust as Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, Nov. 14, 1871, 
when he retired from the post of 
President of the Ministry at Pesth. 
The Emperor of Austria conferred 
on Count Andrassy the Order of 
the Golden Fleece, Jan. 1, 1878. 
He was the first plenipotentiary of 
Austria at the Congress of Berlin 
(June-July, 1878). Count Andrassy 
retired from public life in Aug. 

ANDREWS, William, was born 
at Kirkby Woodhouse, Notting- 
hamshire, Aug. 11, 1848. He has 
written the following books and 
newspaper serials : — " History of 
the Dunmow Flitch," " Punish- 
ments in the Olden Time," " The 
Book of Oddities," " Historic York- 
shire," "Anecdotal History of 
Bells," "Gibbet Lore," "Historic 
Romance," " Curious Epitaphs," 
"Good Fare," "The World of 
Oddities," "Echoes of Old Soot- 
land," "Old Stories Re-told," 
"Echoes of Old Leeds," "The 
Circus and Circus Performers," 
" Strange Stories of the Midlands," 
"Great Frosts and FrOst Fairs," 
" Gleanings of Lancashire Lore," 
" Merry Christmas-tide,." " Roman- 
tic Tales and Historic Sketches," 
and " Shadows of the Olden Time." 
He has edited numerous books, in- 
cluding the " Derbyshire Gatherer," 
and " Sketches of Hull Authors." 
In 1878 he undertook the editor- 
ship of a weekly literary journal, 
entitled the Hull Miscellany. In 
1876 he presided over a meeting 
at Dunmow, when the far famed 
Dunmow Flitch was claimed by a 
happy couple, and presented to 
them according to ancient usage. 
He established in 1879 the Hull 
Literary Club, and has acted as 
secretary since its formation. Mr. 
Andrews has also taken an active 

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part in the founding of other lite- 
rary institutions and libraries for 
the advancement of the people. He 
is a Fellow of the Royal Historical 
Society, and a member of the Derby- 
shire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society. 

AN ETHAN, Julbs Josiph, 
Babon d% a Belgian statesman, 
was born in 1803. Adopting the 
legal profession, he was appointed 
Procureur du Roi in 1831, and five 
years later, Advocate-General in 
the Court of Appeal at Brussels. 
In 1843, M. Nothomb, the Prime 
Minister, selected him as his Minis- 
ter of Justice, and he held this 
office under different administra- 
tions until the advent of the Libe- 
rals to power in 1847. In July, 
1870, when the Catholic party once 
more gained the ascendancy, the 
Baron d' Anethan obtained the Pre- 
miership, being nominated Presi- 
dent of the Council and Minister 
for Foreign Affairs. His govern- 
ment resigned in December, 1871. 
In November, 1875, he was nomi- 
nated Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary for Bel- 
gium to the Holy See. 

ANGUS, Joseph, D.D., born Jan. 
16, 1816, at Bolam, Northumber- 
land, was educated at King's College, 
Stepney College, and Edinburgh, 
where he graduated in 1836, taking 
the first prizes in nearly all his 
classes. He was appointed Secretary 
of the Baptist Missionary Society 
in 1840, and President of Stepney 
College in 1&49, which college was 
removed to Regent's Park in 1857. 
Dr. Angus, who was for several 
years English Examiner to the 
University of London, and to the 
Indian Civil Service, is the author 
of the " Handbook of the Bible," 
" Handbook of the English Tongue," 
•' English Literature," " Christ our 
Life," and several other works. He 
has also edited Butler's " Analogy 
and Sermons," with notes, and Dr. 
Wayland's "Moral Science." He 
was a member of the New Testament 
Company for the Revision of the 

Scriptures, and a member of the 
first London School Board. 

was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
Feb. 2, 1838, and educated at 
the Newcastle Infirmary, and the 
University of Edinburgh. He 
became private assistant to the 
late Professor Syme, Demonstrator 
of Anatomy in the University of 
Edinburgh, and Surgeon and Lec- 
turer on Surgery to the Edinburgh 
Royal Infirmary. His high repu- 
tation as a practical and operating 
surgeon and teacher of surgery led 
to his appointment in Oct., 1877, 
as Regius Professor of Clinical Sur- 
gery in the University of Edin- 
burgh. He is the author of " The 
Malformations, Diseases, and In- 
juries of the Fingers and Toes, and 
their Surgical Treatment," 1865, 
being the Jacksonian Prize Essay 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of 
London for 1864; "Abstracts of 
Surgical Principles," 1868-70, 2nd 
edit., 1876 ; " Clinical Surgical 
Lectures," 1874-75, reported in the 
Medical Times and British Medi- 
cal Journal; "On the Pathology 
and Operative Treatment of Hip 
Disease/' 1876 ; and numerous con- 
tributions to professional perio- 

ANSDELL, Richabd, R.A., was 
born at Liverpool in 1815, and edu- 
cated at the Bluecoat School of 
that town. Having determined to 
adopt painting as a profession, he 
first distinguished himself by the 
painting of animals and sports of 
the field, with occasionally an out- 
door historical subject. The earli- 
est pictures he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy (1840^ were " Grouse 
Shooting " and " A Galloway Farm, 
the Property of the Marquis of 
Bute." In the following year he 
exhibited " The Earl of Sefton and 
party returning from Shooting." 
In 1842 his "Death of Sir W. 
Lambton at the Battle of Marston 
Moor" attracted notice by its 
spirited treatment. In 1843 ap- 
peared " The Death," a scene in the 

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deer-hunt ; in 1844 " Mary, Queen 
of Scots, returning from the chase 
to Stirling Castle ; " and, in 1845, 
" Fox-hunting in the North," a 
portrait group of Mr. James 
Machell, of Windermere, and his 
family. In 1846 Mr. Ansdell exhi- 
bited for the first time at the 
British Institution, the subject of 
his picture being "The Drover's 
Halt— Isle of Mull in the Dis- 
tance ; " and the same year he sent 
to the Royal Academy " The Stag 
at Bay." In the following year at 
the Academy appeared " The Com- 
bat," a companion to the last 
picture ; and in 1848 " The Battle 
of the Standard." In 1856 Mr. 
Ansdell accompanied Mr. Phillip. 
R.A., to Spain ; and again, in the 
following year, he journeyed there 
alone, making the province of 
Seville his sketching ground. In 
1857 he exhibited "The Water 
Carrier" and "Mules Drinking"; 
in 1858 " The Road to Seville," and 
" The Spanish Shepherd ; " in 1859 
" Isla Mayor — Banks of the Guadal- 
quivir," and " The Spanish Flower 
Seller." In 1860 he made a slight 
diversion to English subjects in 
" The Lost Shepherd " and " Buy a 
Dog, Ma'am ? " ; but in the next 
year he again showed his attach- 
ment to Spanish life and scenery. 
On three occasions Mr. Ansdell re- 
ceived the "Heywood medal" for 
his works exhibited at Manchester ; 
. and a gold medal was awarded to 
* him for pictures in the Paris Exhi- 
bition of 1855—" The Wolf-slayer " 
and "Turning the Drove." He 
was elected A.R.A. June 29, 1861. 
In that year he exhibited " Hunted 
Slaves " and " Old Friends " •, and 
in 1862 "Excelsior," a traveller, 
half buried in the snow, found by 
the monks of St. Bernard. His 
more recent exhibits include: — 
" Goatherds— Bay of Gibraltar," 
1874; "The Intruders," "Quarry- 
ing in the Highlands, Loch Lag- 
gan " ; "A Fete Day : Going to a 
Bull Fight at San Roque, Gibral- 
tar," 1875 ; " After a Spate," " The 

Cattle are in the Corn," 1876 ; " The 
Home of the Red Deer," 1877; 
"Fifty Years Ago": before the 
Salmon Act, 1878; "The Stray 
Lamb," "A Storm in the Glen," 
1879; "The Farm of the Alham- 
bra," 1881 ; " Returning from the 
Fair at Seville," "The Vega of 
Granada : returning from pas- 
ture " ; "A Timid Visitor," " Col- 
lecting Sheep for Clipping in the 
Highlands," "A Warm Corner," 
1882 ; " The Vega of Granada : the 
Alhambra in the distance," " The 
Scare," " Water-carriers of the Al- 
hambra," and " Hunting the Boar," 
1883. Mr. Ansdell was elected a 
Royal Academician in 1870. 

ANTHONY, Henry B., born at 
Coventry, Rhode Island, April 1, 
1815, graduated B.A. at the 
Brown University in 1838. In 
1838 he became editor and pro- 
prietor of the Providence Journal, 
which under his charge came to be 
one of the leading provincial news- 
papers of the United States. He 
was elected Governor of Rhode 
Island in 1849, and again in 1850, 
but he declined a re-election in 
1851. He was chosen a United 
States Senator in 1859, and re- 
elected for each successive sexen- 
nial period, in 1865, 1871, and 1877, 
his term expiring in 1883. He has 
twice been chosen by the Republi- 
cans President pro tempore of the 
Senate, in 1869 and in 1871. 

ANTIGUA, Bishop Coadjutoe 
of. (See Branch, Dr.) 

AOSTA, Duke of. (See Ama- 


ARABI, Ahmed, the leader of 
the military insurrection in Egypt, 
was born of a fellah family, resi- 
dent in a small village in the pro- 
vince of Charkieh, in the Eastern 
portion of Lower Egypt, nearly on 
the borders of the desert. He was 
enlisted in the army during the 
reign of Said Pasha, who initiated 
the system of replacing the foreign 
officers by native Egyptians. Arabi 
was one of those thus selected, and 
he rose rapidly in rank; but the 

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Viceroy was capricious, and one clay 
he had Arabi punished with some 
hundred blows of a stick, and. rele- 
gated him to half -pay. Arabi, who 
had learned to read and write, and 
had compatriots at £zher f the reli- 
gious university of Cairo, went 
thither to study science, and al- 
though he could not complete a 
course which requires about twenty 
years to accomplish, he learnt suf- 
ficient to enable hini to pass for a 
savant among his colleagues in the 
army. Ismail Pasha restored him 
to the army, and from this time 
Arabi was regarded by his Egyptian 
colleagues as a pious and learned 
man, his conduct being, according 
to Mussulman morality, irreproach- 
able. He married the daughter of 
the nurse of El H^mi Pasha, son of 
Abbas Pasha, who had been brought 
up in the Prince's palace : this af- 
forded him somewhat of a com- 
petence. Ihiring the Abyssinian 
campaign he managed to have the 
charge of the transport, and re- 
mained at TOTfv?*"*^"**- to forward the 
convoys. After the campaign he 
was employed in the transport of 
sugar from the Khedive's factories 
in Upper Egypt, and having a 
quarrel with the manager of the 
Khedive's property, he returned to 
Cairo, and was again replaced in 
the army, being at the time lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He became the in- 
timate counsellor of Ali Bey El 
Roubi, who was the means of raising 
Arabi from his obscurity. During 
the years 1876-8 he organised a sort 
of secret society among the fellah 
officers, which was not noticed, in 
consequence of the events that were 
then engaging the attention of the 
Khedive and the State. Some weeks 
previous to the coup d'tfat of Ismail 
Pasha against the European Minis- 
try, several officers, among whom 
were Arabi and El Boubi, went to 
Ali Pasha Moubarek, a fellah of 
Charltieh, and proposed to place 
liini at their head to overthrow the 
iChedive and the European Minis- 
try . AJi Pasha Moubarek, who was 

a member of the Ministry of Wilson 
and Blignieres, related the whole 
to the Khedive, who had an inter- 
view with the society of El Roubi 
and Arabi, and with their aid made 
' the famous revolution which 
brought about the fall of the Euro- 
pean Ministry of 1879. Ismail 
Pasha would doubtless have sup- 
pressed the society had he remained 
a week or a fortnight longer in 
Egvpk At the accession of Tewfik, 
the bulk of the public were yet ig- 
norant of the name of Arabi. In a 
short time afterwards the Khedive 
made him colonel and entrusted 
him with a regiment. Ali Bey El 
Boubi was sent to Mansourah as 
President of the Tribunal of First 
Instance ; but the conspiracy could 
not be destroyed, especially because 
no one in the Government, except 
perhaps the Khedive himself, con- 
sidered that it had any real im- 
portance. At this time commenced 
the intrigues of the ex-Khedive, of 
Halim Pasha, and the Porte, and 
each party endeavoured to get hold 
of the only power that appeared to 
remain in Egypt, that is to say, 
this conspiracy of officers, which 
had drawn to it a large number of 
non-commissioned officers, and even 
of soldiers, by promising them an 
increase of pay, with better clothing 
and rations. The tactics of Arabi 
were to awaken the interest of the 
people in the movement which he 
was preparing, and to which he 
gave the name of " The Awakening 
of the National Party." In Sept. 
1881 Arabi appeared at the head of 
a military and popular revolt, com- 
pelling the Khedive, Tewfik Pasha, 
to dismiss his former Ministry, and 
to convene a sort of Parliament 
called the Assembly of Notabks, 
which met about the beginning of 
1882. The affair of Sept. 8 resulted 
in the overthrow of Eiaz Pasha's 
Administration, which was unpopu- 
lar because it was supposed to be 
too deferential to certain foreign 
interests. Sheriff Pasha, who was 
thereupon appointed Prime Minis- 

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ter, pledged the Khedive to estab- 
lish a Parliamentary Government. 
A manifesto was issued by the 
" National Party " on Dec. 18, 1881, 
containing an exposition of their 
views and purposes. They professed 
loyalty to the Sultan both as Im- 
perial Suzerain and as Caliph of 
the Mussulman community, but 
would never suffer Egypt to be re- 
duced to a Turkish Pashalic, and 
they claimed the guarantee of Eng- 
land and of Europe for the adminis- 
trative independence of Egypt. 
They also professed loyalty to the 
Khedive, but would not acquiesce 
in a despotic rule, and they insisted 
upon his promise to govern by the 
advice of a representative assembly. 
At the beginning of 1882 the Khe- 
dive and Sheriff Pasha called to- 
gether the Assembly of Notables. 
Arabi was then appointed Under- 
Secretary for the War Department, 
and was raised to the rank of Pasha. 
The Assembly of Notables wanted 
to vote the budget. This claim was 
refused by the Khedive's Govern- 
ment on account of the financial 
Controllers, and hence arose the 
Egyptian crisis. Arabi and the 
army had, however, a monopoly of 
power. The Khedive was forced to 
accept a National Ministry, and the 
Organic Law, adopted in defiance of 
the protests of the Controllers, 
placed the Budget in the hands of 
the Notables, thus subverting the 
authority of England and Prance 
embodied in the Control. Arabi, 
now substantially Dictator, and 
supported almost undisguisedly by 
the Sultan, proceeded to more 
daring measures. Eventually the 
English Government felt obliged to 
intervene by armed force. Then 
followed the bombardment of Alex- 
andria by the fleet under the com- 
mand of Sir Beauchamp Seymour 
(July 11, 1882), and subsequently 
(Sept. 13), the decisive defeat of 
Arabi and his army at Tel-el-Kebir 
by the British troops under Sir 
Garnet Wolseley. Arabi and his 
lieutenant, Toulba Pasha, fled to 

Cairo, where they surrendered to 
General Drury Lowe. It was in- 
tended at first to charge Arabi with 
murder and incendiarism, but he 
was actually brought to trial on the 
simple charge of rebellion (Dec. 3). 
He pleaded guilty, and was con- 
demned to death, but immediately 
afterwards the sentence was com- 
muted by the Khedive to perpetual 
exile from Egypt and its depen- 
dencies. Ceylon having been chosen 
as the place of banishment, Arabi, 
with other leaders in the rebellion, 
were landed at Colombo, Jan. 16, 

ARAGO, Etibnnb, journalist, 
brother of the late celebrated astro- 
nomer, was born at Perpignan, 
Feb. 9, 1802, studied at the College 
of Sorreze, and held, during the 
Restoration, an appointment in the 
Polytechnic School, which he re- 
signed to enter upon a literary 
career. He has written many vaude- 
villes and melodramas ; and estab- 
lished two opposition journals, La 
Lorgnette and Le Figaro ; the latter 
in conjunction with M. Maurice 
Alhoy. In 1829 he became director 
of the Theatre de Vaudeville, the 
doors of which he closed July 27, 
1830, the day after the publication 
of the ordonnances of Charles X. ; 
thus being one of the first to give 
the signal for the Revolution of 
July. Afterwards, with a number 
of his friends, he took part in the 
insurrectionary movements of June 
and April, 1834; but it was his 
good fortune to be either unnoticed 
or forgotten, and he was not in- 
cluded among the accused who ex- 
piated their imprudence in St. 
Pelagie. After the Revolution of 
1848 he opposed the policy of Louis 
Napoleon, and signed the act of 
accusation against the President 
and his ministers on the occasion of 
the siege of Rome. Having quitted 
France, he was in his absence con- 
demned, in default, to transporta- 
tion, by the High Court of Ver- 
sailles, in 1849, and resided in Eng- 
land, Holland, Geneva, and Turin j 

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at which latter place he occupied 
himself with literary studies and 
editing his " Souvenirs." While at 
the head of the Post-office, M . Arago 
introduced the cheap postal stamp 
system into Prance, and while in 
exile in Belgium, he organised a 
charitable society for poor emi- 
grants. In 1859 he returned to 
France. At the time of* the war 
with Germany he was Mayor of 
Paris, which office he resigned in 
Nov. 1870, when he was offered the 
post of Commissioner-General of 
the Paris Mint, but he declined to 
accept that sinecure. On Feb. 8, 
1871, he was returned to the Na- 
tional Assembly for the department 
of the Pyrenees Orientales, but he 
resigned the seat on the plea of old 
age. At this period he was sent on 
an extraordinary mission to Italy, 
the object of which did not trans- 
pire. After this ne withdrew from 
public life. He was appointed 
archivist to the ^cole des Beaux 
Arts in 1878. 

ARAGO, PaAncois Victor Em- 
manuel, a nephew of Etienne 
Arago, horn at Paris, June 6, 1812. 
Adopting th« profession of letters, 
he brought out a volume of poems 
and several farces ; but at the age 
of twenty-five he renounced litera- 
ture for the bar, and was admitted 
an advocate. He espoused the 
cause of the Republicans, and, in 
1839, was engaged in the defence of 
Martin-Bernard and Barbes. In 
the events of February, 1848, he 
took an active part; and on the 
21th of that month, forcing his way 
into the Chamber of Deputies, he 
protested against the Begency, and 
demanded the deposition of the 
Orleans family. Immediately after- 
wards he was sent, with the title of 
Commissary-General of the Repub- 
lic, to Lyons, and became extremely 
unpopular, in consequence of his 
taking, from a fund of 500,000 francs 
intended for the National Bank of 
Lyons, the sum necessary for the 
support of the national workshops. 
This summary measure, however, 

saved the city, and M. Arago's con 
duct was formally approved by a 
vote of the Constituent Assembly in 
1849. The department of the Pyre- 
nees Orientales now elected him to 
the Assembly, but he rarely made 
his appearance there ; and soon 
afterwards the Executive Commis- 
sion sent him as Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to Berlin, where he used 
his influence in favour of the Poles 
of the grand-duchy of Posen, and 
succeeded in procuring the libera- 
tion of General Mierolawski. On 
receipt of the news of the election 
of the 10th December, he sent in his 
resignation, and hastened to Paris. 
M. Arago, who ordinarily voted 
with the " Mountain " in the Legis- 
lative Assembly, protested ener- 
getically against the expedition to 
Borne. After the coup d'ftai of 
Dec. 2, 1852, he withdrew for some 
years from political life, but con- 
tinued his practice at the bar. In 
1869 he was returned to the Legis- 
lative Assembly for the 8th circon- 
scription of the Seine. After the 
fall of the Empire in 1870, he took 
a prominent part in public affairs ; 
and, on M. Cre'mieux being sent to 
Tours, just before the siege, to 
represent the Government of the 
National Defence, he succeeded 
that statesman at Paris as Minister 
of Justice. On Feb. 6, 1871, he was 
nominated Minister of the Interior, 
and, ad interim, Minister of War, in 
the place of M. Gambetta. Two 
days later he was returned to the 
National Assembly as one of the 
representatives of the Pyrenees 
Orientales ; and on the 19th of the 
same month he resigned the office of 
Minister of the Interior, which was 
conferred on M. Ernest Picard. M. 
Arago was elected, in January, 1876, 
a senator for the department of tho 
Pyrenees Orientales. His term of 
office expired in 1882. 

ARCH, Joseph, leader of the 
agricultural labourers' movement, 
was born at Barf ord, Warwickshire, 
Nov. 10, 1826. His father was a 
labourer, and he himself had, from 

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an early age, to work for his living 
in the fields. He married the 
daughter of a mechanic, and at her 
suggestion he added to his slender 
stock of book learning. He used 
often to sit up late at night reading 
books, whilst smoking his pipe by 
the kitchen fire. In this way he 
contrived to acquire some know- 
ledge of logic, mensuration, and 
surveying. He likewise perused a 
large number of religious works, 
and for some years he occupied a 
good deal of his spare time in 
preaching among the Primitive 
Methodists. When the movement 
arose among the agricultural la- 
bourers, he became its recognised 
leader. In 1872 he founded the 
National Agricultural Labourers' 
Union, of which he became 
president. He went through the 
principal agricultural districts of 
England, addressing crowded meet- 
ings of the labouring classes, and' 
afterwards he visited Canada to 
inquire into the questions of labour 
and emigration. A more detailed 
account of Joseph Arch's career 
will be found in "The English 
Peasantry," by Mr. Francis George 
Heath, 1874. 

ARCHER, James, was born in 
Edinburgh, June 10, 1824, and edu- 
cated at the High School in that city. 
He was appointed an Associate of 
the Royal Scottish Academy in 
1850, and a full Academician in 
1858. Mr. Archer, who left Scot- 
land for London in 1862, first ex- 
hibited in the Royal Academy a 
cartoon of a design of the Last 
Supper, followed by an oil picture 
of the same the year after. He 
made a series of pictures from the 
"Morte d'Arthur," of which one 
was exhibited in the Royal 
Academy — " The Mystic Sword 
Excalibur." He painted a series 
of pictures of children in costume, 
exhibited in the Royal Academy, 
of which " Maggie, you're Cheat- 
ing " is the chief. He became a 
portrait painter in 1871, exhibiting 
a portrait of Col. Sykes, M.P., from 

which time he painted many por- 
traits, one of the principal being' 
that of Professor Blackie. 

ARCHIBALD, The Hon. Adajcb 
Gboroe, C.M.G., Q.C., P.C., 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Pro- 
vince of Nova Scotia, Dominion of 
Canada, was born at Truro, N.S., 
May 18, 1814. He was educated at 
Pictou Academy, and called to the 
bar in 1839. He became Solicitor- 
General in the government of Nova 
Scotia in 1856, and Attorney- 
General four years later. He was 
a delegate to England in 1857, to 
ascertain the views of the British 
Government on the question of the 
union of the North American Pro- 
vinces. He took an active part in 
the subsequent conferences on that 
subject in Canada, and was present 
in London with the delegation 
which in 1866 arranged the terms 
of Confederation. He was made a 
member of the Canadian Privy 
Council in 1867, and the same year 
served as Secretary of State for the 
Provinces. From May, 1870, until 
May, 1873, he was Lieut.-Governor 
of Manitoba and the North-west 
Territories, and upon resigning that 
position was appointed Judge in 
Equity in his native province. 
Upon the death of the Hon. Joseph 
Howe, he was appointed his suc- 
cessor in the Lieut.-Governorship 
of Nova Scotia, and was created a v 
Companion of the Order of St. 
Michael and St. George. 

ARDITI, Lutgi, a musical com- 
poser, born July 22, 1822, at Cres- 
centino, Piedmont, was educated as 
a violinist at the Conservatoire at 
Milan. After filling the post of 
musical conductor in various places 
in Italy and America, where he re- 
mained ten years, he came to Lon- 
don in 1857, and was appointed 
musical director at Her Majesty's 
Theatre. Whilst in Constantinople, 
he received from the Sultan the 
Order of the Medjidie in acknow- 
ledgment of his talent as a composer. 
In addition to numerous songs 
composed by Signor ArcUti, may 

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be mentioned the opera " La Spia," 
written in New York in I806 ; •• H 
Bacio," written in London ; and 
various pieces for the violin. 

ARGYLL (Duke op), His Grace 
George Douglas Campbell, K.T., 
only surviving son of the seventh 
duke, was born at Ardencaple 
Castle, Dumbartonshire, in 1823, 
and, before he had succeeded his 
father, in April, 1847, had become 
known as an author, politician, and 
public speaker. As Marquis of 
Lome he took an active part in the 
controversy in the Presbyterian 
Church of Scotland relating to 
patronage, and was looked upon by 
Dr. Chalmers as an important and 1 
valuable adherent. As early as j 
18-12 he published a pamphlet , 
which exhibited considerable liter- j 
ary ability, under the title of " A ( 
Letter to the Peers from a Peer's ; 
Son." His brochure, " On the Duty 
and Necessity of Immediate Legis- | 
lative Interposition in behalf of 1 
the Church of Scotland, as deter- 
mined by Considerations of Consti- 
tutional Law/* was an historical I 
view of that Church, particularly ' 
in reference to its constitutional I 
power in ecclesiastical matters. In ' 
the course of the same year he | 
published " A Letter to the Rev. 
Thomas Chalmers, D.D., on the 
Present Position of Church Affairs 
in Scotland, and the Causes which 
have led to it/' In this pamphlet 
he vindicated the right of the 
Church to legislate for itself ; but 
condemned the Free Church move- 
ment then in agitation among cer- 
tain members of the General As- 
sembly ; maintaining the position 
taken up in his "Letter to the 
Peers," and expressing his dissent 
from the extreme view embodied in 
the statement of Dr. Chalmers, 
that " lay patronage and the in- 
tegrity of the spiritual indepen- 
dence of the Church has been 
proved to be, like oil and water, 
immiscible." In 1818 the Duke 
published an essay, critical and 
historical, on the ecclesiastical his- 

tory of Scotland since the Reform- 
ation, entitled '* Presbytery Ex- 
amined." It was a careful expan- 
sion of his earlier writings, and 
was favourably received. His Grace 
was a frequent speaker in the 
House of Peers on such subjects as 
Jewish Emancipation, the Scottish 
Marriage Bill, the Corrupt Prac- 
tices at Elections Bill, the Sugar 
Duties, Foreign Affairs, the Eccle- 
siastical Titles Bill, the Scottish 
Law of Entail, and the Repeal of 
the Paper Duties. During the ad- 
ministration of Lord John Russell 
he gave the government a general 
support, at the same time identify- 
ing his political views with those 
of the Liberal Conservatives. His 
Grace actively interested himself 
in all questions affecting Scottish 
interests brought before the Legis- 
lature, especially in the affairs of 
the Church of Scotland. In 1851 
he was elected Chancellor of the 
University of St. Andrews. In 
1852 he accepted office in the Cabi- 
net of the Earl of Aberdeen, as 
Lord Privy Seal. On the brenking- 
up of that ministry, in February, 
1855, in consequence of the seces- 
sion of Lord John Russell, and the 
appointment of Mr. Roebuck's 
Committee of Inquiry into the 
state of the British army before 
Sebastopol, his Grace retained the 
same office under the Premiership 
of Lord Palmerston. In the latter 
part of 1855 he resigned the Privy 
Seal, and became Postmaster- 
General. In Lord Palmerston's 
Cabinet of 1859 the Duke resumed 
the office of Lord Privy Seal, which 
he exchanged for that of Post- 
master-General on Lord Elgin 
being sent, in I860, on his second 
special mission to China. He was 
re-appointed Lord Privy Seal in 
1860, was elected Rector of the 
University of Glasgow in Nov. 
1854; presided over the twenty- 
fifth annual meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement 
of Science, held at Glasgow, in 
Sept. 1855 j and was elected Presi- 

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dent of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh in 1861. On the formation 
of Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet, in Dec. 
1868, he was appointed Secretary 
of State for India, and he held that 
position till the downfall of the 
Liberal Government in Feb. 1874. 
In the ensuing session he warmly 
supported the measure introduced 
and carried by the Conservative 
Government for the transfer from 
individuals to congregations of the 
patronage in the Church of Scot- 
land. He was appointed Lord 
Privy Seal for the third time in 
May, 1880, on Mr. Gladstone re- 
turning to power. That post he 
held till April, 1881, when he re- 
signed it, in consequence of a dif- 
ference with his colleagues in the 
Cabinet concerning some of the 
provisions of the Irish Land Bill. 
In announcing the circumstance to 
the House of Lords (April 8) he 
stated that in consequence of cer- 
tain provisions of the Bill which, 
in his view, put the ownership of 
Irish property in commission and 
abeyance, he had felt obliged to 
resign his office in the Government, 
and his resignation had been accept- 
ed by Her Majesty. His Grace is 
Hereditary Master of the Queen's 
Household in Scotland, Chancellor 
of the University of St. Andrews, 
a Trustee of the British Museum, 
and Hereditary Sheriff and Lord- 
Lieutenant of Argyllshire. In 1866 
His Grace published " The Reign of 
Law," which has passed through 
numerous editions ; in 1869 " Prim- 
eval Man ; an Examination of some 
recent speculations j" in 1870 a 
small work on the History and 
Antiquities of Iona, of which island 
his Grace is proprietor j in 1874 
"The Patronage Act of 1874, all 
that was asked in 1843, being a 
Reply to Mr. Taylor Innes;" in 
1877 (for the Cobden Club) obser- 
vations "On the important ques- 
tion involved in the relation of 
Landlord and Tenant ;" and in 
1879 "The Eastern Question, from 
the Treaty of Paris to the Treaty 

of Berlin, and to the second Afghan 
War," 2 vols. He married first, in 
1844, the eldest daughter of the 
second Duke of Sutherland (she 
died May 25, 1878) ; and secondly, 
in 1881, Amelia Maria, eldest 
daughter of Dr. Claughton, Bishop 
of St. Alban's, and widow of Colonel 
Augustus Henry Archibald Anson. 
His Grace's eldest son, the Marquis 
of Lome, married in 1871, the Prin- 
cess Louise. (See Lorne.) 

ARMAGH, Abchbi8HOP of. (See 

ARMITAGE, Edward, R.A., an 
historical and mural painter, de- 
scended from an ancient Yorkshire 
family; was born in London May 
20, 1817, and educated in France 
and Germany. In 1837 he entered 
the studio of Paul Delaroche at 
Paris, and he was selected by that 
master to assist him in the decora- 
tion of the "Hemicycle" at the 
School of Fine Arts. Three years 
later Mr. Armitage sent a large 
picture of " Prometheus Bound " 
to the Paris Exhibition of Living 
Painters. To the Cartoon Exhibi- 
tion at Westminster Hall in the 
following year he contributed "The 
Landing of Julius Caesar in Britain," 
which took a first-class prize of .£300. 
It was reported that Delaroche had 
worked upon this cartoon, and con- 
sequently the premium awarded to 
it by the Royal Commissioners was 
withheld until a second drawing 
should be executed in this country. 
The question was speedily decided 
in the young painter's favour. In 
1844 he was a contributor to the 
Westminster Hall Exhibition of 
works in fresco, but not with 
similar success, receiving no prize. 
At the third competition in 1845 he 
was more successful, taking a JB200 
prize for a cartoon and coloured 
design, " The Spirit of Religion j" 
and, finally, in 1847, another first 
prize of J6500 was awarded to him 
for an oil picture, " The Battle of 
Meanee," now the property of the 
Queen. After this Mr. Armitage 
went to Rome, where he remained 

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one year. I>uxiii^ tJie war with 
[Russia be visited the Crimea, and 
tie result was two pictures, " The 
Heavy Cavalry Charge of Bala- 
Mava/* and "The Stand of the 
Ooards at Inkermann." These pic- 
tures were painted for Messrs. 
Gambart & Co., and were not ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy. In 
185S be produced a colossal ttguxe, 
entitled - Retribution," allegorical 
of the suppression and punishment 
of the Indian mutiny. I» the Upper 
^Waiting Hall of the Palace of West- 
:minster be has executed twoeipe- 
Omental frescoes, "The T*janve« 
with its Tributaries/' and " The 
Death of Maranon ;*' and in the 
Catholic Church of St . J ohJi at 
Islington, he painted "St. ****** 
andMs early toUowers hef ^orePope 
Innocent HI./' and decorated the 
apse with noble figures of Christ 
and the Twelve Apostles. In 18*>» 
he was engaged upon the mono- 
chrome series of ^^^T^^SELS 
University Hall, Gordon Square 
_a memorial to the !*** <** b * 
Ttobmson. The tt™? * 1 ** ™^^? 
feet long, and the ^T^*^; 
tour in number, are somewhat over 

AJi A. in 1867, KA. m Uec. 1872 ; 
and was appointed ***~^ 

LecturcronVMBtmgtothe Boyal 

leaden* in 1875. To the annual 
SSStions of that body he has 
Sen V regular contributor since 
ilS. Thi following is a Ust of 
ke pictures be baa exhibited J* 
5U Arademv : — " Henry VIH. and 

ofKelaon " in 1848 ; " Waitmg for 
a Customer/' and-' An In^t^ » 

the History of ^°^"^L 
,vT iftis- "The Socialists, and 
™TbeViion of Bzeldd " in 1850 , 
« S^«m " in 1851 ; " Hagar "and 
« TneThnmea and ite Tributaries," 

^"iSnri^ "The 

Bavine at Inkermann," and " Por- 
trait of Mrs. B. A." in 1856; 
"Souvenir of Scutari" in 1857; 
" Eetribution " in 1858 j " St. Francis 
and his early followers before Pope 
Innocent III./' design for fresco in 
Catholic Church of St. John, Is- 
lington, in 1859; "The Mother of 
Moses hiding after having exposed 
her child on the river's brink " and 
" Christ and the Apostles/' design 
for fresco in Catholic Church of 
St. John, Islington, in 1860 ; " Pha- 
raoh's Daughter" in 1861; "The 
Burial of a Christian Martyr in the 
time of Nero" in 1863; "Ahab 
and Jezebel" in 1864; "Esther's 
Banquet" in 1865 ; " The Bemorse 
of Judas," and "The Parents of 
Christ seeking Him" in 1866; 
" Savonarola and Lorenzo the Mag- 
nificent," "Christ Healing the 
Sick," and " Head of an Apostle " 
in 1867 ; "Herod's Birthday Feast" 
in 1868 ; " Hero lighting the Bea- 
con," " The Sick Chameleon," and 
•' Christ calling the Apostles James 
and John" in 1869; "Incident 
suggesting to <ZBsop his fable of 
Fortune and the Sleeping Boy," 
" Gethsemane," and " Le fil de la 
bonneVierge — (gossamer threads) " 
in 1870; "Peace: a battlefield of 
the late war, twenty years hence," 
and "A Deputation to Faraday" 
in 1871; "The dawn of the first 
Easter Sunday," " A Dream of Fair 
Women," and a picture " In me- 
mory of the great Fire at Chicago " 
in 1872; "Christ's Reproof to the 
Pharisees," and "Simplex mundi- 
tiis" in 1873; "St. John taking 
the Virgin to his own home after 
the Crucifixion " in 1874 ; " Julian 
the Apostate presiding at a Confer- 
ence of Sectarians " in 1875 ; " The 
Hymn of the uast Supper," and 
" Phryne " in 1876 ; " Serf Eman- 
cipation : an Anglo-Saxon noble on 
his death-bed gives freedom to hia 
slaves " in 1877 ; " After an Entomo- 
logical Sale: 'beati possidentes/ " 
"The Cities of the Plain," "The 
Mother of Moses," and "Pygma- 
lion's Galatea" in 1878; "The 

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Woman taken in Adultery " in 
1879. Mr. Armitage spent the 
winter of 1879-80 in Algeria, and 
made numerous studies, but did 
not exhibit at the Royal Academy 
in the following spring. In 1881 
he exhibited a large " Samson and 
the Lion/' and an altar-piece, in 
compartments, -representing the 
" Acts of Mercy." In 1882 he ex- 
hibited " The Meeting of St. Francis 
and St. Dominic amongst the 
Ruins of Ancient Rome/' "One 
of Raffaelle's Models," and " Sea 
Urchins;" and in 1883, "A Real 
Centenarian : portrait of Miss W., 
aged 101 years and 3 months." Mr. 
Armitage was always fond of aquatic 
sports, both rowing and sailing. He 
now possesses a yacht, and is legally 
qualified to command her, having 
passed the Board of Trade examina- 
tion, and obtained a Master's certi- 

ARMSTEAD, Hknry Hugh, 
R.A., sculptor, was born in London, 
June 18, 1823, and received his artis- 
tic education at the School of Design, 
Somerset House, Leigh's School, 
Maddox Street, Mr. Carey's School, 
and the Royal Academy. Among 
his masters were Mr. McManus, 
Mr. Herbert, R. A., Mr. Bailey, R.A., 
Mr. Leigh, and Mr. Carey. As a 
designer, modeller, and chaser for 
silver, gold, and jewellery, and a 
draughtsman on wood, he has ex- 
ecuted a large number of works. 
Among those in silver, the most 
important are the " Charles Kean 
Testimonial," the "St. George's 
Vase," " Doncaster Race plate," the 
"Tennyson Vase" (Silver Medal 
obtained for that and other works 
in Paris, 1855), and the " Packing- 
ton Shield." His last important 
work in silver (for which the Medal 
from the 1SG2 Exhibition was ob- 
tained) was the " Outram Shield," 
always on view at the South Ken- 
sington Museum. His works, in 
marble, bronze, stone, and wood in- 
clude the South and East sides of the 
podium of the •' Albert Memorial," 
Hyde Park, representing the musi- 

cians and painters of the Italian, 
German, French, and English 
Schools, and some of the greatest 
poets. There are also four large 
bronze figures on the Albert Memo- 
rial by Mr. Armstead, vit. Che- 
mistry, Astronomy, Medicine, and 
Rhetoric. He also designed the 
external sculptural decorations of 
the new Colonial Offices — reliefs of 
Government, Europe, Asia, Africa, 
America, Australasia, and Educa- 
tion, statues of Earl Grey, Lord 
Lytton, Duke of Newcastle, Earl 
of Derby, Lord Ripon, Sir W. 
Molesworth, Lord Glenelg, and also 
reliefs on the facade of Truth, For- 
titude, Temperance, and Obedi- 
ence. Mr. Armstead designed the 
whole of the carved oak panels 
(beneath Dyce's frescoes) in Her 
Majesty's Robing Room in New 
Palace, Westminster, illustrating 
the life of King Arthur, and the 
history of Sir Galahad; also the 
external sculpture of Eatington 
Park, Warwickshire, the large 
Fountain in the Fore Court of 
King's College, Cambridge, the 
Marble Reredos of the "Entomb- 
ment of our Lord," at Hythe 
Church, Kent, and other works, 
including the effigy of the late 
Bishop of Winchester, in Win- 
chester Cathedral. Mr. Armstead 
was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy, Jan. 16, 1875, and 
an Academician, Dec. 18, 1879. 

ARMSTRONG, Sir Alexander, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D., is a son of 
the late Mr. A. Armstrong, of 
Crahan, co. Fermanagh, Ireland. 
He was educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, and at the University of 
Edinburgh, where he graduated. 
Having entered the medical depart- 
ment of the Royal Navy in 18 *2, he 
served in various parts of the 
world, and for five years continu- 
ously in the Arctic regions. He 
was present in the " Investigator " 
at the discovery of the North- West 
passage. During the Russian war 
he served in the Baltic, was present 
at the bombardment of Sweaborg, 

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and also in two night attacks with I 
a flotilla of rockeVboats, for which I 
be vaa gazetted. He lias been ' 
Deputy Inspector-General of the i 
Mediterranean fleet and the naval | 
hospitals at Malta, Haalar, and 
Chatham ; and he was promoted to I 
be Inspector-General for special I 
services in 1866. Three years later ! 
he became Director-General of the I 
Medical Department of the Navy, 
which office he resigned in 1880. 
He was created a Knight Com- 
mander of the Order of the Bath in 
1871. Sir Alexander Armstrong 
baa received the Arctic and Baltic 
medals ; also Sir Gilbert Blane's 
gold medal. He is an honorary 
physician to the Qneen and the 
Prince of Wales. He is the author 
of " A Personal Narrative of the 
IHscovery of the North- West Pas- 
sage/* 1837 j and " Observations on 
Naval Hygiene and Scurvy, more 
particularly as the latter appeared 
during a Polar Voyage," 1858. 

AKMSTRONG, Geobge Fhancis, 
M.A., born in the county of Dublin, 
May 5, 1845, is the third surviving 
son of the late Mr. E. J. Armstrong, 
and Jane, daughter of the late Bev. 
Henry Savage, of Glastry, in the 
Ardes, co. Down. He received his 
early education partly in Dublin 
and partly in Jersey. In 1862 he 
made a long pedestrian tour in 
France with his elder brother, the 
poet, Edmund Armstrong. In the 
same year he obtained a civil ap- 

E>intment in Dublin, and matricu- 
ted in Dublin University. In 
1864 he won the First Composition 
Prize and the Medal for Oratory in 
the University Philosophical So- 
ciety. In 1865 he gained the Vice- 
Chancellor's Prize for a poem on the 
subject of " Circassia " ; and in the 
same year, on the decease of his 
brother Edmund, he was elected his 
mecesaor in the Presidential Chair 
of the Philosophical Society, and he 
brought out the First Edition of 
his brother's "Poems." In 1866 
he won the Gold Medal for Compo- 
ation in the Historical Society. In 

1867 he was re-elected President of 
the Philosophical Society, and won 
its Gold Medal for Essay Writing. 
In 1869 he published a volume of 
" Poems, Lyrical and Dramatic." 
In 1870 appeared " Ugone : a Tra- 
gedy." In 1871 he was appointed 
Professor of History and English 
Literature in Queen's College, Cork . 
and a Professor of the Queen's 
University in Ireland ; and the 
next year he was presented with 
the degree of M.A. by Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in recognition of his 
" high literary character and at- 
tainments." In 1872 he published 
" King Saul " (the first part of the 
"Tragedy of Israel"), and new 
editions of "Poems, Lyrical and 
Dramatic," and " Ugone." In 
1874 these were followed by " King 
David " (the second part of the 
" Tragedy of Israel "), and in 1876 
by "King Solomon," which com- 
pleted the Trilogy. In 1877 he pub- 
lished '• The Life and Letters " of 
his brother Edmund John, together 
with a volume of his " Essays," 
and a new and enlarged edition of 
his "Poetical Works." In 1870 
Mr. Armstrong married Marie 
Elizabeth, younger daughter of the 
late Rev. John Wrixon. In 1882 
he was presented with the degree 
of Doctor of Literature, honoris 
causft, by the Queen's University, 
and was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal University of Ireland; and 
in the spring of the same year he 
published a new volume of poems, 
under the title of " A Garland 
from Greece." 

ARMSTRONG, Sir William 
son of the late Mr. William Arm- 
strong, a merchant and alderman 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by the 
daughter of Mr. William Potter, 
formerly of Walbottle Hall, North- 
umberland, was born in 1810. He 
was educated at the school of 
Bishop Auckland, and afterwards 
articled to an eminent solicitor 
at Newcastle, who subsequently 
adopted him as a partner; but a 

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strong bent for scientific pursuits 
eventually diverted him from the 
law. Early in life he commenced 
investigations on the subject of 
electricity, which resulted in the 
invention of the hydro-electric 
machine, the most powerful means 
of developing frictional electricity 
yet devised. For this he was 
elected, whilst a very young man, 
a Fellow of the Roval Society. He 
then invented the hydraulic crane, 
and, between 1845 and 1850, the 
" accumulator," by which an arti- 
ficial head is substituted for the 
natural head gained only by alti- 
tude ; and extended the application 
of hydraulic power to noists of 
every kind, machines for opening 
and closing dock gates and spring 
bridges, capstans, turntables, wag- 
gon-lifts, and a variety of other 
purposes. For the manufacture of 
this machinery he and a small 
circle of friends founded the Els- 
wick Engine Works, near Newcastle. 
There, in December, 1854, he con- 
structed the rifled ordnance gun 
that bears his name. In 1858 the 
Rifle Cannon Committee recom- 
mended the adoption of the Arm- 
strong gun for special service in 
the field, and Mr. Armstrong, on 
presenting his patents to the 
Government, was knighted, made a 
C.B., and appointed Engineer of 
Bifled Ordnance, with a salary of 
JB2000 a year. Between the years 
1858 and 1870 the Armstrong gun 
and the position of Sir W. G. Arm- 
strong in reference to the Govern- 
ment underwent many changes ; 
but the leading feature of the gun, 
whether rifled or smooth, muzzle- 
loading or breech-loading, is in the 
coiling of one wrought-iron tube 
over another until a sufficient thick- 
ness is built up. The Armstrong 
gun has been largely adopted by 
foreign Governments. Sir William 
Armstrong extended the system to 
guns of all sizes, from the 6-pounder 
to the 600-pounder, weighing up- 
wards of 20 tons, and within three 
years introduced three thousand 

guns into the service. The Com- 
mittee of Ordnance of the House of 
Commons, in their report, July, 
1863, state that they "have had 
no practical evidence before them 
that even at this moment any other 
system of constructing rifled ord- 
nance exists which can be compared 
to that of Sir W. Armstrong." In 
February, 1863, Sir William re- 
signed his appointment, and re- 
joined the Elswick manufacturing 
company. In the same year he acted 
as President of the British Associa- 
tion meeting held at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. In that capacity he drew 
attention to the gradual lessening 
of our supply of coal, and the pro- 
bability of actual exhaustion at 
some future time. The discussion 
suggested by this important address 
led to the appointment of a Royal 
Commission to inquire into all the 
circumstances connected with our 
national coal supply, and he was 
nominated a member of this Com- 
mission. He received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge in 1862, and the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. from the 
University of Oxford in 1870. Sir 
William is a Knight Commander of 
the Danish Order of the Dannebrog, 
of the Austrian Order of Francis 
Joseph, and of the Brazilian Order 
of the Rose. He was nominated a 
Grand Officer of the Italian Order 
of SS. Maurice and Lazarus in 1876. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong has taken an 
active part in the inquiries concern- 
ing the operation of the Patent 
Laws, he being very hostile to them 
in their present forms. He has 
been President of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers, and also of 
the Newcastle Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society. 

ARNASON, Jon, the son of a 
Lutheran clergyman, was born at 
Hof, on the northern coast of Ice- 
land, Aug. 17, 1819. Having lost 
his father in early boyhood, he was 
indebted to his mother for elemen- 
tary instruction. After completing 
his education at the college of Bes- 

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Kstad.then the only school in the 
island, he became private tutor in 
the femily of the late Seveinbjdrn 
Egibaon, the rector of the college. 
Arnsson devoted much time to the 
study of the history and literature 
of Iceland, and made himself 
thorough master of the classical 
tongues. In 1849 he was appointed 
keeper of the horary at Reykjavik, 
and, in 1S56, Secretary to the Bishop 
of Iceland. He has published 
several biographical works, includ- 
ing the life of his friend, Dr. 
£gilsson. In conjunction with M. 
Qrimson he edited a small collec- 
tion of Icelandic Fairy Tales and 
Adventures, entitled " Islenzk JEnn- 
tyri." English translations of a 
number of these quaint stories will 
be found in the appendix to Syming- 
ton's " Pen and Pencil Sketches of 
Faroe and Iceland," 1862. The 
work on which his fame chiefly 
rests is derived from the folk-lore 
of Iceland, and entitled " Icelandic 
Popular Tales and Adventures" 
(Leipsig, 1862-4). An English ver- 
sion, by G. E. J. Powell and E. 
Magnusson, of some of these tales 
appeared in 1864, under the title of 
«« Icelandic Legends." 

ARNOLD, Abthus, M.P., third 
son of Robert Coles Arnold, J. P., 
of Whartons, Framfield, Sussex, 
and Heath House, Maidstone, was 
born May 28, 1833. On the passing 
of the Public Works (Manufactur- 
ing Districts) Act, 1863, to meet the 
necessities of the cotton famine, 
Mr. Arnold was appointed Assis- 
tant-€ommifl3ioner, and in that 
capacity resided in Lancashire till 
1866, during which time he wrote 
"The History of the Cotton Fa- 
mine," of which the original edition 
was published in 1864, followed by 
a cheaper one in 1865. On the 
termination of the cotton famine, 
Mr. Arnold retired from the dis- 
trict, having received the thanks 
of the Poor Law Board, and of a 
large number of the local authori- 
ties for his zealous and efficient 
services. After two years of sub- 

sequent travel in the south and 
east of Europe and in Africa, Mr. 
Arnold returned to England in 
1868, when he published "From 
the Levant," in two vols., contain- 
ing letters descriptive of his tour. 
He then became the first editor of 
the Echo, a journal which, under 
his direction and control, attained 
an enormous success and circula- 
tion. In years anterior to those to 
which we have alluded, Mr. Arnold 
wrote two novels, one of which 
was published under the name of 
« Balph ; or, St. Sepulchre's and 
St. Stephen's," the other being 
entitled " Hever Court/' Mr. Ar- 
nold married, in 1867, Amelia Eliza- 
beth, only daughter of Captain 
Hyde, late 96th Begiment, of 
Castle Hyde, county Cork. In 1873, 
the King of Greece conferred the 
Golden Cross of the Order- of the 
Redeemer upon Mr. Arnold, with 
special reference to his work, " From 
the Levant." In the same year, 
upon the death of Mr. Baring, Mr. 
Arnold became a candidate for the 
representation of Huntingdon, 
where there had not been a contest 
for forty years. He was, however, 
defeated by Sir John Karslake. In 
1874, on the death of Mr. Charles 
Gilpin, Mr. Arnold was unanimously 
invited by the Liberal Committee 
of Northampton to become a candi- 
date, but he declined. Mr. Arnold 
resigned his connection with the 
Echo in 1875, and passed a year in 
travelling through Bussia and 
Persia. The notes of this journey 
appeared in 1877 under the title of 
" Through Persia by Caravan." In 
1879-80,Mr. Arnold issued two works; 
one entitled "Social Politics," a 
collection of some of his contribu- 
tions to monthly reviews, and the 
other, " Free Land," an exposition 
of his views upon reform of the 
lawB relating to land. At the 
general election of 1880, he was 
returned to Parliament for Salford. 
In the same year, in succession to 
Sir Charles Dilke, Mr. Arnold was 
elected Chairman of the Greek Corn- 

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mittee, which was actively con- 
cerned in promoting the enlarge- 
ment of the Hellenic kingdom in 
accordance with the suggestions of 
the Treaty of Berlin. In 1882, Mr. 
Arnold proposed in the House of 
Commons resolutions in favour of 
uniformity of franchise throughout 
the United Kingdom, and redistri- 
bution of political power, and upon 
a motion for adjournment, the 
policy of the resolutions was, for 
the first time, sanctioned by a large 

ARNOLD, Edwin, C.S.I., second 
son of Robert Coles Arnold, a magis- 
trate for Sussex, born June 10, 1832, 
was educated at the King's School, 
Rochester, and King's College, 
London, and was elected to a 
scholarship at University College, 
Oxford. In 1852 he obtained the 
Newdigate prize for his English 
poem on the " Feast of Belshazzar," 
and was selected in 1853 to address 
the late Earl of Derby on his instal- 
lation as Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity. He graduated in honours in 
1854. Upon quitting college, he 
was elected Second Master in the 
English Division of King Edward 
the Sixth's School, Birmingham, 
and subsequently appointed Prin- 
cipal of the Government Sanscrit 
College at Poona, in the Bombay 
Presidency, and Fellow of the Uni- 
versity of Bombay, which offices he 
held during the mutiny, and re- 
signed in 1861, after having twice 
received the thanks of the Governor- 
in-Council. He has contributed 
largely to critical and literary jour- 
nals, and is the author of " Griselda, 
a Drama," and " Poems, Narrative 
and Lyrical ; " with some prose 
works, among which are " Educa- 
tion in India," "The Euterpe of 
Herodotus," — a translation from 
the Greek Text, with notes— "The 
Hitopades'a," with vocabulary in 
Sanscrit, English, and Murathi. 
The last two were published in 
India. Mr. Arnold has also pub- 
lished a metrical translation of the 
classical Sanscrit work " Hito- 

pades'a" under the title of "The 
Book of Good Counsels ; " a " His- 
tory of the Administration of India 
under the late Marquis of Dal- 
housie" (1862-4); as well as a 
popular account, with translated 
passages, of " The Poets of Greece." 
Since 1861 he has been upon the 
editorial staff of the Daily Telegraph. 
On behalf of the proprietors of that 
journal, he arranged the first ex- 
pedition of Mr. George Smith to 
Assyria, as well as that of Mr. 
Henry Stanley, who was sent by 
the same journal, in conjunction 
with the New York Herald, to com- 
plete the discoveries of Livingstone 
in Africa, a mission victoriously 
accomplished. He is a Fellow of 
the Royal Asiatic and the Royal 
Geographical Society of London, 
and Honorary Correspondent of 
that of Marseilles. For his share 
in the happy results of Mr. Smith's 
researches he was publicly thanked 
by the Trustees of the British Mu- 
seum. He published in 1874, " Hero 
and Leander," a translation in 
heroic verse, from the Greek of 
Mus8BU8 ; and in the following year 
" The Indian Song of Songs," being 
a metrical paraphrase from the 
Sanscrit of the Gita Govinda of 
Jayadeva. Upon the occasion of 
the proclamation of the Queen as 
Empress of India, on Jan. 1, 1877, 
he was named a Companion of the 
Star of India. In 1879 he produced 
"The Light of Asia," an Epic poem 
upon the Life and Teaching of 
Buddha, which has since passed 
through more than twenty editions 
in England and America. For this 
work the King of Siam decorated 
him with the Order of the White 
Elephant. In 1881, he published a 
volume of oriental verse under the 
title of " Indian Poetry," and he has 
printed several translations from 
the Sanscrit Epic the Mahabharata, 
and in 1883 " Pearls of the Faith, 
or Islam's Rosary ; being the ninety- 
nine beautiful names of Allah, with 
comments in verse." Mr. Arnold 
received the Second Class of the 

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Imperial Order of the Medjidie 

from the Sultan in 1876. 
ARNOLD, The Rxv. Frzdkbicx, 

born at Cheltenham in 1833, gra- 
duated B.A. at Christ Church Ox- 
ford, (2nd Class Classics (Mods.), 
and 1st class Law and Modern His- 
tory.) He was for some time editor 
of the Literary Gazette, and after- 
wards of the Churchman's Family 
Magazine. He is the author of 
"The Public Life of Lord Macau- 
lay;" "Path on Earth to Gates of 
Heaven;" "Christ Church Days/' 
a story in 2 vols. ; " Our Bishops and 
Deans," 2 vols., 1875; and "Turn- 
ing Points in Life," 1882. He has 
also written a " History of Greece," 
and a work on " Oxford and Cam- 
bridge" for the Religious Tract 
Society. Mr. Arnold's " Piccadilly 
Papers " appeared monthly in Lon- 
don Society for many years. He has 
also contributed to the "Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica," and Smith's 
"Dictionary of Christian Bio- 

ABNOLD, Matthew, eldest son 
of the late Rev. Thomas Arnold, 
D.D., head master of Rugby, born 
December 24, 1822, at Laleham, 
near 8taines, where Dr. Arnold 
then resided with his pupils, was 
educated at Winchester, Kugby, 
and Balliol College, Oxford. He 
was elected Scholar in 1840, won the 
Newdigate prize for English verse 
(subject " Cromwell ") in 1813, gra- 
duated in honours in 1844, and was 
elected a Fellow of Oriel College in 
1815. In 1847 the late Lord Lans- 
downe nominated him his private 
secretary, and he acted in that capa- 
city until his marriage in 1851 with 
the daughter of the late Mr. Justice 
Wightman, when he received an 
appointment as one of the Lay In- 
spectors of Schools, under the Com- 
mittee of Council on Education, a 
post which he still holds. In 1848 
the " Strayed Beveller, and other 
Poems," signed "A.," appeared, 
followed in 1853 by "Empedocles 
on Etna, and other Poems," sub- 
sequently acknowledged. la 1854 

he published a volume of poems in 
his own name, consisting of new 
pieces and selections from the two 
previous volumes. This was fol- 
lowed by a second series, when the 
first two volumes were withdrawn 
from circulation. Mr. Arnold, who 
was elected Professor of Poetry at 
Oxford in 1857, published in 1858, 
"Merope," a tragedy after the 
antique, with a preface, in which 
the principles of Greek tragedy are 
discussed, and in 1861, three Lec- 
tures "On Translating Homer," 
which he had delivered before the 
University of Oxford, and in which 
he advocated the adoption of the 
English hexameter as the best 
equivalent to the Homeric rhythm. 
In the same year he published the 
records of the educational systems 
of France, Germany, and Holland, 
which he had previously submitted 
to the Government in the shape of 
a Report, having been sent, in 1859- 
60, as Foreign Assistant-Commis- 
sioner to the Commissioners ap- 
pointed to inquire into the state 
of popular education, to obtain 
further information respecting the 
various plans of education adopted 
in those countries. Mr. Arnold, 
who has contributed, both in prose 
and in verse, to periodical litera- 
ture, collected and published in 
1865 some of his prose contribu- 
tions, under the title of " Essays 
in Criticism." Mr. Arnold again 
visited the Continent in 1865 to 
procure for the Royal Commission 
on Middle-Class Education infor- 
mation respecting foreign schools 
for the middle and upper classes, 
and published in 1867 a volume on 
this subject. In the same year he 
published " Lectures on the Study 
of Celtic Literature;" in 1868, 
" New Poems ; " in 1869, a collected 
edition of his poems, and " Culture 
and Anarchy, an Essay in Political 
and Social Criticism ; " in 1870, 
" St. Paul and Protestantism, with 
an essay on Puritanism and the 
Churcb of England;" in 1871, 
" Friendship's Garland ; being the 

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ConverBations,Letters, and Opinions 
of the late Arminius, Baron von 
Thunder-Ten-Tronckh ; " in 1873, 
" Literature and Dogma ; an Essay 
towards a better Apprehension of 
the Bible;" and in 1877 "Last 
EssayB on Church and Religion." 
In 1867 Mr. Arnold ceased to hold 
the Poetry Chair at Oxford ; in 

1869 he received the honorary de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws from the 
University of Edinburgh, and in 

1870 from his own University of 
Oxford. About the year 1876 the 
Order of Commander of the Crown 
of Italy was conferred on him 
by the King of Italy, in acknow- 
ledgment of his care of the young 
Duke of Genoa, who lived in Mr. 
Arnold's family while pursuing his 
studies in England. Mr. Arnold's 
collected poems were re-printed 
in 1877, and again in 1881. He has 
edited selections from Isaiah, and 
from Wordsworth, Byron, Johnson 
and Burke. His latest work is a 
volume published in 1882, bearing 
the title of "Irish Essays and 
Others/' On June 14, 1882, Mr. 
Arnold delivered at Cambridge the 
annual Eede Lecture, his subject 
being " Literature nd Science." 

A KNOTT, James Moncrieff, 
P.E.S.,son of the lateEobert Arnott, 
Esq., of Chapel, in the county of 
Fife, was born in 1794, received his 
education at the High School and 
University of Edinburgh, and there 
entered on the study of his profes- 
sion, which he subsequently pur- 
sued in London, Paris and Vienna. 
In 1817 he settled in London, was 
many years surgeon to the Middle- 
sex Hospital, and was Professor of 
Surgery in King's College, London. 
In 1840 he was appointed one of the 
Council of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, and some years afterwards a 
member of the Court of Examiners 
of that body, of which he has been 
twice President. In 1860 he was 
elected representative of the College 
in the General Council of Medical 
Education and Registration of the 
United Kingdom. These appoint- 

ments he resigned in 1865, when he 
retired to his paternal estate in 
Fifeshire. His chief professional 
contributions were papers read to 
the Royal Medical and Chirurgical 
Society of London, and published 
(eight in number) in their Transac- 
tions. The most valuable was that 
on the " Secondary effects of Inflam- 
mation of the Veins" (1829), in 
which Mr. Arnott first directed at- 
tention to the very important sub- 
ject of Pyaemia. 

ARNOULD, Sir Joseph, eldest 
son of the late Joseph Arnould, 
M.D., of Whitecross, near Walling- 
ford, was born at Camberwell in 
1815, and educated at the Charter 
House, and at Wadham College, 
Oxford, where he gained the New- 
digate prize for English verse in 
1834, and graduated as a first-class 
in classics in 1836. He afterwards 
became Fellow of his college, was 
called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple in 1841, and went the Home 
circuit. For many years he was 
connected with the periodical press, 
and more especially with the Daily 
News. He was appointed a puisne 

i'udge of the Supreme Court of 
Bombay, in 1859, when he received 
the honour of knighthood. In June, 
1862, he was re-appointed, under the 
new Act of Parliament, as Judge of 
the High Court of Judicature. On 
the expiration of his term of office in 
1869, the wealthy natives of Bom- 
bay, to mark the character of Sir 
Joseph Arnould as a judge, espe- 
cially his desire to deal out even- 
handed justice without reference to 
caste or colour, resolved to institute 
a scholarship, which will bear his 
name, in the University of Bombay. 
He is the author of a "Treatise on 
Marine Insurance," and of a "Me- 
moir of Thomas, first Lord Denman, 
formerly Lord Chief Justice of 
England," 2 vols., 1873. 

ARTHUR, Prince. (See Con- 
naught, Duke op.) 

ARTHUR, Chester Allan, 
twenty-first President of the United 
States, was born in Franklin County, 

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Vermont, October 5, 1830. His 
father was a Scotchman, and pastor 
of Baptist churches in Vermont 
and New York. After his gradua- 
tion as BA. from Union College, 
Mr. Arthur studied law and began | 
the practice (1850) in New York | 
City, where he has since resided. 
Originally a Whig, he joined the I 
Republican Party on its formation, ' 
and soon became a prominent leader I 
in New York. At the outbreak of ] < 
the civil war he was entrusted by I 
Gov. Morgan with the arming and [ 
subsisting of the troops raised in i 
New York, and was successively 
made Engineer-in-Chief, Inspector- 
General, and Quartermaster-Oene- | 
ral, equipping and sending to the : 
field sixty-eight regiments of in- I 
fantry, six battalions and ten bat- | 
teries in the space of four months. ) 
In 1871 he was appointed Collector 
of the port of New York City, which 
position he retained until 1878, when 
he was removed by President Hayes. 
When the dissensions arose in the 
Republican Party, Mr. Arthur 
placed himself on what is known as 
the " Stalwart " side. At the Na- 
tional Convention in Chicago in 
1880 the Anti-Stalwart wing was 
successful in preventing the nomi- 
nation of Gen. Grant to the Presi- 
dency, and in securing that of Mr. 
Garfield. Mr. Arthur was then 
nominated as Vice-President in 
order that both wings of the Party 
might be represented on the ticket. 
The Republicans were successful in 
the ensuing election, and the assas- 
sination of President Garfield within 
six months of his inauguration by 
Charles J. Guiteau, raised Mr. 
Arthur to the Presidency, September 
19, 1881. 

ARTHTJB, The Rev. William, 
Wesleyan minister, was born in 
Ireland, 1819, and educated at Hox- 
ton College. In 1839 he went to 
India, where he was engaged for 
some years in missionary work. He 
resided in France from 1816 to 1818, 
since which time he has held the 
office of Secretary to the Methodist 

Missionary Society. For some years 
Mr. Arthur was President of the 
Methodist College at Belfast, which 
office he vacated in 1871. He 
is author of " A Mission to the 
Mysore, with scenes and facts illus- 
trative of India, its People, and its 
Religion" (1847); "The Successful 
Merchant: sketches of the life of 
Mr. Samuel Budgett" (1802)— this 
has been translated into Welsh ; 
" The Tongue of Fire, or True Power 
of Christianity " (1856); "Italy in 
Transition: public scenes and pri- 
vate opinions in the spring of 1860, 
illustrated by official documents 
from the Papal archives of the re- 
volted Legations" (I860); and 
numerous pamphlets. 

ASHLEY, The Hon. Eveltn, 
M.P., is the second surviving son of 
the Earl of Shaftesbury, by his mar- 
riage with Lady Emily Cowper, 
eldest daughter of Peter Leopold, 
fifth Earl Cowper, and was born in 
July, 1836. He was educated at 
Harrow, and graduated M.A. at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1858. 
He was called to the bar at Lin- 
coln's Inn in Trinity term, 1863, and 
joined the Oxford circuit. Mr. 
Ashley, who is a magistrate for 
Dorset and the county Sligo, unsuc- 
cessfully contested the Isle of Wight 
in February, 187 1 ; he was, however, 
elected for Poole in May of the same 
year, and continued to represent 
that borough down to 1880, when he 
was elected for the Isle of Wight. 
Mr. Ashley was formerly private 
secretary to the late Lord Palmer - 
ston, and from 1863 to 1874 he was 
a Treasurer of County Courts. 
When the Liberals returned to 
power in April, 1880, Mr. Ashley 
was appointed Parliamentary Secre- 
tary to the Board of Trade, and in 
May, 1882, he was chosen by Mr. 
Gladstone to succeed Mr. Courtney 
in the office of Under-Secretary of 
State for the Colonies. He is also 
second Church Estates Commis- 
sioner. Mr. Ashley married in 1866 
Sybella Charlotte, daughter of Sir 
Walter Rockliffe Farquhar, bart. 
K 2 

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He is the author of the "Life of 
Henry John Temple, Viscount Pal- 

ASSOLLANT, Jean-Baptiste- 
Alfred, a French author, bom at 
Aubusson Creuse in 1827, entered the 
Normal School in 1847, and quitted 
it in 1850. After acting as Professor 
for some years, he left the university 
and visited the United States. On his 
return to France he contributed to 
the Revue des Deux Mondes an article 
upon " Walker and the Americans ; " 
and published two novels, "Acacia" 
and "Les Butterfly." In 1858 he 
published what he termed une fan- 
taisie ame'ricaine, under the title of 
"Scenes de la Vie des fetats-Unis." 
In 1859 he published " Deux Amis 
en 1792," and "Brancas;" in 1860, 
" La Mort de Roland " and " Histoire 
f antastique du celebre Pierrot ; " in 
1801, " Les Aventures de Karl Brun- 
ner, docteur en thfologie," and 
"Marcomrir, Histoire d'un Etu- 
diant ; " in 1862, " Jean Rosier," and 
" Rose d* Amour." Many of his ro- 
mances appeared in La Presse, Le 
Journal pour Tons, and other pe- 
riodicals. In consequence of the tone 
of some of his articles in the Courrier 
du Dvmanche, that journal was sus- 
pended for two months in August, 
1864, and received a warning in 
March, 1865. M. Assollant has col- 
lected his principal articles under 
the titles "D'Heure en Heure;" 
"VeritS! Verity !" and "Pens^es 
diverses, Impressions intimes, 
Opinions et Paradoxes de Cadet 
Bordiche." He also published two 
interesting pamphlets, "A Ceux qui 
Pensent encore" in 1861, " Ca- 
nonniers, a vos Pieces ! " in 1862, and 
"Rachel," a romance, in 1874. At 
the general election of 1869 he stood 
as a candidate for the fifth circon- 
scription of Paris, but only succeeded 
in polling ninety-three votes. 

ATHABASCA, Bishop of. (See 
Bompas, Dr.) 

ATKINSON, The Rev. John 
Christopher, was born at Gold- 
hanger, in Essex, in 1814, and re- 
reived Ma education at Kelvedonjin 

that county, and at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge (B.A. 1838). He 
was appointed vicar of Danby, in 
the North Riding of Yorkshire, and 
Domestic Chaplain to the late Vis- 
count Downe in 1847, and Chaplain 
to the High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 
1851 . Mr. Atkinson is the author of 
"Walks, Talks, &c, of Two School- 
boys," 1859; "Playhours and Half- 
holidays," I860; "Sketches in 
Natural History," 1861; "Eggs and 
Nests of British Birds," 1861 ; " Stan- 
ton Grange ? or, Life at a Private 
Tutor's," 1864; "A Glossary of the 
Cleveland Dialect," 1868 ; "Lost ; or 
What came of a Slip from Honour 
Bright," 1869 ; besides many papers 
on archaeological and philological 
subjects in the "Proceedings" of 
various learned societies. For some 
time he was engaged on " The His- 
tory of Cleveland, Ancient and 
Modern," partly published, and he 
has since edited the Chartularies of 
Whitby Abbey, in two volumes, for 
the Surtees Society, and is at pre- 
sent occupied with the Chartulary 
of Grevaulx Abbey, for the same 
series. His last work has been " A 
Handbook of Ancient Whitby and 
its Abbey," just published. 

ATLAY, The Right Rev. Jams, 
D.D., Bishop of Hereford, was born 
at Wakerley, Northamptonshire, in 
1817, and after a preliminary train- 
ing at Grantham and Oakham 
Schools, entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he obtained a 
fellowship. He was vicar of Mad- 
ingley, near Cambridge, from 1846 
to 1852 ; Queen's Preacher at the 
Chapel Royal, Whitehall, from 1856 
to 1858. He occupied the position 
of senior tutor of his college at the 
time he was elected to the vicarage 
out of 38 candidates, by the trustees 
of the vicarage, who are 25 in 
number. This was in 1859, when 
the Rev. Dr. Hook, the former 
vicar of Leeds, was appointed to 
the deanery of Chichester. Dr. 
Atlay was appointed a canon of 
Ripon in 1861; and in 1868 was 
nominated by the Crown to the aee^ 

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of Hereford, in succession to Dr. 
Hampden. He married in 1859 
Frances Turner, youngest daughter 
of Major William Martin, of the 
.Bengal army. 

AUCKLAND, Bishop of. (See 

Edke Ajuulxd Gaston, Due d', a 
French politician, born in 1818. 
His father, the Comte d'Audiffret, 
under the Restoration, was Director 
of Customs, Director of the National 
Debt, Councillor of State, and after- 
wards Receiver - General. His 
uncle, the Marquis d'Audiffret, was 
as Peer of France and President of 
the Cour des Comptes. The name 
of d'Audiffret is that of an old 
family of Dauphine, and their 
armorial bearings were to be seen 
in the Crusades. The Comte d'Au- 
diffret, father of the present Duke, 
married the daughter of M. Pas- 
quier, Director-General of the 
Tobacco Manufactories, and brother 
of the Chancellor Pasquier. It is 
from the latter, who died without 
issue, and who had adopted him in 
1841, that the subject of this me- 
moir derives his ducal title. In 
1815 young d'Audiffret, scarcely 22 
years old, entered the Council of 
State as Auditor, and married Made- 
moiselle FonteniHiat, daughter of 
the Receiver-General of the Gi- 
ronde. At this time he aspired to 
a brilliant success in the career 
which the Council of State offered, 
and for which his previous studies, 
the traditions of his family, and 
his position in society well fitted 
him and could lead him to the 
highest position in the State. But 
bitter griefs were in store for him 
to crush his hopes. First there 
was the Revolution of 1848, and 
. then successive family afflictions 
deprired him of his children and 
induced him to wish for a retired 
hie. Shortly afterwards M. d' Au- 
ditor went to live in Normandy on 
An eetate which belonged to him. 
Here he passed 20 years of hw life, 
om^^hagriculture and with 

political studies, in the midst of his 
books, the old library of the d'Au- 
diffret family being one of the most 
complete literary collections which 
any individual could possess. 
Sometimes he abandoned his pur- 
suits to engage in electoral strug- 
gles with the will of a man who 
feels he is an orator and who wishes 
to serve his country on the broadest 
stage. Thus in 1858 he presented 
himself for election to the Council- 
General, and in 1866 and 1869 to 
the Corps Legialatif. On every 
occasion the battle was stoutly con- 
tested. Victorious the first time, 
the candidate was beaten on the 
two other occasions by the efforts of 
official pressure. After the fall of 
the Empire he was elected to the 
National Assembly in the Conserva- 
tive interest by the Department of 
the Orne (Feb. 8, 1871). He voted 
with the Right Centre. He was 
nominated president of the commis- 
sion on purchases, and in this 
capacity acquired sudden renown 
by the masterly way in which he 
encountered in debate M. Rouher, 
the champion of the fallen dynasty. 
By his eloquence he soon acquired 
a great and strong position in the 
Assembly. He was one of the prin- 
cipal originators of the downfall of 
M. Thiers, but he had assumed an 
attitude which would not permit of 
his being included in a Ministry of 
which Bonapartists were members. 
After the check given to the pro- 
posed Monarchical Restoration, the 
Duke, as President of the Right 
Centre, was among those who sup- 
ported the Septennate, and who 
powerfully contributed, in conjunc- 
tion with his brother-in-law, M. 
Casimir Perier, to the solution of 
Feb. 25, 1875. He had always dis- 
tinguished between the Republic 
and Radicalism, and from the mo- 
ment when he saw himself con- 
demned to renounce that Constitu- 
tional Monarchy which had been 
the hope and dream of his life, he 
preferred the Republic. On the 
formation of the Buffet Ministry, 

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he was elected President of the 
National Assembly. On Dec. 9, 
1873, the Due d'Audiffret-Pasquier 
who, a few days previously, had 
joined the Left Centre, was the first 
person elected a Life Senator by 
the Assembly, by a majority amount- 
ing to four-fifths of all the votes 
recorded; In the sitting of March 
13, 1876, he was elected President 
of the Senate. He continued to 
hold that office till Jan. 1879, after 
the Senatorial elections, which gave 
the Republicans a majority in the 
Upper Chamber. On Dec. 26, 1878, 
he was elected to the seat in the 
French Academy lately filled by 
Mgr. Dupanloup. Of the 27 
members present 22 voted for him, 
and 5 abstained from voting. 

AUDLSIO, Guqlielmo, a Pied- 
montese ecclesiastical writer, was 
born at Bra in 1802, and educated 
in the University of Turin. After 
having filled the chair of Professor 
of Philosophy there for four years, 
he was appointed Professor of 
Theology and Canon Law at the 
Royal Academy of Superga. In 
1850 he was admitted into the 
Legal Faculty of the University of 
Rome, where, up to 1872, he was 
Professor of Public and Private 
Jurisprudence, and the Philosophy 
of Right. His work, " Lessons of 
Sacred Eloquence," went through 
five Italian editions and one French 
translation . Another work, " Intro- 
duction to Ecclesiastical Studies," 
was repeated in three Italian 
editions, and three of foreign 
languages (Flemish, French, and 
German). "The Private and Pub- 
lic Bases of the Natural Law " had 
two Italian editions. Another 
work, " On the Moral and Physical 
Education of the Clergy/ ' was 
translated into French. He is also 
author of " The Public Right of the 
Church and of Christian People," 
3 vols.; "The Rational Idea of 
Ecclesiastical Diplomacy ; " " Civil 
and Religious History of the Popes/' 
5 vols. ; " On Political and Religious 
Societies in the 19th Century" 

(Florence, 1876). The venerable 
theologian now resides at Rome. 

AUERSPERG (Pbincb), Adolph 
Wilhelm Daniel, an Austrian 
statesman, son of Prince Wilhelm 
Auersperg, was born July 21, 1821, 
and began life as a soldier, entering 
the service at an early age, and con- 
tinuing in it as a major in the 
Prince Eugene Dragoons up to a 
comparatively recent date. His 
name was definitely struck from the 
Army List only in the spring of 
1870, on his appointment to the 
governorship of Salzburg. The 
Minister's political career com- 
menced in February, 1867, when he 
was returned as member of the 
Bohemian Diet by the landed inte- 
rest of that province. Ten months 
later, on Count Hartig's resigna- 
tion, he was appointed President of 
the Bohemian Diet (Oberstland 
Marschall), continuing in that office 
till 1870, and distinguishing him- 
self by competent and energetic 
administration, siding, however, 
strongly with the Germans. In 
January, 1869, he was nominated 
life member of the Upper Chamber, 
in the discussions of which he has 
since taken a conspicuous part. His 
appointment to the governorship of 
Salzburg (March 17, 1870) caused 
great dissatisfaction to the allied 
party of federalists and clericals, 
who emphatically demanded his 
dismissal. Throughout his term of 
office he has remained strictly faith- 
ful to the Constitution, and opposed 
even the slightest deviation from 
the established laws. He was ap- 
pointed President of the Austrian 
Ministry on the retirement of Count 
Beust, Nov. 25, 1871. The Cabinet 
of Prince Auersperg, after many 
fruitless attempts to secure a work- 
ing majority in the Reichsrath, gave 
up the task, and the Lower House 
was dissolved on May 22, 1879. The 
German Constitutional Party, of 
which this Cabinet was the repre- 
sentative, and which had almost 
uninterruptedly been in power for 
twelve years, had split up into fac- 

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tions, owing chiefly to strong differ- 
ences of opinion among its members 
as to the policy of the Government 
with regard to the Eastern Ques- 
tion, and the maintenance of the 
Army establishment ; and it was 
found impossible to reunite them. 
Under these circumstances an ap- 
peal to the country was imperative, 
and arrangements were at once 
made for a general election. As 
soon as the result of the elections 
was known Prince Auersperg's 
Ministry resigned, and on Aug. 13 
Count Taafe, the late Minister of 
the Interior, was charged with the 
formation of a new Cabinet. 

ATTFRECHT, Theodor, LL.D., 
Ml., an orientalist, born at Lesch- 
nitz, Silesia, Jan. 7, 1822, and edu- 
cated in the University of Berlin. 
He was appointed Professor of 
Sanscrit and Comparative Philo- 
logy in the University of Edin- 
burgh in 1862. On April 21, 1875, 
that university conferred on him 
the degree of LL.D., and shortly 
afterwards he left Scotland for 
Bonn, where he had been appointed 
Professor of Sanscrit. Professor 
Aufrecht has published " A Com- 
plete Glossary to the Rig Veda, 
with constant reference to the At- 
harva Veda ; " " De Accentu Com- 
positprtmi Sanscritorum," Bonn, 
1847; " Halayudha's Abhidhanarat- 
namala ; a Sanscrit Vocabulary, 
edited with a Complete Sanscrit- 
English Glossary;" "The Hymns 
of the Big Veda, transcribed into 
English Letters," 2 vols., Berlin ; 
and " Ujjvaladatta's Commentary, 
the Unadistras," from a manuscript 
in the Library of the East India 
House (Lond., 1859). 
, AUGIEfi, GuiLi*AUMiB Victor 
Exile, dramatic poet, born at 
Valance (Dome), Sept. 17, 1820, 
and destined for the bar, soon, 
however, devoted his attention to 
literature. His first piece, "La 
Cigue "a two-act drama, in verse, 
refused in 1844 by the directors of 
tie ThSAtre Francais, on accountof 
the youth of the author 

-he was 

only twenty-four — was received at 
the Odeon. The directors of the 
Theatre Francais, made aware of 
their mistake (1815), admitted " La 
Cigue " into its repertory, and it is 
still played with success. In 1849 
appeared " Gabrielle," which gained 
the Monthyon prize from the 
Academy. " Le Gendre de M. 
Poirier," a comedy, written in con- 
junction with M. Jules Sandeau, 
appeared in 1865 ; and in the same 
year " Le Manage d'Olympe," a 
drama in three acts. In 1858 he 
published a collection of " Poesies," 
containing some pretty idyls. 
Among his later works are ** Les 
Effrontes," 1861 ; " Le Fils de 
Giboyer," 1862 ; " Maitre Guerin/' 
a comedy in five acts, " Paul 
Forestier," a comedy in four acts, 
" Les Lions et les Benards," 1871 ; 
"Jean de Thomeray," written in 
conjunction with M. Jules Sandeau, 
1873 ; " Madame Caverlet," 1876 ; 
" Le Prix Martin/' 1876 ; " Made- 
moiselle de la Reynie," 1876 ; and 
"Les Fourchambault," performed 
at the Theatre Francais, April 8, 
1878. M. Augier has been called 
the " poet of good sense," in contra- 
distinction to some of his contem- 
poraries. He was elected to suc- 
ceed M. Salvandy in the French 
Academy, Jan. 28, 1858, received 
the Legion of Honour in 1850, was 
made Grand Officer June 19, 1858, 
and Commander Aug. 15, 1868. 

AUMALE (Due d'), Henri-Eu- 
gene-Philipfe-Louis d'Orlkanb, 
prince of the family of Orleans, 
born in Paris, Jan. 16, 1822, the 
fourth son of the late king Louis- 
Philippe and his queen Marie- 
Amelie, was educated, like his 
brothers, in the College Henri IV., 
and at the age of seventeen entered 
the army. In 1840 he accompanied 
his brother, the Duke of Orleans, 
to Algeria, took part in the cam- 
paign which followed, returning to 
France in 1841, and he completed 
his military education at Courbe- 
voie. From 1842 to 1843 he was 
again in Algeria, where, at the 

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head of the subdivision of Medeah, 
he conducted one of the most bril- 
liant campaigns of the war, cap- 
turing the camp and all the corre- 
spondence of Abd-el-Kader, to- 
gether with 3,600 prisoners and an 
immense treasure, for which ser- 
vice he was made a lieutenant- 
general, and appointed to the com- 
mand of the province of Constan- 
tine. In 1844 he directed the ex- 
pedition against Biskarah, and in 
the same year married Marie Caro- 
line Auguste de Bourbon, daughter 
of Prince Leopold of Salerno, who 
was born April 26, 1822. (She died 
at Twickenham, Dec. 6, 1869.) In 
1847 the duke succeeded Marshal 
Bugeaud as Governor-General of 
Algeria, which position he filled 
upon the surrender of Abd-el-Kader 
to the French authorities. On re- 
ceiving the news of the revolution 
of Feb., 1848, he resigned his 
command to General Cavaignac, 
and joined the ex-royal family in 
England. With his brother, the 
Prince de Joinville, he protested 
against the decree banishing his 
family from France, and afterwards 
resided chiefly in England, devot- 
ing himself to literary pursuits. 
At the commencement of 1861, a 
pamphlet, addressed by him to 
Prince Napoleon Bonaparte, ex- 
cited great sensation, and led to a 
species of political persecution by 
the French authorities, who con- 
demned the printer and publisher 
of it to fine and imprisonment, 
which sentence was appealed 
against. The duke challenged 
Prince Napoleon, whose refusal to 
meet him excited great indignation 
in France. The same year the 
Literary Fund of London invited 
the duke to preside at their annual 
dinner, on which occasion his 
speech also excited attention. The 
Due d'Aumale, who, as heir of the 
great house of Condi, possesses an 
ample fortune, in addition to a 
beautiful seat on the banks of the 
Thames, near Twickenham, owns a 
fine estate in Worcestershire, where 

he formerly occupied his time as a 
practical agriculturist. Shortly be- 
fore the elections for the National 
Assembly on Feb. 8, 1871, the Due 
d'Aumale, who, during the Franco- 
German war, had in vain sought 
permission to serve in the French 
army, addressed from London a 
proclamation to the electors of the 
Department of the Oise, in which, 
while declaring his preference for a 
constitutional monarchy, he stated 
his willingness to bow to the na- 
tional will, if a Liberal Republic 
were adopted as the form of go- 
vernment. His candidature was 
successful, but he did not return to 
France until after the law banish- 
ing the members of the Orleans 
family was repealed on June 8. 
His election was confirmed the 
same day, but in consequence of an 
understanding between him and 
M. Thiers, he did not take his seat 
in the Assembly until Dec. 19, 
1871. Previously to this, in Oct., 
1871, he had been chosen President 
of the Council-General of the Oise. 
He was elected a member of the 
French Academy, Dec. 30, 1871, by 
27 votes against 1, in succession to 
the illustrious Montalembert. The 
Due d'Aumale was nominated a 
General of Division, Mar. 10, 1872, 
and in this capacity he presided 
over the Council of War before 
which Marshal Bazaine was ar- 
raigned. At the elections for the 
Assembly in Feb., 1876, the Due 
d'Aumale declined to come forward 
again as a candidate in order that 
he might devote his undivided at- 
tention to the military division of 
which the command had been en- 
trusted to him. The first two vol- 
umes of his " Histoire des Princes 
de la Maison de Conde," appeared 
in 1869, and were translated into 
English by Mr. Robert Brown- 
Borthwick, under the title of " His- 
tory of the Princes de Conde in the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Cen- 
turies," 2 vols., 1871. The Due 
d'Aumale was elected a member of 
the Academy of Fine Arts, Feb. 14, 

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1S80. His eldest eon, Louis- 
Fhihppe-Marie-Leopold d'Orleans, 
Prince de Conde, born in 1845, 
died in June, 1S66. His second 
son, Frao^is-Louis- Marie-Philippe 
d'Orleans, Duke of Guise, was born 
at Twickenham, Jan. 5, 1854, and 
died in France, July 25, 1872. 

AUSTIN, Alfred, poet, critic, 
and journalist, born at Headingley, 
near Leeds, May 30, 1835. His 
father was a merchant in Leeds, and 
his mother was the sister of Joseph 
Locke, the eminent civil engineer. 
Bbth his parents being Catholics, 
he was sent to Stonyhurst College, 
and afterwards to St. Mary's Col- 
lege, Oscott. Prom Oscott he took 
his degree at the University of 
London in 1853, and in 1857 he was 
called to the bar at the Inner 
Temple. It is understood that Mr. 
Austin has abandoned the faith in 
which he was brought up. As he 
failed to obtain practice at the bar, 
he took to literary pursuits, and 
published anonymously a poem en- 
titled " Randolph." His first ac- 
knowledged volume of verse, " The 
Season, a Satire/' appeared in 1861, 
and was very severely criticised. 
Mr. Austin replied to his critics in 
a poem now suppressed, entitled 
" My Satire and its Censors," 1861. 
A third and revised edition of " The 
Season" appeared in 1869. His 
other poetical productions are : — 
" The Human Tragedy : a Poem," 
1862, republished in an amended 
form 1876 ; " The Golden Age : a 
Satire," 1871 ; "Interludes," 1872; 
" Borne or Death ! " 1873 ; " Ma- 
donna's Child," 1873 ; " The Tower 
of Babel," a drama, 1874 ; " Leszko 
the Bastard : a Tale of Polish Grief," 
1877 ; and " Savonarola," a tragedy, 
1881. He has published three 
novels :— "Five Years of it," 1858 ; 
"An Artist's Proof/' 1864; and 
"Won by a Head," 1866; also "The 
Voetrj of the Period," reprinted 
from Temple Bar, 1870; and "A 
Vindication of Lord Byron," 1869, 
occasioned by Mrs. Stowe's article, 
"The True Story of Lord Byron's 

Life." Mr. Austin is an ardent 
advocate of the policy of the Con- 
servative party, and has made two 
unsuccessful attempts to enter Par- 
liament, for Taunton in 1865, and 
for Dewsbury in 1880. He has 
written much for the Standard 
newspaper and for the Quarterly 
Review. During the sittings of the 
(Ecumenical Council of the Vatican 
he represented the Standard at 
Borne, and he was a special corre- 
spondent of that journal at the 
headquarters of the King of Prussia 
in the" Franco-German war. His 
political writings include " Russia 
before Europe," 1876 ; " Tory Hor- 
rors," 1876, a reply to Mr. Glad- 
stone's " Bulgarian Horrors " ; and 
"England's Policy and Peril: a 
letter to the Earl of Beaconsfield," 
1877. He has now in the press a 
volume of lyrical poems, entitled 
" Soliloquies in Song." It is stated 
that he is to be the editor of the 
new Conservative monthly maga- 
zine. Mr. Austin resides at Swin- 
ford House, Ashford, Kent, and is a 
deputy-lieutenant for the county of 

AUSTRIA, Emperor of. (See 
Francis Joseph.) 


BABINGTON, Charles Car- 
dale, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.L.S., 
F.G.S., son of the late Rev. Joseph 
Babington, M.A., and grandson of 
Thomas Babington, Esq., of Rothley 
Temple, Leicestershire, was born at 
Ludlow in 1808, and educated at 
St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A. 
1830 ; M.A. 1833). He is Professor 
of Botany in the University of Cam- 
bridge, and he was elected to a pro- 
fessorial fellowship at St. John's 
College in Oct. 1882. Mr. Babing- 
ton is well known as a naturalist, 
and has published " Flora Bathoni- 
ensis," " The Flora of the Channel 
Islands," a "Manual of British 
Botany," which has passed through 
eight editions, " Flora of Cambridge- 

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shire/' "The British Rubi," also 
many botanical articles in the scien- 
tific journals. In addition to these 
works, Mr. Babington has published 
" A History of the Chapel of St. 
John's College, Cambridge," 1874; 
and has contributed " Ancient Cam- 
bridgeshire," and other papers, to 
the publications of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian and other societies. 

BABINGTON, The Rev. Chubch- 
hill, D.D., F.L.S.,V.P.R.S.L.,son 
of the late Rev. Matthew Drake 
Babington, rural dean of Ackley, 
Leicestershire, was born in 1821, 
and took a first class in classical 
honours in 1843, at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, of which he was a 
Fellow from 1846 to 1867, being 
elected to an honorary fellowship in 
1880. He held the Chapelry of 
Horningsea, Cambridgeshire, from 
1848 to 1861, was Disney Professor 
of Archaeology from 1865 to 1880, 
and was presented by his college to 
the rectory of Cockfield, in Suffolk, 
in 1866. He wrote the Hulsean 
Prize Essay in 1846, on " The In- 
fluence of Christianity in promoting 
the Abolition of Slavery in Europe," 
and controverted, in a separate pub- 
lication, in 18 19, some of Macaulay's 
statements in reference to the clergy 
of the seventeenth century ; and in 
1865 published his introductory 
Lecture on Archaeology, delivered 
before the University of Cambridge. 
He has edited, from MSS. recently 
discovered, " The Oration of Hyperi- 
des, against Demosthenes," "The 
Orations of Hyperides for Lyco- 
phron and Euxenippus," "The 
Funeral Oration of Hyperides," and 
" Bishop Pecock'8 Repressor ; " also 
" Higden's Polychronicon " (with 
two ancient English versions), in 
the series of English historical 
works which have been brought out 
under the authority of her Majesty's 
Government. He reprinted, m fac- 
simile, with an introduction, the 
" Beneficio di Cristo." Dr. Babing- 
ton is the author of the classical 
portion of the catalogue of MSS. 
belonging to the University Library 

at Cambridge, of annotated cata- 
logues of the Greek and English 
coins exhibited in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum ; and has contributed 
largely on subjects connected with 
natural history to Sir W. Hooker's 
" Journal of Botany," " The Botan- 
ist's Guide to England and Wales," 
&c. ; wrote the Ornithology, and, 
jointly with the Rev. A. Bloxam, 
the Botany for Potter's " History 
of Charnwood Forest," and the 
Lichens for Hooker's " Flora of New 
Zealand," and " Flora of Tasmania." 
Contributions from his pen will be 
found in the "Cambridge Journal 
of Classical and Sacred Philology," 
in the " Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Literature," in the pub- 
lications of the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society, in the " Proceed- 
ings of the Suffolk Institute of 
Archaeology and Natural History," 
in the " Numismatic Chronicle," 
and in Smith and Cheetham's " Dic- 
tionary of Christian Antiquities." 
He was a public Examiner at Cam- 
bridge in Theology in 1857-8, and in 
Natural Science in 1863-4; was 
elected Corresponding Fellow of the 
Historico- Theological Society of 
Leipsig, and of the Archaeological 
Society of Rome ; and has, at various 
times, been a member of the Council 
of the Royal Society of Literature, 
and of the Numismatic Society. 

BACON, Sib James, is the eldest 
son of the late Mr. James Bacon, 
barrister-at-law, of the Middle 
Temple. He was born in 1798. He 
was called to the bar at Gray's Inn 
in 1827, and afterwards became a 
member of Lincoln's Inn, of which 
he is a bencher. He obtained a silk 
gown in 1816, and in 1868, on the 
death of Mr. Commissioner Goul- 
burn, was appointed Commissioner 
of Bankruptcy for the London Dis- 
trict, and continued to hold that 
office till Dec. 31, 1869, when he was 
appointed Chief Judge in Bank- 
ruptcy. In Aug. 1870, he succeeded 
to the Vice-Chancellorship vacated 
by Sir William Milbourae James on 
his appointment as Lord Justice of 

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Appeal ; and on Jan. 14, 1871, he 
received the honour of knighthood. 
BADEN, Grand Duh of. See 
Frederick Wiuliam Louis. 

BADGEB, The Rkv. George 
Percy, D.C Jj., was born at Chelms- 
ford, Essex, in April, 1815. His 
youth was passed at Malta, and his 
perfect knowledge of the Maltese 
dialect, which he subsequently en- 
dearoured to reduce to writing, as 
a medium of popular education, Laid 
the foundation of his love of Arabic. 
The greater part of the years 1835- 
36 he spent at Bairut, where he 
applied himself diligently to his 
favourite study, and to making him- 
self familiar with all classes of the 
people, as well in Palestine as in 
Syria ; and on this occasion he 
visited the Euphrates Expedition 
at Birejik, on the Euphrates, under 
the command of the late General 
Chesney. On his return to Malta 
he was associated with Ahmad 
Faris, Effendi, in the editorial de- 
department of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society. At this period, 
too. he published a " Guide to Malta 
and Gozo," and several works on 
University and Normal School edu- 
cation. In his leisure hours he 
studied, theology and Hebrew. He 
returned to England in 1841 and 
took "holy orders in the following 
year. His intimate knowledge of 
the Bast led to his being selected by 
the then Primate and the Bishop of 
London as delegate to the Eastern 
Churches, and more especially to 
the Nestorians of Kurdistan. His 
zeal and devotion in this capacity 
won for him the esteem of the 
Patriarch Mar Shimun and his peo- 
ple, as also of the Syrians and 
Chaldeans of Mesopotamia. During 
this visit he discovered the first 
cuneiform slab at Nimrud, which 
paved the way for Mr. Layard's 
subsequent successful excavation of 
that mound. He revisited these 
scenes in 1849, and in his work on 
" The Nestorians and their Rituals " 
gave a history of that community, 
including a t rans lation from the 

Syriac of their principal Rituals. 
On his return to England, Mr. 
Badger was appointed Government 
chaplain on the Bombay Establish- 
ment, and he resided for a year or 
more, in this capacity, in the 
southern Mahratta country. Next 
he was appointed chaplain at Aden, 
where he spent the remainder of his 
service, except when specially em- 
ployed by the Government, or ab- 
sent on sick leave. When Sir James 
Outram was sent to Aden to reduce 
into order the complicated affairs of 
the Arabs of the surrounding dis- 
tricts, he availed himself largely of 
Mr. Badger's knowledge of, and in- 
fluence with, the native chiefs, and 
he reported again and again to the 
Government of India how deeply he 
was indebted to that gentleman's 
efficient co-operation. It was Sir 
James Outram's experience of Mr. 
Badger's usefulness, that on his ap- 
pointment as Commander-in-Chief 
to the Persian Expedition, in 1857, 
led to his request that Mr. Badger 
might be appointed Staff Chaplain 
and Arabic Interpreter to the force, 
which " latter designation," as Sir 
James reported to the Government 
of India, " very inadequately de- 
scribes the important assistance 
which I have received from that 
gentleman, who, in conjunction with 
Captain (now Lient.-General Sir 
Arnold) Kemball, carried on suc- 
cessfully all our written and most 
difficult communications with the 
Arab tribes." Having shared with 
the force all the dangers of the 
campaign, Mr. Badger received the 
Persian War Medal. In 1800 he 
was appointed coadjutor to Sir W. 
Coghlan to settle the serious diffi- 
culties which had arisen between 
the Sayyid Thuwainy, who then 
ruled over Oman, and the Sayyid 
Majid, the then ruler of the East 
African possessions of their deceased 
father, the renowned Sayyid Sa'id. 
Mr. Badger returned to England in 
1861, and again accompanied Sir 
James Outram on an important visit 
to Egypt. In the following year 

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he retired from the service, and de- 
voted himself mainly to literary 
pursuits. In 1872 he was appointed 
confidential adviser to Sir Bartle 
Frere on his special mission to Zan- 
zibar. In recognition of his ser- 
vices, as well to the Church of Eng- 
land as to science, Mr. Badger was, 
in 1873, created a D.C.L. by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
Royal Letters Patent; and two 
years later he was appointed to 
attend upon the Sultan of Zanzibar 
and suite during their visit to Eng- 
land. Among his numerous works 
are a " History of the Imams and 
Sayyids of 'Oman " (for the Hakluyt 
Society), 1871; the "Travels of 
Ludovico di Varthema in India and 
the East, a.d. 1503-8" (edited for 
the same Society), 1873, a work 
which obtained for him the dignity 
of Knight Commander of the Crown 
of Italy ; and an " English- Arabic 
Lexicon," published in 1881, which 
has been highly eulogised by the 
press in the East and West. Dr. 
Badger, who is described in the 
Times as " one of the highest living 
authorities on the Arabic-speaking 
peoples," has also published several 
reviews of important works on 
Islam, and has recently taken a 
prominent part in the literature 
connected with the Egyptian crisis. 
In 1880 he was created a Companion 
of the Gleaming Star by H. H. the 
Sultan of Zanzibar. 

BAGGALLAY, The Eight Hon. 
Sm Richard, eldest son of the late 
Mr. Richard Baggallay, of King- 
thorpe House, Upper Tooting, was 
born at Stockwell, Surrey, May 13, 
1816, and educated at Caius College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1839 as 14th wrangler, pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1&42, and gained the 
Franklin Fellowship at his college. 
In 1841 he was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn. Having acquired an 
extensive practice at the Equity 
bar, he was in 1861 appointed one 
of Her Majesty's Counsel. For 
several years he was counsel to the 
University of Cambridge (1869-75). 

He also became a bencher of his 
Inn, and a magistrate for the 
county of Surrey. At the general 
election in July, 1865, he was re- 
turned to the House of Commons 
in the Conservative interest, though 
he declared himself to be in favour 
of extending the franchise to those 
whose position and intelligence 
afforded a sufficient guarantee for 
its proper exercise. He held for a 
short time the post of Solicitor- 
General in the administration of 
Mr. Disraeli, viz., from Sept. to 
Dec. 1868, when he received the 
honour of knighthood. Sir Richard 
was an unsuccessful candidate for 
the representation of Hereford at 
the general election of Dec. 1868, 
and he remained out of Parliament 
till Oct. 1870, when he was chosen 
member for Mid-Surrey. At the 
general election of Feb. 1874 he 
was again returned by the same 
constituency, and two months later 
he succeeded Sir John Earslake as 
Attorney-General in Mr. Disraeli's 
administration. On the Judicature 
Act coming into operation in Nov. 
1875, he was appointed a Judge of 
the Court of Appeal and a member 
of the Privy Council. 

BAGSHAWE, The Right Rbv. 
Edward Gilpin, D.D., Roman Ca- 
tholic Bishop of Nottingham, is the 
son of the late Mr. H. R. Bagshawe, 
Q.C., and brother of Mr. G. H. Bag- 
shawe, both distinguished members 
of the Chancery bar. He was born 
Jan. 12, 1829, and entered in 1838 
St. Mary's College, Oscott, where 
he remained ten years. He joined 
the congregation of the Oratory in 
Oct. 1849, received the habit on the 
21st of Nov. in that year, and was 
ordained a priest March 6, 1852. 
On Dr. Roskell resigning the 
bishopric of Nottingham, Dr. Bag- 
shawe was nominated his successor. 
His consecration was solemnized at 
the Oratory, Brompton, Nov. 12, 

BAILEY, Thb R*v. Henry, 
D.D., late Warden of St. Augus- 
tine's College, Canterbury, and 

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noxuxary Canon of Canterbury 
Catiiedral, \a a eon of the late Key. 
Henry Ivea Bailey, vicar of North 
Leverlon, "Notts, and author of 
"The Liturgy compared with the 
Bible." He was born in 1815, and 
educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated 
8 A. in 1839, and obtained the 
Crosse and the Tyrwhitt University 
Scholarships. He became Fellow 
of his college, and Hebrew Lec- 
turer; and graduated M.A. in 
1812; B.D. in 1849; and D.D. in 
1870. In 1850 he was appointed 
Warden of St. Augustine's Mis- 
sionary College, Canterbury, in sue- 
> cession to Bishop Coleridge. This 
post he held till the close of the 
year 1877, when he was presented 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury 
to the vicarage of West Tarring, 
Worthing. Dr. Bailey is the author 
of " Bituale Anglo-Cathohcum " 
(1847); "The Missionary's Daily 
Text Book;" and other works. 
Bishop Blomfield, in 1851, ap- 
pointed him Secretary to the So- 
ciety for advancing the Christian 
Faith in the West Indies and in 

BAILEY, Johh Eolinoton, 
F.S.A., born Feb. 13, 1840, at Edg- 
baston, near Birmingham, was edu- 
cated at Boteler's Free Grammar 
School, Warrington, and Owens 
College, Manchester. For many 
years he has been connected with 
the Manchester branch of the large 
mercantile firm of Messrs. BaUi 
Brothers. In 1876 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Council of 
the Chetham Society, and is now its 
secretary. Mr. Bailey has pub- 
lished " The Life of Thomas Fuller, 
D.D., with Notices of his Books, 
his Kinsmen, and his Friends," 
1874 ; a collection of Dr. Fuller's 
" Sermons/' a " Memoir of Henry 
Clarke," 1877 ; and "Inventories of 
Church Goods of Lancashire, 1552 " 
(for the Chetham Society), 1878. 
Amongst other tracts he has edited 
the " Manchester al Mondo " of the 
tot Earl of M«che«ter (1688). 

He has also contributed a large 
number of papers to local and other 
journals, relating to biography, 
history, and bibliography, and 
mostly connected with Lancashire 
and Cheshire. The " Bibliograph- 
ical History of Shorthand," per- 
haps his most interesting work, 
still remains in MS. In 1881 Mr. 
Bailey established The Palatine 
Note-Book, an illustrated monthly 
antiquarian and bibliographical 
journal, circulating in Lancashire, 
Cheshire, and the North of Eng- 
land, which has been called the 
Notes and Queries of that dis- 
trict. It has contained a memoir 
of Dr. John Ferriar, and several 
other papers from his pen. 

BAILEY, Philip James, son of 
Thomas Bailey, author of the " An- 
nals of Notts," who died in 1856, 
was born at Nottingham, April 22, 
1816. Having been educated at 
various schools in his native town, 
he in 1831 matriculated at the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, where he studied 
for two sessions under Professors 
Buchanan, Sir D. K. Sandford, 
Thomson, and Milne. In 1333 he 
began to study the law, was ad- 
mitted a member of Lincoln's Inn 
in 1835, and called to the bar in 
1840. Having little inclination for 
legal pursuits, Mr. Bailey before 
this time had carried on an exten- 
sive and varied course of reading 
in the libraries of the British 
Museum and Lincoln's Inn, as well 
as in the privacy of home. He was 
accustomed to the composition of 
verse from early years. " Festus," 
conceived and planned originally in 
1836, and published in 1839, was 
well received in this country and 
in America, where it has passed 
through very many editions. It 
reached its eighth edition in this 
country in 1868. "The Angel 
World," a poem afterwards incor- 
porated with " Festus," appeared in 
1850 ; another poem, " The Mystic," 
in 1855; "The Age," a satire, in 
1858 ; and " The Universal Hymn." 
in 1867. 

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BAIN, Alexander, LL.D., bora 
at Aberdeen in 1818, entered Maris- 
chal College in 1836, where he 
took the degree of M.A. in 1840. 
From 1841 to 1814 he taught, as 
deputy, the class of Moral Philo- 
sophy in Marischal College ; from 
1814 to 1845, the Natural Philo- 
sophy Class. In 1815 he was 
elected Professor of Natural Philo- 
sophy in the Andersonian Univer- 
sity, Glasgow, but retired at the 
end of a year. In 1817 he was 
appointed by the Metropolitan 
Sanitary Commissioners their As- 
sistant-Secretary, and in 1848 
became Assistant-Secretary to the 
General Board of Health, which 
post he resigned in 1850. From 
1857 to 1862 he was Examiner in 
Logic and Moral Philosophy in the 
University of London. In 1858, 
1859, 1860, 1863, 1864, 1868, and 
1870, he acted as Examiner in 
Moral Science at the India Civil 
Service Examinations. In 1860 he 
was appointed, by the Crown, Pro- 
fessor of Logic in the University of 
Aberdeen. In 1864 he was re- 
elected Examiner in the University 
of London, and continued to hold 
that position till 1869. His first 
literary production was an article, 
in 1840, in the Westminster Review, 
to which he contributed at various 
times. In 1847-8 he wrote text- 
books on Astronomy, Electricity, 
and Meteorology, in Messrs. Cham- 
bers's school series, several of 
Chambers's " Papers for the 
People," and the articles on Lan- 
guage, Logic, 'the Human Mind, 
and Rhetoric in the " Information 
for the People." In 1852 he pub- 
lished an edition of the "Moral 
Philosophy of Paley," with disser- 
tations and notes. "The Senses 
and the Intellect" appeared in 
1855, and "The Emotions and the 
Will," completing a systematic ex- 
position of the human mind, in 
1859. "The Study of Character, 
including an Estimate of Phreno- 
logy," was published in 1861, an 
English Grammar in 1863, and 

i " Manual of English Composition 
and Rhetoric " in 1866. His more 
recent works are, " Mental and 
Moral Science," 1868; " Logric, 
Deductive and Inductive," 1870; 
" Mind and Body ; Theories of their 
Relation," 1873 ; a collection of 
"The Minor Works of George 
Grote, with Critical Remarks on his 
Intellectual Character, Writings, 
and Speeches," 1873 ; " A Com- 
panion to the Higher English 
Grammar," 1874 ; " Education as 
a Science," 1879; "James Mill, a 
Biography," and "John Stuart 
Mill, a Criticism, with Personal 
Recollections," 1882. In 1880 
he retired from the Logic chair of 
Aberdeen University. In 1881 he * 
was elected, by the students, Lord 
Rector of the University. 

BAINES, Sib Edward, second 
son of the late Edward Baines (re- 
presentative of the borough of 
Leeds in Parliament for seven 
years, 1834-41), and brother of the 
late Right Hon. M. T. Baines, M.P., 
some time Chancellor of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, was born in 1800, and 
educated at the Protestant Dis- 
senters' Grammar School, Man- 
chester. For many years he was 
associated with his father as editor 
and proprietor of the Leeds Mercury, 
one of the most influential Liberal 
organs in the North of England ; 
and he is the author of " The His- 
tory of the Cotton Manufacture," 
"The Life of the late Edward 
Baines," " A Visit to the Vaudois 
of Piedmont," " The Woollen Ma- 
nufacture of England," and other 
works bearing on the industrial 
progress and commerce of the 
nation. Sir E. Baines, who is Pre- 
sident of the Yorkshire Union of 
Mechanics' Institutes, was elected 
M.P. for Leeds in his brother's 
place in 1859, but he lost his seat 
at the general election of Feb. 1874. 
In 1861 his attempt to introduce 
into Parliament a bill to reduce 
the franchise in boroughs to JBC 
was defeated on a division by 245 
to 193 votes, In 1864 and 1865 the 

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measure was again rejected by the 
House of Commons. Mr. Barnes 
was a member of the Schools In- 
quiry Commission (I860 to 1868), 
and a supporter of the Endowed 
Schools Act of 1869, and the Ele- 
mentary Education Act of 1870. 
As one of the leading Dissenting 
members, he took an active part in 
opposition to Church Bates and 
University Tests, and in supporting 
the Irish Church Disestablishment 
Bill. He was also a decided friend 
of the Repeal of the Corn Laws, 
and every measure of Free Trade. 
In Dec. 18S0, he received the honour 
of knighthood. He is a Magistrate 
and Deputy - Lieutenant of the 
West Biding of Yorkshire. 

BATED, Spencer Fullebton, 
LL.D., born at Beading, Pennsyl- 
vania, Feb. 3, 1823. He was edu- 
cated at Dickinson College, where 
he became Professor of Natural 
Science in 1846. In 1855 he was 
appointed Assistant - Secretary to 
the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, and on the death of 
Professor Henry, in 1878, succeeded 
him as Secretary. He is editor and 
translator of the " Iconographic 
Encyclopedia/' New York, 1851; 
is author of various papers on 
zoology, and of reports on natural- 
history-collections made by Cap- 
tains Stansbury and Marcy, and 
Lieutenant Gillies, the United 
States and Mexican Boundary Sur- 
vey, and the Pacific Bailroad Sur- 
vey. He has also published, in 
conjunction with John Casein, "The 
Birds of North America " (2 vols., 
1860) ; and " The Mammals of 
North America," 1861, and in con- 
nection with Charles Girard, a 
"Catalogue of Serpents in North 
America," 1862. In 1864 he com- 
menced a work upon the birds of 
the New World generally, under 
the title, "Review of American 
Birds in the Museum of the Smith- 
sonian Institution." He has, for 
several years, been engaged in the 
preparation of a new account of the 
biros of North America, in which 

I he is assisted by Dr. T. M. Brewer, 

! of Boston. In 1871 he was ap- 

| pointed by the President, United 

States Commissioner of Fish and 

I Fisheries, for the purpose of making 

' inquiries into the causes of the 

I decrease of the food fishes of the 

United States, and the methods of 

restoring them. He has published 

in various scientific periodicals, and 

I in the reports, of the Smithsonian 

Institution, numerous papers upon 

! the mammals, birds, and fishes 

j of North America. He has also 

I several years furnished to Harper's 

Magazine, a monthly resume of the 

| progress of science, and prepared 

I an annual volume describing the 

I advances made in science during 

■ the year. 

I BAKER, John Gilbert, F.R.S., 
i F.L.S., born at Guisborough, in 
I Yorkshire, Jan. 13, 1834, and edu- 
I cated at schools belonging to the 
I Society of Friends at Ackworth and 
j York ; was appointed Assistant- 
Curator of the Herbarium of the 
Royal Gardens, Kew, in 1856, whicli 
office he still holds. He was for 
many years Lecturer on Botany to 
the London Hospital ; and was for 
many years one of the assistant 
editors to Seemann's Journal of 
Botany. Formerly Mr. Baker was 
Curator, and afterwards Secre- 
tary, of the London Botanical 
Exchange Club. His works on 
descriptive botany are as follows: 
— " Synopsis Filicum," a descrip- 
tive catalogue of all known ferns, 
with plates of the genera — a work 
planned and commenced by the late 
Sir W. Hooker, 1868, 2nd edit. 187 h 
" Monograph of the Ferns of Bra- 
zil," in folio, 1870, with 50 plates ; 
and since of the " Composite, Am- 
pelidffi and Connaracese " of the 
same county ; " Revision of the 
order Liliace®," 7 parts, 1870-80 ; 
" Monograph of the British Roses/' 
1869 ; " Monograph of the British 
. Mints," 1865 ; Monographs of Pa- 
pilionacese and other Orders in 
Oliver's " Flora of Tropical Africa," 
1868-1871 j " Descriptions of the 

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Plants figured in Vols. I., III., and 
IV. of Saunders' " Befugium Bota- 
nicum," 1869-71 ; " Popular Mono- 
graphs of Narcissus, Crocus, Lilium, 
Iris, Crinum, Aquilegia, Sempor- 
vivum, Epimedium, and Agave," 
1870-7 ; " Monograph of the Papi- 
lionacee of India," 1876 ; "Systema 
Iridacearum/' 1877; "Flora of 
Mauritius and the Seychelles/' 1877 ; 
" A Monograph of Hypoxidaceffl," 
1879. The following are the titles 
of Mr. Baker's works on geogra- 
phical botany, &c. : — " An Attempt 
to Classify the Plants of Britain 
according to their Geological Re- 
lations," 1855 ; " North Yorkshire : 
Studies of its Botany, Geology, Cli- 
mate, and Physical Geography," 
1863 ; " A new Flora of Northum- 
berland and Durham, with Essays 
on the Climate and Physical Geo- 
graphy of the Counties " (aided by 
Dr. G. R. Tate), 1868 ; " On the 
Geographical Distribution of Ferns 
through the World, with a Table 
showing the Range of each Species," 
1868 j " Elementary Lessons in Bo- 
tanical Geography," 1875 j " On the 
Botany of Madagascar," 1881. 

BAKER, Sir Samuel White, 
F.R.S., M.A., eldest son of the late 
Samuel Baker, Esq., of Lypiatt 
Park, Gloucestershire, was born in 
London, June 8, 1821, and was edu- 
cated at a private school and in 
Germany. He married, in 1843, 
Henrietta, daughter of the Rev. 
Charles Martin. In 1847 he estab- 
lished an agricultural settlement 
and sanatorium at Newera EUia, in 
the mountains of Ceylon, at an 
altitude of 6200 feet above the sea 
level. At great personal cost he, 
together with his brother, conveyed 
emigrants from England, and the 
best breeds of cattle and sheep, to 
found the mountain colony. The 
impulse given by this adventure 
secured the assistance of the Colonial 
Office, and with the increasing 

Csperity of Ceylon, Newera Ellia 
become a resort of considerable 
importance, the most recent de- 
velopment being the cultivation of 

the valuable Cinchona plant. In 
1854 Baker retired from Ceylon 
after eight years' residence, and at 
the death of his wife in 1855 he 
proceeded to the Crimea, and he was 
subsequently engaged in Turkey in 
the organization of the first railway. 
In 1861 he commenced an enterprise 
entirely at his own cost for the dis- 
covery of the Nile' sources in the 
hope of meeting the Government 
expedition under the command of 
Captain Speke, who had started 
from Zanzibar for the same object. 
Having married, in 1860, Florence, 
daughter of M. Finnian von Sass, 
he was accompanied throughout 
this arduous journey by his wife. 
Leaving Cairo April 15, 1861, he 
reached, on June 13, the junction of 
the Atbara with the Nile. For 
nearly a year he explored the regions 
of Abyssinia from whence comes the 
Blue Nile, and in June, 1862, de- 
scended to Khartoum, at the junc- 
tion of the Blue and the White 
Nile. Here he organised a party of 
ninety-six persons to explore the 
course of the latter river. They 
set out in Dec. 1862, and reached 
Gondokoro in Feb. 1863. Here 
Baker had the good fortune to meet 
Captains Speke and Grant, who had 
succeeded in reaching the Lake 
Victoria N'yanza, which they be-" 
lieved to be the ultimate source of 
the Nile. Baker, having resolved 
to supplement their explorations, 
supplied them with the necessary 
vessels for the voyage to KhartounI, 
and started from Gondokoro by 
land, March 26, 1863, without either 
interpreter or guide, in defiance of 
the opposition of the slave-hunters 
who attempted to bar his progress. 
The route was first eastward, then 
nearly south, and afterwards turned 
towards the east. On March 14, 
1864, he came in sight of a great 
fresh-water lake, the " Mwootan 
N'zige," until then unknown, which 
he named* the Albert N'yanza. 
After navigating the lake from N. 
lat. 1° 14' to the exit of the Nile at 
2° 15', he set out on his homeward 

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journey early in April, 1804, but 
owing" to illness and the disturbed 
condition of the country he did not 
reach Gondokoro until March 23, 
1865. On June 21 he -wrote home 
from Khartoum : — " There is no 
longer any mystery connected with 
the Nile, nor any necessity for 
expeditions on that head, unless it 
be desired to explore the great 
lake 1 have discovered — the Albert 
N'yanza. This can only be done by 
building a vessel for the purpose on 
the lake. I shall never undertake 
another expedition in Africa. For 
the last three years I have not had 
on« day of enjoyment ; nothing but 
anxieties, difficulties, fatigue, and 

fever I should not have 

lieen contented to see a foreigner 
.share the honour of discovering the 
Nile sources with Speke and Grant : 
it happily belongs to England." 
ITie Royal Geographical Society 
now awarded to him its Victoria 
Gold Medal, and on his return to 
England in 1SGG he was created 
M. A. of the University of Cambridge 
and received the honour of knight- 
hood. In Sept. 1869, he undertook 
the command of an expedition to 
Central Africa under the auspices 
of the Khedive, who placed at his 
disposal a force of 1500 picked 
Egyptian troops, and intrusted him 
for four years with absolute and 
uncontrolled power of life and 
death. He undertook to subdue 
the African wilderness, and to annex 
it to the civilized world ; to destroy 
the slave trade, and to establish 
regular commerce in its place ; to 
open up to civilization those vast 
African lakes which are the equa- 
torial reservoirs of the Nile ; and to 
add the whole of the countries 
which border on that river to the 
kingdom of the Pharaohs. Sir 
Samuel, having first received from 
the Sultan the Order of the Med jidie 
and the rank of Pasha and Major- 
general, left Cairo with his party 
on Dec. 2, 1869, Lady Baker, as in 
former journeys, accompanying him. 
He returned in 1873 and reported 

| the complete success of the expedi- 
j tion. Sir Samuel is the author of 
"The Rifle and the Hound in 
Ceylon," 1851, new edit. 1874 ; 
" Eight Years' Wanderings in Cey- 
lon/ 1855, new edit. 1874; "The 
Albert N'yanza, Great Basin of the 
Nile, and Explorations of the Nile 
Sources," 2 vols. I860, translated 
into French and German; "The 
Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia and 
the Sword Hunters of the Hamrain 
Arabs," 1867, 4th edit. 1871 ; " Cast 
up by the Sea," a Story, 1809, 
translated into French by Madame 
P. Fernand under the title of 
" I/Enfant du Naufrage"; " Is- 
ma'ilia : a Narrative of the Expe- 
dition to Central Africa for the 
Suppression of the Slave Trade ; 
arranged by Ismail, Khedive of 
Egypt/' 2 vols. 1874. In 1879, 
shortly after the British occupation 
of Cyprus, he visited every portion 
of the island to thoroughly investi- 
gate its resources, the results of 
which journey he published in a 
volume entitled •' Cyprus as I 
saw it in 1879." From thence 
he proceeded upon various re- 
searches through Syria, India, 
Japan, and America. Sir Samuel is 
a Fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Society of London, and an honorary 
member of the Geographical So- 
cieties of Paris, Berlin, Italy, and 
America. He has received the 
Grande Medaille d'Or of the Society 
de Geographie de Paris. He is a 
Deputy-Lieutenant of Gloucestei- 
shire and J.P. of Devon; he has 
the Orders of the Osmanle of the 
second class and the Medjidie of 
the second and third classes. 

BALFOUR, Francis Maitland, 
M.A., F.R.S., is a son of the late 
Mr. James Maitland Balfour, of 
Whittinghame, Preston-kirk, and 
was born in 1851. He was educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
graduated in the Natural Science 
Tripos in 1873, being placed second 
in the first class. He was elected a 
Fellow of Trinity on the first occa- 
sion on which he was eligible— viz., 


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in Oct., 1871. He at once took an 
active part in conjunction with Dr. 
Michael Foster in the prosecution 
of the study of biology, and very 
early obtained a high reputation, 
not only as a teacher, but as an 
original investigator. In 1878 he 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society, and is now a member of the 
Council of that learned body. In 
Nov., 1881, he was awarded a Royal 
medal by that society, and the 
claims for that distinction are thus 
stated in the proceedings of the 
society: — "Mr. Balfour's investiga- 
tions in embryology and comparative 
anatomy have placed him thus early 
in life in the front rank of original 
workers in these branches of science. 
His monograph upon the develop- 
ment of elasmobranch fishes, pub- 
lished in 1878, embodies the results 
of several years' labours, by which 
quite a new light has been thrown 
upon the development of several 
important organs in the vertebrata. 
More recently Mr. Balfour has pub- 
lished a most important work on 
comparative embryology in two 
large and fully illustrated volumes, 
which stands alone in biological 
literature, not only as an admirable 
and exhaustive summary of the 
present state of knowledge respect- 
ing the development of animals in 
general, but by reason of the vast 
amount and varied character of the 
original researches which are incor- 
porated in its pages." In addition 
to the works above alluded to, Mr. 
Balfour has published in conjunc- 
tion with Dr. Michael Foster " Ele- 
ments of Embryology." He has also 
contributed a very large number of 
smaller memoirs to the Proceedings 
and Transactions of the Royal 
Society, the Zoological Society, and 
the Quarterly Journal of Microscopi- 
cal Science. In 1880 he received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from the 
University of Glasgow. In 1881 he 
was elected President of the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Society. He 
is also one of the secretaries of the 
British Association. On May 31, 

1882, he was elected Professor of 
Animal Morphology at Cambridge 
by an unanimous vote of the mem- 
bers of the electoral roll selected to 
fill the newly-established chair. 
The professorship was established 
by a grace of the Senate passed on 
May 11, 1882, by virtue of the pro- 
visions of the University Statute 
for the establishment of additional 
professors. The stipend attached 
to the chair is .£300 per annum, and 
it is provided the professorship shall 
terminate with the tenure of office 
of the professor first elected unless 
the University shall decide that the 
professorship shall be continued. 

BALFOUR, The Right Hon. 
JohnBlaib, Q.C., is the son of the 
late Rev. Peter Balfour, minister of 
Clackmannan, by Jane Ramsay, 
daughter of Mr. John Blair of Perth. 
He was born at Clackmannan in 
1837, and was educated at Edin- 
burgh Academy and the University 
of Edinburgh. He was called to 
the Scottish Bar in 1861, and was 
appointed Solicitor-General for 
Scotland on the formation of Mr. 
Gladstone's Administration in 1880. 
Mr. Balfour entered Parliament as 
M.P. for the counties of Clackman- 
nan and Kinross, in November, 1880, 
in the place of the late Mr. W. P. 
Adam, on the appointment of the 
latter as Governor of Madras. In 
Aug., 1881, he was appointed Lord 
Advocate for Scotland in the room 
of Mr. McLaren, who had been 
raised to the judicial bench. Mr> 
Balfour has been twice married — 
first, in 1869, to Lilias Oswald, 
daughter of Lord Mackenzie (a 
Judge of Session of Scotland) ; and, 
secondly, in 1877, to the Hon. Mari- 
anne Eliza Wellwood-MoncreifF, 
youngest daughter of Lord Mon- 
creiff, Lord Justice Clerk of Scot- 

BALFOUR, John Htttton, M.D., 
F.R.S. L. and E., F.L.8., LL.D. 
Edin., Glasg. & St. Andrews, Hon. 
M.R.H.S., late Professor of Medicine 
and Botany in the University of 
Edinburgh, and late Regius Keeper 

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of the BoyaJ Botanic Garden, and 
late Queen's Botanist for Scotland, 
related to Dr. James Hutton, author 
of the Huttonian Theory of the 
Earth, was born Sept. 15, 1808. He 
took the degree of M.A. in the 
University of Edinburgh, and that 
of M.D. in 1831, and was Professor 
of Botany in tbe University of 
Glasgow from 1841 to 1845. He is 
the author of tbe "Manual of 
Botany/* " Phyto-Theology, or 
Botany and Religion/' "The Class- 
book of Botany/* "Outlines of 
Botany/* " The Plajnts of Scripture," 
"The Botanist's Companion," "Ele- 
ments of Botany for Schools/' "Il- 
lustrations of Botany, by means of 
large coloured Drawings, with 
Handbook/' " First Book of Botany, 
suited for Beginners/* 1872; "In- 
troduction to tbe Study of Palaxm- 
tological Botany/* 1872; and "Se- 
cond Book: of Botany/' 1873. He 
contributed the article on Botany to 
the 8th and 9th editions of the 
Encyclopaedia, Britain ica, and papers 
to the Transactions of the Royal 
Soeietv of Edinburgh and of the 
Botanical Society. I>r. Balfour is a 
member of many learned societies 
on the Continent, is a Vice-Presi- 
dent of tbe Boyal Society of Edin- 
burgh, and was for thirty years (up 
to 1S77) Dean of the Medical Faculty 
of the University of Edinburgh in 
that city, and is now an assessor of 
that University* 

BALL, The Rioht Hon. John 
Thomas, M.P., LL.D., eldest son of 
Major Benjamin Marcus Ball, was 
born at Dublin in 1815, and educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, graduat- 
ing B.A. in 1836, and LL.D. in 1844. 
He was called to the Irish bar in 
1840, and became successively a 
Queen's Counsel, Queen's Advocate 
and Judge of the Provincial Consis- 
torial Court at Armagh. At the 
general election of 1868 he was re- 
turned to the House of Commons in 
tbe Conservative interest by the 
University of Dublin, and for a few 
weeks in Nov. and Dec. of that year 
he was successively Solicitor-Gene- 

ral and Attorney-General for Ire- 
land under Mr. Disraeli's adminis- 
tration. In 1870 the University of 
Oxford conferred on him the hono- 
rary degree of D.C.L. Dr. Ball 
proved himself to be a ready and 
energetic debater by his numerous 
speeches on the Church Bill, the 
Land Bill, and other measures 
affecting Ireland. When the Con- 
servatives came into power in Feb. 
1874, Dr. Ball again became Attor- 
ney-General for Ireland, and at the 
close of that year he was appointed 
Lord Chancellor of Ireland. He 
took the oaths of office Jan. 1, 1875, 
and resigned in May, 1880. He has 
been Vice-Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Dublin, since Jan. 1880. He 
married, in 1852, Catherine, daugh- 
ter of the Bev. Charles E. Elling- 
ton, Regius Professor of Divinity in 
the University of Dublin. 

BALL, Bobebt Stawkll, LL.D., 
F.B.S., was born at Dublin, July 1, 
1840, and educated at Chester by 
Dr. Brindley. He was appointed 
University Student at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in 1861 ; Lord Rosse's 
Astronomer at Parsonstown in 1805 ; 
Professor of Applied Mathematics 
and Mechanism at the Boyal College 
of Science for Ireland in 18G7 ; Fellow 
of the Boyal Society in 1873 ; An- 
drews Professor of Astronomy in 
the University of Dublin, and Boyal 
Astronomer of Ireland in 1874. He 
obtained the Cunningham Gold 
Medal of the Boyal Irish Academy. 
Mr. Ball is author of the following 
works among others : — " Experi- 
mental Mechanics/' 1871; "Theory 
of Screws," Dublin, 1876; "Ele- 
ments of Astronomy/* 1880 ; besides 
many papers on mathematics, astro- 
nomy, and physical science in 
various publications. He has fre- 
quently lectured on Astronomy in 
the leading institutions in the 
United Kingdom, and we may espe- 
cially refer to his "Christmas Lec- 
tures on Astronomy" at the Boyal 
Institution in 1881-2. 

BALLANTINE, William, Ser- 
jeant-at-Law, is son of the late Mr. 
f 2 

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William Ballantine, who for many 
years filled the office of magistrate 
at the Thames Police Court. He 
was born in London, Jan. 3, 1812, 
and was called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple, June 6, 1834. For 
some years he practised in the 
criminal courts; in 185G he was 
created a serjeant-at-law ; and he 
was at one tune engaged in many 
of the important causes tried in 
Westminster Hall. He received a 
patent of precedence from Lord 
Westbury. Amongst other causes 
he was counsel for the Claimant in 
his original suit 'to acquire the 
Tich borne baronetcy and estates 
(1871). He has the reputation of 
being a skilful cross-examiner, and 
was highly complimented in the 
House of Lords in a suit for a 
divorce which he conducted with 
success against Sir Fitzroy Kelly 
and other counsel of great eminence. 
In 1809 he was appointed by vote 
of the House of Commons, to con- 
duct, in conjunction with Mr. Barry, 
the Irish Attorney-General, the 
legal proceedings against the Mayor 
of Cork, Mr. O'Sullivan. That 
functionary had made himself 
conspicuous by the violent ex- 
pression of his political sentiments 
on various occasions, and had eulo- 

fized, at a public banquet, the 
'enian O'Farrell, who had at- 
tempted to assassinate the young 
Duke of Edinburgh in Australia. 
The House of Commons ordered a 
prosecution to be instituted, but 
Mr. O'Sullivan resigned his office, 
and consequently the affair came to 
an end. In 1875 Serjeant Ballan- 
tine received a brief to go " special " 
to India to defend a native prince, 
'Mulhar Rao, the Gaikwar of Baroda, 
charged with an attempt to poison 
Colonel Phayre, the British Resi- 
dent. The retainer was 5,000 gui- 
neas, and a further scale of fees was 
arranged, being estimated at not 
less than a further sum of 5,000 
guineas. This honorarium is pro- 
bably among the largest ever paid 
t:> counsel. The Commission which 

tried the case was divided in opinion , 
the native members holding the 
Gaikwar's guilt not proved, and the 
result was an acquittal; but Her 
Majesty's Government deposed the 
Gaikwar on the ground of obvious 
incapacity and misconduct. Ser- 
jeant Ballantine is the author of 
"" Experiences of a Barrister's Life," 

BANCROFT, George, Ph. D., 
LL.D., D.C.L., born at Worcester, 
Massachusetts, Oct. 3, 1800. He 
entered Harvard College in 1813, 
and graduated in 1817. Almost 
immediately afterwards he went 
abroad, where he remained for five 
years, studying at Gftttingen and 
Berlin, and travelling through Ger- 
many, Italy, Switzerland, and 
Great Britain, when he made the 
personal acquaintance of many of 
the leading European scholars. He 
received the degree of Ph. D. at 
Gattingen in 1820, and returning 
to America in 1822, was for a year 
Greek tutor in Harvard College. 
In 1823, in conjunction with Dr. 
Joseph Coggswell, afterwards noted 
as the organizer of the Astor Lib- 
rary in New York, he founded 
the Round Hill School at North- 
ampton, Massachusetts. The same 
year he published a volume of 
poems, and in 1824 a translation 
of Heeren's " Politics of Ancient 
Greece." He was also at this 
time meditating and collecting 
materials for his " History of the 
United States," the first volume of 
which appeared in 1834. In 1835 
he removed to Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts, where he resided for 
three years, and completed the 
second volume of his history. In 
1838 he was appointed Collector of 
the Port of Boston, a position 
which he occupied until 1841, being 
also a frequent speaker at political 
meetings, and still keeping up his 
historical labours. The third vol- 
ume of his history appeared in 
1810. In 1844 he was the Demo- 
cratic candidate for Governor of 
Massachusetts, but was not elected. 

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In JS45, Mr. Polk having been elec- 
ta President, Mr. Bancroft entered 
his Cabinet as Secretary of the 
Nary, and also served for a month 
a* Acting Secretary of War. In 
ISUj he was Bent as Minister to 
Great Britain, where he success- 
fully urged upon the British 
Government the adoption of more 
liberal navigation laws, and was 
especially earnest in vindicating 
the rights of persons naturalized 
as citizens of the United States. 
During this residence in Europe he 
made use of every opportunity to 
perfect his collections of documents 
relating to American history. He 
returned to the United States in 
18-19, took up his residence in New 
York, and set about the prepara- 
tion of the remainder of his history. 
The fourth and fifth volumes were 
published in 1852 ; the sixth ap- 
peared in 1854 ; the seventh in 
lHoS; the eighth in I860; the 
ninth in 1866 ; and the tenth late 
in 1874. This brings the narra- 
tire to the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War and completes the 
body of the work. He is still, 
however, engaged upon supplemen- 
tary volumes, two of which were 
issued in 1882 under the title of 
" History of the Foundation of the 
Constitution of the United States." 
After his return from England he 
for many years devoted himself 
wholly to literary labour. In Feb. 
1866, he delivered before Congress 
an address in memory of Abraham 
Lincoln. In May, 1867, he was 
appointed Minister to Prussia; in 
1868 he was accredited to the 
North German Confederation ; and 
in 1871 to the German Empire. He 
was recalled from this mission at 
his own request, in 1874. During 
his mission to Germany several im- 
portant treaties were concluded 
with the various German States, 
relating especially to the naturaliza- 
tion of Germans in America. He 
is a member of numerous learned 
societies at home and abroad. In 
1S55 he published a volume of 

" Miscellanies," comprising a por- 
tion of the articles which he had 
contributed to the North American 
Review. He now resides at Wash- 
ington, D.C., passing his summers 
at Newport, Rhode Island. 

BANCROFT, Mrs., m { e Marie 
Effib Wilton, the popular actress, 
is a native of Doncaster. After 
acting from early childhood in the 
Provinces, she first appeared in 
London in Sept. 1856, at the Ly- 
ceum Theatre, as the boy in Bel- 
phegor and Perdita the Royal Milk- 
maid. Subsequently she fulfilled 
various engagements at London 
houses, becoming manager of the 
Prince of Wales's Theatre, London, 
at Easter, 1865. Shortly after- 
wards Miss Wilton gave up bur- 
lesque acting, and devoted her 
entire attention to the production 
of English comedies, chiefly written 
by the late T. W. Robertson. She 
was married to Mr. S. B. Bancroft 
in Dec. 1867. Mr. and Mrs. Ban- 
croft continued their successful 
career at the Prfnce of Wales's 
Theatre until January, 1880, when 
they migrated to the Haymarket, 
of which theatre they had become 
the lessees. They rebuilt the 
theatre internally at a large outlay, 
and it is perhaps, now, the hand- 
somest house of its size in Europe. 
The characters with which Mrs. 
Bancroft's name is best associated 
are Polly Eccles, Naomi Tighe, Mary 
Netley, Peg Wojfington, Jenny North- 
cott, Lady Franklin, and Lady 

BANCROFT, Squire Bancroft, 
actor and theatrical manager, born 
in London, May 11, 1811, made his 
first public appearance on the stage 
at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, 
in Jan. 1861. Then he accepted 
engagements in Dublin and Liver- 
pool, playing almost every line of 
character, including various Shak- 
sperian parts. He made his debut 
in London on the occasion of the 
opening of the Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, under the management of 
Mr. Byron and Miss Marie Wilton, 

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April 15, 1865. Mr. T. W. Robert- 
son's popular comedies were brought 
out at this theatre, and in each of 
them Mr. Bancroft may be said to 
have created one of the leading 
characters. In "Society" (1865) 
he appeared as Sydney Daryl and 
afterwards as Tom Stylus ; in 
"Ours" (1866) as Angus McAlister ; 
in " Caste " (1867) as Captain Haw- 
tree ; in " Play " as Chevalier 
Browne ; in " School " ( 1869) as Jack 
Poyntz ; and in " M.P." as Talbot 
Piers. In 1867 Mr. Bancroft married 
Miss Marie Wilton, and a large share 
of the management of the Prince of 
Wales's Theatre thenceforward de- 
volved upon him. Among other 
parts subsequently performed by 
him at that house were Sir Frede- 
rick Blount in " Money," Joseph 
Surface in the " School for Scan- 
dal," Triplet in "Masks and Faces," 
Sir George Ormond in "Peril," 
Dazzle in " London Assurance," 
Blenkinsop in " An Unequal 
Match," and Count Orloff in " Di- 
plomacy." Mr. Bancroft's success- 
ful management of the Prince of 
Wales's Theatre was brought to a 
close on Jan. 29, 1880. In Sept. 
1879, he had become lessee of the 
Haymarket, and after he had ex- 
pended a large sum on its in- 
ternal rebuilding and decorations, 
he began his management of this 
theatre on Jan. 31, 1880. The first 
performance was Lord Lytton's 
comedy " Money." It was fol- 
lowed by revivals of " School," 
"Masks and Faces," "Society," 
and "Ours." "Odette" was pro- 
duced in April, 1882, Mr. Bancroft 
taking the part of Lord Henry 
Trevene, with Madame Modjeska 
as Odette. This was followed by 
" The Overland Route " (Sept. 
1882). The farewell revival of 
"Caste" is now being performed 
(Feb. 1883) ; and it will be fol- 
lowed by a new play by Mr. Pardon 
and a new comedy written by Mr. 
A. W. Pinero. 

BANDMANN, Daniel Edward, 
a popular actor, born at Cassel, 

Germany, Nov. 1, 1839. The in- 
stinct for acting was apparent in 
him at a very early age, for in his 
childhood he used to invite his play- 
fellows to the cellar, to play scenes 
out of the Bible, such as "Adam 
and Eve," when he spoke both the 
parts, and filled up the dialogue 
with flashes of lightning through a 
tin pipe, when God called upon 
Cain for his brother Abel. At the 
age of eighteen he made his first 
appearance on the stage at the 
Court Theatre of Neu-Strelitz, 
where he at once became a great 
favourite with the Grand Duchess 
of Mecklenburg, who took a personal 
interest in his career, and aided him 
in his profession. His next engage- 
ment was at Prague, whence he 
proceeded to Gratz, Weimar, Pesth, 
and Vienna. In all these towns he 
acquired great popularity as an 
actor of Shaksperean characters. 
Failing health, consequent on se- 
vere study, necessitated a voyage 
to New York, where, after a short 
rest, he was requested by his fellow- 
countrymen to play for a few nights 
at the Stadt-Theater, where his 
acting speedily attracted the notice 
of journalists and critics, who pro- 
nounced the enthusiastic German 
to be one of the greatest actors 
of the period. It was in New York 
that Mr. Bandmann first began the 
study of the English language, and 
it is remarked that in six weeks' 
time he was able to act Shylock at 
Niblo's Garden, speaking the lan- 
guage of its author — his teacher 
being an accomplished English 
lady. His success was highly en- 
couraging. The German play of 
"Narcisse" was afterwards trans- 
lated for him, and with a repertoire 
embracing Hamlet, Shylock, Mac- 
beth, Richard the Third, Othello, 
Iago, Benedick, and Richelieu, he 
made a tour of five years through 
the United States, his success being 
really wonderful. He played the 
part of Hamlet in Philadelphia, by 
invitation of the Shakspere Society, 
upon the occasion of the tercen- 

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tenary of the Swan of Avon's birth- 
day •, and bo highly was his style of 
ac * in S appreciated that a crown of 
laurel in solid silver was presented 
to him as a memorial of the occur- 
rence . In San Francisco he was 
presented with a handsome gold 
medal, upon which were placed his 
initials in diamonds and other pre- 
cious stones. His career in America 
was a very triumphant one, but his 
great ambition was to play in Lon- 
don. Accordingly in Feb., 1868, he 
appeared at the Lyceum Theatre, in 
'* Narcisse," his success being so 
great that the late Lord Lytton, 
who witnessed the performance, in- 
vited him to Knebworth, when his 
lordship said he was the only actor 
he had seen, since the days of 
Macready, who inspired him to 
work again for the stage. An inti- 
macy sprung up between them, and 
Lord Lytton re-wrote for Mr. Band- 
mann his drama of " The Sea Cap- 
tain," which was produced at the 
Lyceum Theatre, under the title of 
"The Rightful Heir," and had a 
run of three months. Mr. Band- 
mann next made a tour through 
the English provinces j and in 1869 
he went to Australia, where he 
stayed for twelve months. He re- 
turned to England by way of Hono- 
lulu, where he played before the 
late King Kamehameha, who in- 
vited him to his palace. In Jan., 
1877, he played once more in Ber- 
lin, in his native tongue, Hamlet, 
Othello, and Shylock, creating a 
most decided enthusiasm, which 
was flatteringly acknowledged by 
the entire press. Since his return 
he has made three tours through 
the United Kingdom. Mr. Band- 
mann married in Feb., 1869, Miss 
Milly Palmer, who accompanies 
him on his tours. In the course of 
his last professional tour round the 
world he visited America and our 
Australian colonies. In New Zea- 
land in particular he was remark- 
ably successful, and created intense 
enthusiasm. He also visited Cal- 
cutta and other cities of India (Dec. 

1881); and in May, 1882, he was 
performing Shaksperean characters 
at Shanghai. 

BANGOE, Bishop of. (See 

BANKS, Mas. George Linnjeus, 
born March 25, 1821, in Oldham 
Street, Manchester, and baptised 
Isabella, was the daughter of James 
and Amelia Varley, smallware 
dealers. They were well connected, 
the father a man of reserved 
manners but of cultivated tastes — 
chemistry, art, journalism, being 
his amusements. From a very 
early age she had free access to his 
library. She was a favourite with 
Mrs. McGibbon, the tragic actress 
(daughter of Woodfall, the cele- 
brated reporter and printer of 
Junius), and accompanied her to 
the theatre, or into the fields for 
study, when quite a child. She 
was educated at the private schools 
of Miss Spray and the Eev. John 
Wheeldon. At eleven her first 
verses were composed. Her first 
recognised poem appeared in the 
Manchester Guardian when she was 
just sixteen. At eighteen she com- 
menced a school for young ladies 
in Cheetham, Manchester, and for 
their use designed patterns in 
needle work, afterwards collected 
into a small book. During this period 
Miss Varley was a member of the 
ladies' committee of the Anti-Corn 
Law League. In 1814 appeared her 
first volume of poems, "Ivy 
Leaves," I. V — y having been the 
signature to her early contributions 
to papers and periodicals. On Dec. 
27, 18-16, she was married to George 
Linnaeus Banks, the " poet, orator, 
and journalist." Her school was 
given up, and they removed to 
Harrogate, where he edited the 
Harrogate Advertiser, and began his 
labours as a founder of Mechanics' 
Institutes. In the first of these, 
the Harrogate Mechanics' Institute, 
Mrs. Banks delivered her only lec- 
ture on "Woman — as she was, as 
she is, and as she may be." Suc- 
ceeding years were marked by re- 

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movals, as her husband edited 
successively The Birmingham Mer- 
cury, The Dublin Daily Express, The 
Durham Chronicle, Tlie Sussex Mer- 
cury, and Windsor Royal Standard, 
her literature during the time being 
confined to odd poems or reviews 
for his papers, and " Light work for 
Leisure Hours," a quarterly brochure 
still in progress. During their resi- 
dence in the county of Durham 
Mrs. Banks had the good fortune 
to preserve her friend Mrs. Hodg- 
son of Sedgefield from death by 
fire, though not without severe 
personal injury. It was not until 
they reached London in 1861, both 
in ill-health, and with three young 
children, that Mrs. Banks took to 
literature as a profession. In 1861, 
during the Working Men's Celebra- 
tion of the Shakespere Tercen- 
tenary, of which Mr. Banks was the 
chief promoter and lion, sec, she 
baptised with water from the Avon 
the "Shakespere Oak/' presented 
by Her Majesty the Queen, and 
planted by Mr. Phelps upon Prim- 
rose Hill amidst an immense con- 
course of spectators. Almost simul- 
taneously appeared in 1865 a joint 
volume of poems, " Daisies in the 
Grass/' and her first novel in three 
vols., "(rod's Providence House," 
which was followed by " Stung to 
the Quick " in 1867 ; by " The Man- 
chester Man" in 1876; "Glory" in 
1877; "Caleb Booth's Clerk" in 1878 ; 
"Wooers and Winners" in 1880. 
These novels have since been re- 
produced in one vol. form, and in 
the uniform series have been added 
'More than Coronets," " Through 
the Night," and " The Watch- 
maker's Daughter." Another vo- 
lume of poems, " Ripples and 
Breakers," made its appearance in 
1878. Another novel, " Forbidden 
to Marry," is in preparation. 

BANKS, Nathaniel Prentiss, 
born at Waltham, Massachusetts, 
Jan. 30, 1816. While a boy he 
worked in a cotton factory, and 
afterwards learned the trade of a 
machinist. In time he became 

editor of a country newspaper, and 
received an appointment in the Bos- 
ton Custom House. He also studied 
law, was admitted to the bar, and 
in 1849 was elected to the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts, of the 
Lower House of which he was 
chosen Speaker in 1851 ; and in 
the following year he was elected 
a member of Congress, nominally 
as a Democrat j but he soon for- 
mally withdrew from the Demo- 
cratic party, and in 1854 was re- 
elected by the concurrent vote of 
the "American" and Republican 
parties. At the following meeting 
of Congress he was chosen Speaker 
on the 133rd ballot, after the longest 
contest ever known. He was also 
a member of the next Congress, and 
in 1857 was electe4 Governor of 
Massachusetts, and re-elected in 
1858 and 1859. On the outbreak 
of the civil war he was made major- 
general of volunteers, was assigned 
to the command of a corps in the 
army of the Potomac, and was sub- 
sequently placed at the head of the 
forces for the defence of the city 
of Washington. In December he 
succeeded General Butler in com- 
mand at New Orleans, and in July, 
1863, took Port Hudson on the 
Mississippi. In the spring of 1864 
he made an unsuccessful expedition 
up the Red River, in Louisiana, and 
was in May relieved of his com- 
mand. He [again entered upon 
political life, and was re-elected 
to Congress from his old district 
in 1866, and again in 1868 and 
1870. In 1872 he took an active 
part in favour of the election of 
Horace Greeley to the presidency, 
as the candidate of the Democrats 
and the so-called "Liberals." In 
1876 he was again elected to Con- 
gress by the votes of the Demo- 
crats and of that portion of the 
Republicans who were opposed to 
the policy of President Grant, but 
has acted with the Republican 

Sarty. He is at present U. S. 
[arshal for the district of Massa- 

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BAtfNERMAN. See Campbbix- 


BABA, Jtjlks, a Belgian states- 
man, born at Tournai, August 21, 
1835, was educated in his native 
town, and afterwards admitted an 
advocate. At an early age he was 
appointed a professor in the Univer- 
sity of Brussels. While occupying 
that position he composed a series 
of '• Essays on the Relatione be- 
tween the State and Religions, from 
a Constitutional Point of View." 
In 1862 he was elected a Deputy 
for Tournai in the Liberal interest, 
and he soon distinguished himself 
in the Chamber of Representatives 
by his skill in debate, and by his 
zealous advocacy of M. Frere- 
Orban's policy. In Nov. 1865, he 
was nominated Minister of Public 
Justice in the place of M. Victor 
Tesch, resigned. He held this 
office until the Conservative party 
came into power, in July, 1870. 
When a Liberal ministry was 
formed in June, 1878, M. Bara 
was again appointed Minister of 

BARBADOS, Bishop of. See 
Brex, Dr. 

BABBLER, Henri Auouste, a 
French poet, born at Paris, April 
28, 1805, was bred to the law, but, 
abandoning that profession for lite- 
rary pursuits, he composed, con- 
jointly with Alphonse Royer, " Les 
Mauvais Garcons," 1830, an histo- 
rical novel, illustrative of French 
manners in the Middle Ages. At 
the time of the Revolution of July he 
discovered that satirical poetry was 
his true forte. His " Iambes " at- 
tracted much attention, and in his 
celebrated poem " La Curee," which 
first appeared in the Revue de Paris, 
in August, 1830, he severely lashed 
the seekers for office who besieged 
the new government. These works 
were followed by *' Le Lion," 
" Quat^e-vingt-treize, ,, " Varsovie," 
and " La Population," in which he 
attacked, with great asperity and 
trenchant wit, the corruption of 
public morals, the ambition of pub- 

j lie men, and the mania for commit- 
ting suicide. In "II Pianto," 
| 1832, he vividly sketched the poli- 
tical abasement of Italy ; while in 
' " Lazare," 1833, he drew attention 
i to the misery and social degrada- 
tion of the English people. M. 
j Barbier published, in 1837, " Ero- 
, strate " and " Pot-de-Vin," two 
| satires which were not so favour- 
j ably received as his former produc- 
I tions. He wrote for M. Berlioz, in 
,' conjunction with Leon de Wailly, 
the opera of " Benvenuto Cellini •/' 
I and he likewise composed the words 
of the " Hymne a la France," per- 
formed under the direction of M. 
1 Berlioz at the great festival in the 
| Industrial Exposition of 1855. 
i His more recent works are remark- 
' ably inferior to those produced at 
| the outset of his career. Among 
j them may be mentioned " Chants 
Civils et Religieux," 1811 ; " Rimes 
| Hcroiques," 1843 ; a metrical trans- 
i lation of Shakspere's " Julius 
j Caesar," 1848 ; " Silves, Poesies 
; diverses," 1861; a collection of 
" Satires," 1865 ; a volume of tales 
under the title of " Trois Passions," 
1867 ; and a translation of Cole- 
ridge's "Ancient Mariner," pub- 
lished in 1876, with illustrations 
by Gustave Dore. On April 29, 
1869, M. Barbier was elected to the 
stall in the French Academy ren- 
dered vacant by the decease of M. 
Empis ; and in 1878 he was deco- 
rated with the cross of the Legion 
of Honour. 

BARFF, Frederick Settle. 
M.A., Fellow of the Institute of 
Chemistry, was born at Hackney, 
Oct. 6, 1823, and educated at Hack- 
ney Grammar School and Christ's 
College, Cambridge. He was ap- 
pointed the first Professor of 
Chemistry at the Royal Academy of 
Arts, and held that appointment 
for eight years. Cardinal Manning 
nominated him to the Professorship 
of Chemistry in the Catholic Uni- 
versity College at Kensington, and 
in 1873 or thereabouts he was ap- 
pointed Examiner in Chemistry to 

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the Natural Sciences Tripos in the 
University of Cambridge. He has 
written an " Introduction to Scien- 
tific Chemistry " ; an elementary 
book on Chemistry ; and a series of 
articles on the "New Theories of 
Chemistry ," in the Student and 
Intellectual Observer. He has in- 
vented a process for the preserva- 
tion of iron from rust by the use 
of superheated steam ; also a com- 
pound of glycerine and boracic 
acid, which he calls " Boroglyce- 
rine," for the preservation of food 
and other organic substances, and 
as a general antiseptic. An article 
by him on his " New Antiseptic 
Compound for the Preservation of 
Food" appeared in the Month for 
May, 1882. 

Highness), Sultan or Seyyid of 
Zanzibar, was born about 1835, and 
succeeded his brother Seyyid Majid 
in 1870. He represents the Arab 
dynasty which has for more than a 
century held sway over the African 
negroes inhabiting the territory 
made familiar to us by name in con- 
sequence of its connection with the 
enterprises of Dr. Livingstone and 
other travellers. Sir Bartle Frere's 
mission on behalf of the British 
Government to the ruler of Zanzi- 
bar in 1873, for the purpose of 
inducing him to suppress the Slave 
Trade, resulted in an acquiescent 
treaty on the Sultan's part, the 
provisions of which were not car- 
ried into effect, and was the proxi- 
mate occasion of his Highness's 
friendly visit to England. He 
landed, June 9, 1875, at Westmin- 
ster Bridge, where he was received 
by Mr. Bourke, Under-Secretary 
for Foreign Affairs, who welcomed 
him in the name of Her Majesty's 
Government. He left our shores 
on July 15, and visited Paris before 
returning to his own dominions. 
During his stay in England he 
concluded a second treaty with Her 
Majesty's Government, and Bince 
that time His Highness has entered 
heart and soul into the movement 

for the suppression of the Slave 
Trade, in spite of the dangers and 
political antagonism arising from 
the opposition of his own people. 

BARING, Major Evelyn, was 
formerly a European Commissioner 
of the Public Debt in Egypt, and he 
was appointed one of the Con- 
trollers-General, representing Eng- 
land and France, when the Khedive 
Ismail was deposed by the Sultan's 
firman in 1879, and Tewfik Pasha 
became ruler of Egypt. In co- 
operation with his French colleague, 
M. de Blignieres, Major Baring 
successfully carried on the Control 
until he accepted, towards the close 
of 1880, the office of Finance Minis- 
ter of India, under the Marquis of 
Ripon, left vacant by Sir John 
Strachey's resignation. In this 
capacity ho framed and carried 
three successful budgets. In May, 
1883, he was appointed to succeed 
Sir Edward Malet, at Cairo, with 
the status of Minister to Egypt. 

Sabine, M.A., of Lew-Trenchard, 
born at Exeter, in 1834, eldest son 
of Edward Baring-Gould, Esq., of 
Lew-Trenchard, Devon, where the 
family has been seated for nearly 
300 years, was educated at Clare 
College, Cambridge, where he took 
the degree of M.A. in 1856. He 
was appointed Incumbent of Dal- 
ton, Think, by the Viscountess 
Down in 1869, and Rector of East 
Mersea, Colchester, by the Crown 
in 1871. On the death of his father 
in 1872 he succeeded to the family 
property, and in 1881 to the rectory 
of Lew-Trenchard. Mr. Baring- 
Gould is the author of " Paths of 
the Just," 185 1; "Iceland: its 
Scenes and Sagas," 1861; " Post- 
medifieval Preachers," 1865 ; " Curi- 
ous Myths of the Middle Ages," 
1st series 1806, 2nd series 1867 ; 
"Curiosities of Olden Times," 
1869; "The Silver Store," 1868; 
" The Book of Werewolves," 1865 ; 
" In Exitu Israel, an Historical 
Novel," 1870; "The Origin and 
Development of Religious Belief," 

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vol. i. 1869, vol. ii. 1870; "The 
Golden. Gate," 1869-70 ; "Lives of 
the Saints," 15 vols., 1872-77; 
"Some Modern Difficulties, a 
coarse of Lectures preached at St. 
Paul's Cathedral/' 1874; "The 
Lost and Hostile Gospels : an 
Essay on the Toledoth Jeschu, and 
the Petrine and Pauline Gospels of 
the First Three Centuries of which 
Fragments remain/' 1874 ; " York- 
shire Oddities/' 2 vols., 1874; 
"Some Modern Difficulties/' in 
nine lectures, 1875 ; " Village Ser- 
mons for a Year," 1875; "The 
Vicar of Morwenstowe," 1876 ; 
" The Mystery of Suffering," 1877 ; 
"Germany, Present and Past," 
1879; "The Preacher's Pocket," 
1880 ; " The Village Pulpit," 1881 ; 
" Nichalah : a Story of the Essex 
Marshes," 1880 ; " Zitta : a Black 
Forest Romance" (published in 
German 1882, in English 1883). 
He was editor of The Sacristy, a 
quarterly review of ecclesiastical 
art and literature, 1871-73. 

BARKER, Mabt Ann (Lady), 
is the eldest daughter of the late 
Hon. W. G. Stewart, Island Secre- 
tary of Jamaica, in which island 
she was born. Being sent to Eng- 
land at two years old, she was edu- 
cated at home, and returned to 
Jamaica in 1850. In 1852 she mar- 
ried Captain G. R. Barker, Royal 
Artillery, who afterwards distin- 
guished himself very highly in the 
Crimean War and the Indian Mu- 
tiny, and was made K.C.B. for ser- 
vices in the field. Lady Barker 
went out to India to join Sir George 
early in 1860, but he died in the 
autumn of that year, and she re- 
turned to England. In 18G5 Lady 
Barker married Mr. Frederick 
Napier Broome, then of Canter- 
bury, New Zealand, and accom- 
panied him back to the Middle 
Island. Early in 1869 Mr. Napier 
Broome and Lady Barker returned 
to England. " Station Life in New 
Zealand," from Lady Barker's pen, 
was published in the autumn of that 
year, and its success encouraged the 

author to write, in the following 
year, a small volume for children, 
called " Stories About." So popu- 
lar did this second work become, 
that it was soon followed by "A 
Christmas Cake in Four Quarters," 
" Spring Comedies," a novelette ; 
" Travelling About," " Holiday 
Stories," "Ribbon Stories," "Sy- 
bil's Book," " Station Amusements 
in New Zealand," " Boys," " Bet of 
Stow," besides many short articles 
for the leading magazines. In the 
spring of 1874 Lady Barker also 
published a little book, called 
"First Principles of Cooking," of 
which the circulation has been very 
large ; and almost immediately 
after its appearance she was ap- 
pointed to the post of Lady Super- 
intendent of the National Training 
School of Cookery, in Exhibition 
Road, South Kensington. Lady 
Barker was also editor of Evening 
Hours, a family magazine. For 
several years Lady Barker resided 
with her husband in South Africa. 
Her experiences of that country are 
described in " A Year's Housekeep- 
ing in South Africa," 1877. 

BARKLY, Sib Henry, K.C.B., 
G.C.M.G., is of Scottish extraction, 
being the only son of the late Mne&s 
Barkly, Esq., of Ross-shire, an emi- 
nent West India merchant in Lon- 
don, where he was born in 1815. 
Having received a sound commer- 
cial education at Bruce Castle 
School, Tottenham, he applied him- 
self to business, in which he ob- 
tained that practical experience 
which has placed him in the fore- 
most rank of our colonial adminis- 
trators. In 1845 he was elected 
M.P. for Leominster, which consti- 
tuency he represented till 1849, as 
a " firm supporter of Sir R. Peel's 
commercial policy." In 1849 he 
was appointed Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the settlement 
of British Guiana (where he owned 
estates), and during his governor- 
ship laid before Parliament some 
valuable information respecting the 
colony ; advocating the introduc- 

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tion of Coolies and Chinese as 
labourers. Sir Henry also endea- 
voured to develop the resources of 
the colony by the introduction of 
railways, and by reconciling the 
factions which had retarded its 
advancement. As Governor of 
Jamaica, from 1853 to 1856, he was 
equally successful. Sir William 
Molesworth, Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, in 1856 appointed him 
to the important and wealthv 
governorship of Victoria, for which 
his business habits and his large 
commercial experience peculiarly 
fitted him ; and in 1863 he was ap- 
pointed Governor of the Mauritius. 
In Aug. 1870 he was appointed 
Governor of the Cape of Good 
Hope, and he held that office till 
Dec. 1876. He was appointed High 
Commissioner for settling the 
affairs of the territories adjacent to 
the eastern frontier of the Cape of 
Good Hope in Nov. 1870. Sir 
Henry Barkly was created a K.C.B. 
(Civil division) in 1853, on return- 
ing home from British Guiana ; and 
G.C.M.G. in 1874. 

BARLOW, Thomas Oldham, 
R.A., was born at Oldham, near 
Manchester, Aug. 4, 1824. From 
a very early age his desire was 
to be a painter or an engraver. 
His father yielded to his wish, 
and placed him with Messrs. Ste- 
phenson and Royston, engravers, of 
Manchester. He became a student 
in the School of Design there, and 
gained the first prize for a design, 
exhibited under the title of " Cul- 
lings from Nature." At the Man- 
chester Exhibition he saw a small 
picture, by the late John Phillip, 
entitled " Courtship," and endea- 
voured to persuade a friend to pur- 
chase it, that he might engrave it 
before going to London ; but this 
he was reluctantly obliged to aban- 
don. Soon after coming to London, 
he made the acquaintance of a gen- 
tleman, who suggested his engrav- 
ing a picture, and offered to supply 
the necessary means. He therefore 
went to the first exhibition that was 

opened — that of the British Institu- 
tion — where, to his delight, the first 
picture that caught his eye was the 
one he had desired to engrave in 
Manchester. This introduced him 
to the late John Phillip, whose first 
copyright Mr. Barlow purchased for 
JB5, Mr. Phillip having at first re- 
fused to take anything for it ; and 
thus began their well-known friend- 
ship. Indeed, their similarity of 
taste and feeling was so marked, 
that they seemed inseparable. This 
intimacy and sympathy naturally 
resulted in Mr. Barlow engraving 
most of Phillip's pictures. Mr. 
Barlow was elected an Associate 
Engraver of the Royal Academy by 
an almost unanimous vote in 1873. 
The following are some of the prin- 
cipal works engraved by Mr. Barlow: 
—After John Phillip, R.A., "Court- 
ship," "Spanish Gipsy Mother," 
" Prayer in Spain," " Augustus 
Egg, R.A.," " H.R.H. the Prince 
Consort," "The House of Com- 
mons, I860," " Dona Pepita," " Se- 
ville," " The Prison Window," 
" Prayer," ". La Gloria, a Spanish 
Wake," " Dolores," " Faith," 
" Breakfast in the Highlands ;" 
after James Sant, R.A., "Mother 
and Child;" after F. W. Tophani, 
"Making Nets ;" after W. P. Frith, 
R.A., " Charles Dickens;" after 
Henrietta Browne, " Sisters of 
Mercy ;" after Sir G. Kneller, " Sir 
Isaac Newton j" after H. Wallis, 
" The Death of Chatterton " and 
after J. E. MiUais, R.A., "The 
Huguenot," "My First Sermon," 
" My Second Sermon," " Awake," 
"Asleep," "John Fowler, Esq., 
C.E.," "Sir James Paget, Bart.," 
" The Duke of Westminster," " Sir 
Sterndale Bennett," " Effie Deans," 
" A Jersey Lily," " Mr. Gladstone," 
" The Bride of Lammermoor," «« Mr. 
John Bright," " Mr. Tennyson ;" 
after Sir E. Landseer, R.A., "The 
Little Strollers " after D. Maclise, 
R. A., " Dr. R. Quain, F.R.S." Mr. 
Barlow was elected a Royal Aca- 
demician Engraver May 5, 1881. 
BARNARD, Frederick Auous- 

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its Poster, D.IX, LL..D., born at 
Sheffield, Massachusetts, May 5, 
1809. He graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1828 ; \>ecame tutor there in 
1829, and subsequently a teacher in 
the Deaf and Dumb Asylums in 
Hartford and New York. From 1837 
to 184S he -was Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy, and 
afterwards, till 1854, of Chemistry, 
in the University of Alabama. In 
1854 he became Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Astronomy in the Uni- 
versity of Mississippi, of which he 
was elected President in 1856, and 
Chancellor in 1858. In 1854 he 
took orders in the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, and in 18G1 resigned 
his Chancellorship and chair in the 
University of Mississippi. In 18G4 
he was chosen President of Colum- 
bia College, New York, a position 
which he still holds. In 1860 he 
was a member of the Astronomical 
Expedition to observe the total 
eclipse of the sun in Labrador, 
and was elected President of the 
American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. In 1862 he 
was engaged in the reduction of 
Gilliss's observations of the stars in 
the southern hemisphere, and in 
1863 had charge of the publication 
of the charts and maps of the 
United States Coast Survey. In 
1867 he was United States Com- 
missioner to the Paria Exhibition. 
Qe is a member of various learned 
societies in Europe and America, 
and has received the honorary de- 
g-rees of LL.D. (Jefferson College, 
1855, Yale College, 1859), S.T.D. 
(University of Mississippi, 1861), 
and in 1872 that of Doctor of Lite- 
rature from the Regents of the 
University of New York. He has 
published, "Treatise on Arith- 
metic/' 1830; "Analytic Gram- 
mar/' 1836; "Letters on Collegiate 
Government/' 1855; "History of 
the United States Coast Survey," 
1857- ""Report on Machinery and 
IndnkrM Arts/' 1869; "Recent 
Progress of Science/' 1869; and 
"The Metric System 

1871. He 

has also contributed largely to 
scientific and educational journals. 
In conjunction with Professor Ar- 
nold Guyot, he edited Johnson's 
" Universal Cyclopaedia," 1874-7. 

BARNARD, Hbnbt, LL.D., born 
at Hartford, Connecticut, Jan. 24, 
1811; A.B. (Yale College), 1830. 
After extensive travel in the United 
States, he made a two years' tour of 
Europe (1835-37), giving special 
attention to educational institu- 
tions and methods. He was from 
1837 to 1840 a member of the Con- 
necticut Legislature, and carried 
through that body a complete re- 
organization of the common school 
system, and was for four years 
(1838-42) a member and secretary 
of the Board of Education created 
by it. Displaced by a political 
change in 1842, he spent more than 
a year in an extensive educational 
tour through the United States, 
with a view to the preparation of :i 
History of Public Schools in tho 
United States. He was called from 
the prosecution of this work to 
take charge of the public schools of 
Rhode Island ; and after five years 
returned to Hartford, 1849. In 
1850 a State Normal School was 
established in Connecticut, and he 
was appointed Principal, with the 
added duties of State Superinten- 
dent of Public Schools. After five 
years of severe labour he retired 
from this work, but soon commenced 
the publication of the American 
Journal of Education, Hartford, in 
1855, which is still continued. H«» 
has been President of the American 
Association for the Advancement of 
Education, was elected in 1856 Pre- 
sident and Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, which office he 
resigned in 1859 ; was President in 
1865-7 of the St. John's College. 
Annapolis, Maryland, and United 
States Commissioner of the Depart- 
ment of Education in 1868-70. His 
contributions to educational litera- 
ture have been so numerous, that 
but few of them can be mentioned 
here: — "Education in Factories," 

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1842 ; "National Education in 
Europe," 1851 ; "Normal Schools 
in the United States and Europe/' 
1851 ; " Tribute to Gallaudet with 
History of Deaf Mute Instruction/' 
1852; "School Libraries," 1851; 
"Hints and Methods for the Use 
of Teachers/' 1857 ; " English Pe- 
dagogy," 1862 ; " National Educa- 
tion," 1872; "Military Schools," 
1872; "American Pedagogy," 1875. 
BARNES, The Eev. William; 
B.D., was born at Rushhay, Bagber, 
a hamlet of Sturminster Newton, in 
the vale of Blackmore, Dorset. He 
is descended from a family who, in 
the time of Philip and Mary, held 
Mageston, in the parish of Gilling- 
ham, and to one of whom (William 
Barnes) land in Gillingham was 
granted in the 31st of Henry VIII., 
though later generations (from 
1732) had lost their lands and were 
farmers at East Stower and Mans- 
ton. Most of his higher scholar- 
ship, with his university degree, 
has been won by a pursuit of know- 
ledge under difficulties. Mr. Barnes 
kept, for some years, a school at 
DorcheBter, and he had some pupils 
who studied for service in India, 
and whom he forwarded in the ele- 
ments of Hindoostanee and Persian. 
He was appointed to the curacy of 
Whitcombe, Dorset, in 1847 ; and 
was instituted to the rectory of 
Winterbourne Came, Dorchester, in 
1862. He is the author of three 
volumes of " Poems of Rural Life, 
in the Dorset Dialect," " A Gram- 
mar and Glossary of the Dorset 
Dialect," "A Philological Grammar, 
grounded upon English, and formed 
from a comparison of more than 
sixty Languages : being an Intro- 
duction to the Science of Grammars 
of all Languages, especially Eng- 
lish, Latin, and Greek ; " " Tiw ; or, 
a View of the Roots and Stems of 
the English as a Teutonic Tongue ; " 
" An Anglo-Saxon Delectus, in- 
cluding Extracts from Anglo-Saxon 
History and the Saxon Chronicle ; " 
" Notes on Ancient Britain and the 
Britons," being the result of his 

collections for a course of Lectures 
on this subject ; " Views of Labour 
and Gold ; " Early England an J 
the Saxon English ; " " Rural Poems 
in common English," of which a 
handsome illustrated edition has 
been printed in America; "An 
Outline of English Speechcraft," 
and " An Outline of Redecraft." In 
early life he contributed about 
twenty-five letters on topographical 
and other subjects to the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, with some wood- 
cuts by his own hand. He has other 
works ready for the press, vii. : — 
another volume of Poems; an en- 
larged " Glossary of the Dorset 
Dialect ; " " Studies in Early British 
History, with Notes on the Cause 
and Laws of the Changes of Initial 
Consonants in Welsh ; " and " Ruth," 
a short drama from the Bible. 

BARNETT, John, musical com- 
poser, was born near Bedford, July 
15, 1802. His father was a native 
of Hanau, in Prussia, and his mother 
an Hungarian. At the age of ten, 
being possessed of a wonderful con- 
tralto voice, he was articled to Mr. 
Samuel James Arnold, manager of 
Drury Lane, and sang in the " Ship- 
wreck," and many other pieces, 
being alternately at that theatre 
and at Covent Garden for five suc- 
cessive years, and appearing in the 
company of the elder Kean, when 
the latter made his debut in " Mac- 
beth." After the changing of his 
voice Mr. Barnett devoted himself 
exclusively to the study of the piano 
and composition, under Ferdinand 
Ries (the favourite pupil of Beet- 
hoven), Sento Perer, Kalkbrenner, 
William Huxley, and Xarcier 
Schneider. His operas are : the 
famous "Mountain Sylph" (pro- 
duced at the Lyceum in 1834, and 
being the first real English opera) ; 
"Fair Rosamond" (a grand his- 
torical opera produced in 1836) ; and 
"Farinelli" (produced in 1839). * In 
addition to these important works, 
he is the composer of a large 
number of once eminently popular 
vaudevilles, such as "The Pet of 

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the Petticoats," " The Carnival of 
Naples/' " Before Breakfast/' " Mr. 
Hallett/* and " Win and Wear Her." 
His various canzonets and ballads 
number, perhaps, a thousand, 
amongst which figure the familiar 
titles of ** The Light Guitar," " Rise, 
Gentle Moon," and «« Not a Drum 
was Heard/' He became director 
of the Olympic Theatre in 1832, 
under the management of Madame 
Testris. In 1839 he married the 
youngest daughter of the late cele- 
brated violoncellist, Eobert Lindley, 
after which he retired to Chelten- 
ham, where he has resided for many 
years, turning his attention to the 
study and cultivation of the voice, 
upon which he has published an 
important volume. 

BARNUM, Phineas Taylor, 
born at Bethel, Connecticut, July 
5, 1810. He began business at the 
age of thirteen, and in 1834 removed 
to New York, where in 1841 he pur- 
chased the American Museum, by 
which in a few years he acquired a 
fortune. In 1856 he engaged Jenny 
Lind to visit America, to give 150 
concerts, but the engagement was 
cancelled when 93 performances had 
been given. In 1855 he took up his 
residence at Bridgeport, Connecti- 
cut, and engaged largely in real 
estate and manufacturing enter- 
prises. These were unsuccessful, 
and he became bankrupt. Having 
effected a compromise with his 
creditors, he resumed the manage- 
ment of the Museum, and Boon re- 
trieved his fortunes. He was twice 
burnt out — in 1865, and again in 
1868, when he announced his retire- 
ment from business. The instinct 
of the showman, however, was too 
strong, and after a few years he re- 
entered the field on a larger scale 
than ever. Mr. Barnum served one 
term in the Connecticut Legislature 
(1S65), and was a candidate for 
Congress in 1866, but was defeated 
by his Democratic opponent. He 
has lectured upon temperance and 
other topics, and besides some 
smaller works has published : " The 

Life of P. T. Barnum, written by 
Himself/' 1855 ; " The Humbugs of 
the World," 1865; and a sort of 
autobiography entitled " Struggles 
and Triumphs," 1869. 

BAEODA, The Maharajah 
Gaekwar of. His Highness Maha- 
rajah Syaji Rao Gaekwar was born 
on the 10th of March, 1863, at the 
town of Kavalana in the Nassick 
District, and is the son of the late 
Rao Bhikaji Rao Gaekwar. He 
was educated in the " Maharajah's 
School " at Baroda, under the per- 
sonal supervision and tuition of 
Mr. F. Elliot, of the Indian Civil 
Service. It will be in the memory 
of our readers how the late Gaekwar, 
Mulhar Rao, for his attempt to poi- 
Bon Colonel Phayre, the British 
Resident, and for continual and 
gross misgovernment, was, after 
being tried by a mixed commission 
of European officials and native 
chiefs, deposed from his govern- 
ment and sent into exile at Madras, 
where he died at the end of 1882. 
On Mulhar Rao's deposition, and 
with the consent of the Earl of 
Northbrook, then Viceroy of India, 
the Maharanee Jumna Bai adopted, 
on the 27th of May, 1875, the present 
Maharajah, who was on the same 
day installed on the guddee or 
throne. During the minority of the 
Maharajah the administration was 
carried on by a Council of Regency 
under the direction of the European 
representative ; and Raja Sir Tau- 
jore Madhava Rao, Bahadoor, 
K.C.S.I., who was the Dewan to His 
Highness Maharajah Scindiah of 
Gwalior, was specially selected to 
fill the post of Prime Minister, to- 
gether with a seat at the Regency 
Board. On the 28th December, 
1881, and at the early age of 18, 
His Highness was invested with 
full and sovereign powers, and 
since he has held the reins of 
state he has, with the assistance of 
Sir Madhava Rao, whom he has re- 
tained as his Prime Minister, given 
the greatest satisfaction by his apti- 
tude for work and desire to intro- 

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duce reforms. His Highness is an 
excellent English scholar, and 
speaks the language as fluently as 
his own. 

BARROT, Victorin Ferdinand, 
a brother of the late M. Odilon 
Barrot, and an advocate by profes- 
sion, born at Paris, Jan. 10, 1800, 
became a member of the Chamber 
of Deputies in 1845. He first at- 
tracted attention by his skill in 
dealing with the affairs of Algeria ; 
and on the fall of Louis Philippe, 
in 1848, was elected to represent 
that colony in the Constituent As- 
sembly. Having acted as counsel 
for Louis Napoleon in the legal pro- 
ceedings that arose from the at- 
tempts upon Strasburg and Bou- 
logne, that prince, on his election to 
the Presidency, made him his secre- 
tary, and he acted as one of his 
ministers from October, 1849, to 
March, 1850. He was then ap- 
pointed Ambassador at Turin, a post 
he held till the famous coup d'ttat, 
which inaugurated the Second Em- 
pire. Under the new regime, he was 
successively appointed a Councillor 
of State and a Senator, but he did 
not take a very prominent part in 
either capacity. M. Ferdinand Bar- 
rot was made Commander of the 
Legion of Honour, Dec. 8, 1852, and 
Grand Referendary of the French 
Senate in Jan. 1867. The events of 
Sept. 1870 caused him to disappear 
from the political arena, but he 
came forward as the official and 
Bonapartist candidate for the arron- 
dissement of Courbevoie in 1877, 
when he was defeated by the Re- 
publican candidate, M. Emile Des- 
chanel. At the close of the same 
year, however, he was chosen a 
Senator for life, in the place of M. 
Pierre Lanfrey. 

BARRY, The Rev. Alfred, D.D., 
D.C.L., second son of the late 
eminent architect, Sir Charles 
Barry, born in 1826, was educated 
at King's College, London, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated B.A. as fourth 
Wrangler, second Smith's prize- 

man, and seventh in the first class 
of the Classical Tripos in 1848, 
obtaining a fellowship in the same 
year. Dr. Barry, who was ordained 
in 1850, was from 1851 to 1854 
Sulj- Warden of Trinity College, 
Glenalmond ; and subsequently 
held from 1854 to 1862 the Head 
Mastership of the Grammar School 
at Leeds, which he raised to a very 
high position by his energy and 
ability; and in 1862 he was ap- 
pointed to the Principalship of 
Cheltenham College. In 1868 he 
became Principal of King's College, 
London ; in 1869 Examining Chap- 
lain to the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells ; in 1871 a Canon of Wor- 
cester; in 1875 Honorary Chaplain, 
and in 1880 Chaplain in Ordinary, 
to the Queen ; and in 1881 Canon 
of Westminster. He was also a 
member of the London School Board 
from 1871 to 1877. Dr. Barry is 
the author of an " Introduction to 
the Old Testament," " Notes on the 
Gospels," "Life of Sir C. Barry, 
R.A.," "Cheltenham College Ser- 
mons," " Sermons for Boys," " Notes 
on the Catechism," "Religion for 
Every Day : Lectures to Men," 1873, 
" What is Natural Theology ? " the 
Boyle Lectures for 1876. 

BARRY, The Right Hon. 
Charles Robert, born at Limerick, 
in 1834, received his academical 
education at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, was called to the Irish bar in 
1845, was made a Queen's Counsel 
in 1849, and was the first Crown 
Prosecutor in Dublin from 1859 to 
1865. Mr. Barry was law adviser 
to the Crown from 1865 to 1869, 
during which period he represented 
Dungarvan in the House of Com- 
mons. He was appointed Solicitor- 
General for Ireland in 1869 and 
Attorney-General in Jan., 1870, 
succeeding, in the latter office, Mr. 
Sullivan, who had been appointed 
Master of the Rolls in Ireland. In 
Dec, 1871, he was appointed a 
Judge of the Queen's Bench in 
Ireland, in the room of the Right 
Hon. John George, deceased. In 

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Aug., 1878, lie was nominated a 
member of the Royal Commission 
appointed to inquire into the provi- 
sions of the draft Code relating to 
Indictable Offences. In June, 1883, 
he accepted the office of Lord Jus- 
tice of Appeal, vacant by the death 
of Lord Justice Deasy. 

H1LAXRE, Jules, member of the 
Institute, born in Paris, Aug. 19, 
1806 ; -was at first attached to the 
Ministry of Finance ; but this did 
not prevent him from writing in 
the Globe, and he signed the pro- 
testation of the journalists, July 28, 
1*80. After the revolution he 
founded the Bon Sens, and, as a 
Liberal, took an active part in 
politics ; but towards the close of 
1833 he showed signs of a desire to 
renounce political life, and to apply 
himself to literature. In 1854 he 
was made tutor of French literature 
in the Polytechnic School, and 
undertook about the same time a 
complete translation of the works of 
Aristotle, which served as a pendant 
to the translation of Plato, published 
by Cousin. For this service he was 
in 1838 appointed to the chair of 
Greek and Latin Philosophy in the 
College of France, and was admitted 
into the Academy of the Moral and 
Political Sciences. The revolution 
of February again drew him into the 
political arena, and he entered the 
Constituent Assembly, and became 
one of the chiefs of the republican 
tiert~parti. He favoured the candi- 
dature of Louis Napoleon, and sup- 
ported the administration of M. 
Odilon Barrot. After the coup 
d'itai of Dec. 2, 1852, and the 
downfall of the parliamentary 
system, he refused to take the oath, 
and resigned his chair in the Col- 
lege of France, but was reappointed 
in 1862. At the general election of 
1869 he was returned to the Corps 
L^gislatif as deputy for the first 
circonscription of Seine-et-Oise. He 
voted with the extreme Left, and 
was one of those who signed the 
manifesto after the disturbances 

caused by the funeral of the Deputy 
Baudin. During the siege of Paris 
he remained in the capital, which 
he quitted after the armistice, in 
order to take his seat in the National 
Assembly, he having been elected a 
deputy for the department of Seine- 
et-Oise. He was a zealous supporter 
of his old friend M. Thiers. He 
was elected a Life Senator by the 
National Assembly, Dec. 10, 1875, 
and took his seat among the Re- 
publican minority. At the termina- 
tion of the ministerial crisis, occa- 
sioned by the execution of the 
decrees against the unauthorized 
religious communities, he accepted 
the portfolio of Foreign Affairs, in 
succession to M. de Freycinet, in 
the Cabinet which was reconstituted 
under the presidency of M. Jules 
Ferry (Sept. 23, 1880). His princi- 
pal works are : — " Politique d'Aris- 
tote " (Paris, 1837 ; 2nd ed. 1818) ; 
"De la Logique d'Aristote," a 
memoir which received the prize of 
the Institute, 1838 j " La Logique 
d'Aristote," translated into French 
for the first time, 1839-44 ; " Psy- 
chologie d'Aristote : Traitc de 
l'Ame," 1816; and "Opuscules/* 
translated for the first time, 1847 ; 
"De Tlicole d'Alexandrie," report 
to the Institute, preceded by an 
" Essai sur la Methode des Alexan- 
dras etle Mysticisme," 1845 ; " Des 
Vedas," 1854; "Du Bouddhisme," 
1855 ; and " Le Boudha et sa Reli- 
gion," 1866. 

BARTLETT, John Russell, 
born in Providence, Rhode Island, 
Oct. 23, 1805. At an early age he 
was placed in a banking-house, and 
for six years was cashier of the 
Globe Bank in Providence. While 
there he was one of the originators 
of the Athenaeum and an active 
member of the Franklin Society for 
the Cultivation of the Sciences, 
before which he occasionally lec- 
tured. In 1837 he became a book- 
seller in New York, in partnership 
with Mr. Welford, devoting his 
leisure hours to the study of history 
and ethnology. He was one of the 

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founders of the American Ethno- 
logical Society, and Secretary of the 
New York Historical Society. In 
1850 he was appointed Commissioner 
for the survey of the boundary-line 
l^etween the United States and 
Mexico. The results of this survey, 
which occupied three years, and 
embraced observations in astro- 
nomy, ethnology, and natural 
history, were published by the 
United States Government in 1857- 
58. In 1855 he was elected Secre- 
tary of State of Rhode Island, and 
has been continued in that office by 
repeated elections. In 1861-452 he 
was acting Governor of Rhode 
Island. Besides editing and pub- 
lishing the records of the colony 
of Rhode Island, he has issued 
" The Progress of Ethnology/' 
1847 j " Reminiscences of Albert 
Gallatin," 1819 ; " Dictionary of 
American isms," 18 W ; " Personal 
Narrative of Explorations and 
Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, 
California, Sonora, and Chihua- 
hua," 1856 ; " Index to the Acts 
and Resolves of the General As- 
sembly of Rhode Island" (1758- 
1862) ; " History of the Destruction 
of H.B.M. Schooner Gasper," 1862; 
" Bibliography of Rhode Island," 
1864 ; *' Bibliotheca Americana," 
I vols., 1865-70 ; " Literature of the 
Rebellion," 1867 ; " Memoirs of 
Rhode Island Officers in the War 
of the Rebellion," 1867 ; " Primeval 
Man," 1868; "History of the 
Wanton Family in Rhode Island," 
1879; and an enlarged edition of 
his " Dictionary of Americanisms," 

BASCHET, Armand, a French 
writer, born at Blois in 1829. He 
first became known by some striking 
artistic and literary criticisms in 
different periodicals, and afterwards 
published "Honore de Balzac," 
with historical notes by M. Champ- 
fleury (1851), and " Les Origines de 
Werther" (1855). He was then 
sent on a mission to examine the 
archives of Venice, and his reputa- 
tion as an author rests mainly on 

the many interesting publications 
resulting from his researches among 
the old Italian manuscripts. These 
works include " Les Archives de la 
Serenissime Republique de Venise : 
Souvenirs d'une Mission," 1858 ; 
" La Diplomatic Venitienne : les 
Princes de TEurope au XVI e siecle, 
d'apres les rapports des Ambassa- 
deurs Vemtiens," 1862; "Les 
Archives de Venise : Histoire de la 
Chancellerie secrete," 1870; " Le 
Roi chez la Reine, ou Histoire 
secrete du mariage de Louis XIII. 
et d'Anne d'Autriche, d'apres le 
journal de la saute* du Roi, les 
depeches du Nonce, &c," 1864, 
2nd ed. 1866. From other sources 
M. Baschet has obtained the mate- 
rials for " Journal du Concile de 
Trente, redige* par un Secretaire 
Venitien," 1870; " Le Due de 
Saint-Simon, son cabinet et Fhis- 
torique de ses manuscrits," 1874 ; 
" Histoire du De*pot des Archives 
des Affaires £trangeres," 1875 ; and 
" Les Com6diens Italiens a la Cour 
de France," 1882, a charming 
volume, full of new and piquant 
details concerning the French 
sovereigns, the Duke of Mantua, 
and others. He published, in con- 
junction with M. Feuillet de Con- 
ches, " LeB Femmes blondes selon 
les peintres de l'ecole de Venise," 
1858; and he translated from the 
German of Alfred von Reumont 
" La Jeunesse de Catherine de 
Mexlicis," 1866. M. Baschet was 
decorated with the cross of the 
Legion of Honour in 1863. 

BASTIAN. Henry Charlton, 
M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., was born at 
Truro, in Cornwall, April 26, 1837 -, 
was educated at a private school at 
Falmouth, and in University Col- 
lege, London. He graduated M.A . 
in 1861, M.B. in 1863, and M.D. in 
1866; these degrees being conferred 
by the University of London. He 
was elected F.R.S. in 1868, and 
F.R.C.P. in 1871. Dr. Bastian is 
also a Fellow of several Medical 
Societies. In 1866 he was ap- 
pointed Lecturer on Pathology, and 

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AgsWtant-Fhyaician to St. Mary's 
Hospital. These posts he held un- 
til bis appointment as Professor of 
Pathological Anatomy in University 
College, and Assistant- Physician to 
University College Hospital in 
Dec. 1967 . He was elected a physi- 
cian to this hospital in 1871 ; and 
in 1S78, on taking charge of in- 
patients, a professorship of clinical 
medicine was conferred upon him. 
Dr. Bastian was Dean of the 
Faculty of Medicine in University 
College during the sessions 1871-5, 
and 187 5-6 ; and he served as 
Examiner in Medicine to the 
Queen's University in Ireland for 
1870-70. Dr. Bastian has pub- 
lished the following works : — "The 
31 odes of Origin of Lowest Organ- 
ising," 1871; "The Beginnings of 
Life," 2 vols., 1872; "Evolution 
and the Origin of Life," 1874; 
•' Clinical Lectures on the Common 
Forms of Paralysis from Brain 
Disease," 1875 ; and " The Brain as 
an Organ of Mind," 1880. The 
latter work has been translated 
into French and German. He is 
also the author of " Memoirs on 
Xematoids: Parasitic and Free," 
in the Philosophical Transactions 
and the Transactions of the Linn&an 
Society. In his monograph on the 
AxiguillulidaB he described 100 new 
species discovered by him in this 
eountry. He is also the author of 
numerous papers on Pathology, in 
the Transactions of the Pathological 
Society ; of papers on the more re- 
condite departments of Cerebral 
Physiology in the Journal of Mental 
Science, and other periodicals ; and 
of some joint articles with the 
editor in Dr. Reynold's " System of 
Medicine;" and he is also one of 
the principal contributors to 
Quain'8 " Dictionary of Medicine " 
(1882), having written nearly the 
whole of the articles on Diseases of 
the Spinal Cord, as well as many 
others on Diseases of the Nervous 

BATBIE, Ansblme Polycabpk, 
was horn at Seissan, in the depart- 

ment of Gers, France, May 31, 
1828. He studied classics at Auch 
and law at Toulouse. At the com- 
petition, in 1849, he became Audi- 
tor to the Council of State, and 
was created Doctor of Law by tho 
Faculty of Paris in the following 
year. When, after the events of 
Dec. 1851, the Council of State was 
re-modelled, M. Batbie's services 
were no longer required as Auditor, 
and he then applied himself to tho 
teaching of law, in connection 
with the Faculties of Dijon and 
Toulouse. In 1853 he was elected 
a member of the Academy of Legis- 
lation in the latter town, and he 
published in the " Transactions " 
of this learned body a dissertation 
on the " Forum Judicum " of the 
Visigoths. He delivered at Tou- 
louse (1854-56) a series of lec- 
tures on public and administrative 
law compared. In Jan. 1857, he 
became Assistant-Prof essor at Paris, 
where, in 1802, he commenced a 
course of lectures, which has been 
continued to the present time, on 
administrative law, and also 
another course on political economy. 
In I860, at the request of M. Rou- 
land, Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion, he visited the universities of 
Belgium, Holland, and Germany, 
in order to study the methods 
adopted by them for teaching pub- 
lic and administrative law. In the 
same year the Academy of Moral 
and Political Sciences awarded to 
him the Faucher prize for a disser- 
tation on the life and works of 
Turgot, published under the title 
of "Turgot, philosophe, econoiniste, 
et administrateur." In 1861 he 
began the publication of a " Traite 
theorique et pratique du droit 
publique et administratif," which 
was to be completed in six volumes. 
The Academy of Moral and Politi- 
cal Sciences showed their apprecia- 
tion of M. Batbie's studies by 
awarding him, in 1862, the grand 
Beaujour prize for a treatise on the 
institutions of popular credit, pub- 
lished under the title of «' Le 
o 2 

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Credit populaire," and ono of the 
ordinary prizes of the year for a 
dissertation on "Le Pr£t a inter^t." 
At the elections of Feb. 1871, M. 
Batbie, who until then had scrupu- 
lously held aloof from political 
life, was elected a member of the 
National Assembly by the depart- 
ment of Gers, receiving 59,860 
votes, which placed him at the head 
of the poll. He took his place 
among the members of the Eight 
Centre, and his great ability soon 
caused him to be regarded as one 
of the leaders of the Monarchical 
party. He was a member of many 
important commissions, including 
the Commission of Fifteen, which 
was appointed to watch the nego- 
tiations for the Treaty of Peace, the 
Commission of Inquiry into the 
Organisation of the City of Paris 
and the Department of the Seine, 
the Commission of Thirty, the 
Commission of Pardons, and the 
Commission for the Reform of 
Legal Studies. He was also the 
reporter of the Bill for the re- 
organisation of the Council of 
State. M. Batbie was one of the 
delegates of the Eight who, on 
June 20, 1872, were authorised to 
present to M. Thiers, President of 
the Eepublic, the ultimatum of the 
majority in the Chamber. He was 
also the reporter of the Kerdrel 
Commission, which was charged 
with the task of replying to the 
Presidential message of Nov. 13, 
1872. In the administration of 
the Due de Broglie, M. Batbie was 
Minister of Public Instruction and 
Public Worship. He resigned with 
his colleagues, Nov. 26, 1873. He 
was next nominated President of 
the Commission of Thirty, which 
was engaged in examining the sup- 
plementary constitutional laws. In 
Dec. 1875, he was elected a Senator 
by the department of Gers; his 
term of office expired in 1879. In 
addition to the works already men- 
tioned, M. Batbie is the author of 
" Doctrine et Jurisprudence en ma- 
ture d'Appel comme d'abus," 1852 ; 

" Precis du cours de droit public et 
administratis" 1863 ; " Nouveau 
cours d'economie politique," 2 vols., 
1861r-£5 ; and " Melanges d'econo- 
mie politique," 1865. 

BATEMAN, Kate Josephine, 
born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 
1842. Both her parents were actors, 
and she, with her sister, two years 
older than herself, appeared in 
public as the " Bateman Children " 
as early as 1850. She afterwards 
prepared herself assiduously for 
the stage, and in 1859 played suc- 
cessfully in the leading American 
theatres, her principal characters 
being those of Evangeline, foun- 
ded on Longfellow's poem ; Geral- 
dine, in a play written for her by 
her mother ; Julia, in the " Hunch- 
back j" Pauline, in the "Lady of 
Lyons ; " and Juliet and Lady Mac- 
beth. She arrived in England in 
the autumn of 1863, and appeared 
210 times in the character of the 
Jewish maiden Leah, in an adapta- 
tion of the German play, " De- 
borah," at the Adelphi Theatre, 
Oct. 1. After a provincial tour, 
she re-appeared at the Adelphi, 
playing Julia in the " Hunchback," 
and other characters. She took a 
farewell of the English public at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, in the 
character of Juliet, in "Borneo 
and Juliet," Dec. 22, 1865, and was 
married to Mr. George Crowe, in 
Oct. 1866. Mrs. Crowe returned to 
the stage in 1868, retaining her 
stage name of Kate Bateman. She 
has made the character of Leah 
peculiarly her own. In 1872, and 
subsequently, she appeared with 
great success in London as Medea, 
in the play of that name. In 
1875, on a revival of " Macbeth '* 
at the Lyceum (Mr. Irving as Mac- 
beth) she played the part of Lady 
Macbeth. She also sustained the 
title rftle in Mr. Tennyson's " Queen 
Mary," which was produced at the 
same house in April, 1876. Miss 
Bateman afterwards became the 
lessee of Sadler's Wells Theatre. 


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OF. (8*€ HxjfcVKY, LiOBD ARTHUR 

BATHtTRST. Bishop op. (See 

BATJDISSIN, TJuuch, Count 
von, a German author, born Feb. 
22, 1816, at Greifswald, Prussia, 
passed bis childhood in his parents' 
house in Jutland, and then studied 
for the military profession in the 
academy for cadets at Copenhagen, 
from which he passed into the 
Danish Army. Accordingly he 
fought on the Danish side in the 
first war between Germany and 
Denmark, and he received in 1849, 
at Dnppel, a severe wound, the 
results of which caused him in 1861, 
he being then a Major, to procure 
his discharge from the service. He 
thereupon went to South Germany, 
and resided first at Munich, then at 
Constance, and afterwards at Cann- 
stadt, devoting himself to literary 
pursuits. He soon acquired a repu- 
tation as a dramatic poet and 
novelist. His comedies were pub- 
lished in a collected form in the 
•' Kleinigkeiten fur das deutsche 
Theater/' 1 803 . His principal novel 
is ** Wanderungen durch Jahrtau- 
sende," descriptive of life and man- 
ners in past times in Swabia. 

BAUDEY, Paitl Jacques Aim£, 
a French painter, born at Bourbon, 
Vendee, Nov. 7, 1828. His father 
was an artisan, burdened with a 
numerous family. He educated his 
son as best he could, and even had 
\\\m taught music. But a humble 
teacher of drawing, named Sartoris, 
detected and developed in the boy 
another faculty. At that time the 
prefect of Vendee chanced to be M. 
Gauja, an ex-contributor to the 
National, a friend of M. Thiers, and 
a lover of painting. This gentleman 
took an interest in Baudry, and 
helped to get for him a small allow- 
ance from the Department to enable 
him to study at Paris. The lad very 
speedily distinguished himself at 
the ficole des Beaux Arts. He 
leaped from success to success, he 
carried off the grand prix de Borne in 

1850, the subject being "Zenobia 
discovered on the banks of the 
Araxes." In the 8alon of 1857 he 
exhibited "The Punishment of a 
Vestal," "Fortune and the Child," 
"Leda," and a portrait of M. Beule. 
His reputation was now firmly 
established. Subsequently he ex- 
hibited "The Penitent Magdalen," 
"The Toilet of Venus," "Guille- 
mette," three portraits, 1859 ; 
"Charlotte Corday," " Amphitrite," 
several portraits, including those of 
M. Guizot (belonging to Sir John 
Boileau), M. Charles Dupin, Made- 
moiselle Madeleine Brohan, and the 
son of Madame la Comtesse Swicy 
towska, 1861; "The Pearl and the 
Wave" (a Persian fable), and two 
portraits, 18G3 ; " Diana " and a por- 
trait, 1865 ; and the portrait of M. 
Charles Gamier, the architect, 1869. 
But M. Baudry is best known by 
the magnificent pictures he executed 
for the decoration of the foyer of 
the new Opera House at Paris. His 
intimate friend, M. Edmond About, 
says : — " When the architect Charles 
Gamier proceeded to allot the 
works, he intrusted the voussures of 
the foyer to Baudry, who had already 
executed important decorative works 
at the Hotel Fould and elsewhere. 
The commission, like all State com- 
missions, was neither well nor ill 
paid at the price of 140,000 francs. 
But when the artist learned that 
there was a talk of giving the ceil- 
ings and the spaces above the doors 
to another, he offered to paint the 
whole himself without increase of 
pay, thus reducing his reward to 
280 francs per superficial metre ; the 
work occupies 500 metres square. 
Before drawing his first sketch, he 
made two journeys, one to London, 
and the other to Borne. At the 
Kensington Museum he copied the 
seven Cartoons of Raphael. At the 
Vatican he copied eleven enormous 
morsels of Michael Angelo, all to 
endue himself with the spirit of the 
masters, and to catch for himself Is 
bon pli. That done, there only re- 
mained to shut himself for eight 

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years in the damp building of the 
rising Opera-house. There he oc- 
cupied three studios, one on the 
sixth storey, another on the tenth, 
and the last quite at the top, under 
the cupola, whence neither cold nor 
heat could dislodge him . His whole 
life was there. He slept and ate in 
a loge de dan sense, furnished with 
his student's furniture. He lived 
whole months without seeing any 
other faces than those of his models 
and the old housekeeper, and very 
occasionally a friend/' In 1870 he 
was elected a member of the 
Academy of Pine Arts. M. Baudry 
was decorated with the Legion of 
Honour in 1861, and was raised to 
the rank of Commander in March, 

BAVARIA, Kino of. (8ee 
Lou 1 8 II.) 

BAXTER, The Right Hon. Wil- 
liam Edward, M.P., was born at 
Dundee, in 1825, and after passing 
through the High School of that 
town, studied in the University of 
Edinburgh. In 1855 he succeeded 
the late Mr. Joseph Hume as M.P. 
for the Montrose burghs, which he 
has represented ever since. He was 
offered office under Government 
more than once, but declined, until 
Mr. Gladstone, in 1868, formed an 
administration pledged to economy, 
when he accepted the appointment 
of Secretary to the Admiralty. In 
March, 1871, he succeeded Mr. 
Stansfeld as Secretary to the Trea- 
sury, which office he resigned Aug. 
6, 1873. He was sworn of the Privy 
Council, March 24, 1873. Mr. Bax- 
ter, who carries on business as a 
foreign merchant in Dundee, was a 
conspicuous supporter of the North 
during the American war, and is a 
well-known opponent of Church es- 
tablishments. He is the author 
of "Impressions of Central and 
Southern Europe, being notes of 
successive journeys in Germany, 
Austria, Italy, Switzerland, and the 
Levant," 1850 ; " The Tagus and the 
Tiber: or, Notes of Travel in Por- 
tugal, Spain, and Italy, in 1850-51," 

2 vols., 1852 j "America and the 
Americans," 1855; "Hints to 
Thinkers: or, Lectures for the 
Times," I860; "Free Italy," a lec- 
ture delivered in 1874; and "A 
Winter in India," in 1882. 

BAYER, Robert, an Austrian 
writer, generally known by his nan 
de guerre of Robert Byr, was born 
at Bregenz in the Tyrol, April 15, 
1835, and received his education in 
the Military Academy at Wiener- 
Neustadt, which he left on his 
appointment as lieutenant in the 
Count Radetzky's Hussar Regiment. 
In 1859 he was advanced to the 
rank of captain, and during the 
Italian campaign he was placed on 
the general staff. After the con- 
clusion of peace, Bayer began his 
literary career by the publication 
of his " Sketches of Military Life," 
(" Kantonierungsbildern," 1860). 
In 1862 he retired from active ser- 
vice and settled in his native town, 
where he still continues to reside. 
Bayer is chiefly known to fame as a 
novelist; his tragedy "Lady Glos- 
ter" (1872), being his only essay in 
dramatic composition. Military 
life he has described in his first 
work, already mentioned, in "Aus- 
trian Garrisons " (" Oesterreichisohe 
Garnisonen," 1863), and "In Quar- 
ters" ("Auf der Station," 18645). 
His " In the years Nine and Thir- 
teen" (" Anno Neun and Dreizehn," 
1865), contain biographical sketches 
of actors in the German War of In- 
dependence. To another class of 
works belong the following novels : 
"The Home of a German Count** 
(" Ein deutsches Grafenhaus." 
1866); "With a Brazen Face " 
("Mit eherner Stirn," 1868) ; "The 
Struggle for Life" ("Der Kampf 
urns Dasein," 1869); "Sphinx," 
1870; "Nomaden," 1871; "Ruin" 
("Trammer," 1871); "Quatuor " a 
collection of tales, 1875; "Ghosts" 
("Larven," 1876); and "A Secret 
Despatch" ("Eine geheime De- 
pesche," 1880) ; and "Sesam " 1880. 
BAYNE, Peter, M.A., LL.D. 
born in the manse of Podderty 

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Bosa-shire, Scotland, Oct. 19, 1S30, 
took the degree of M . A . at Marischal 
College, Aberdeen. He was the win- 
ner of a prize for a poem, open to 
competition by the whole univer- 
sity, and after taking his decree he 
won the Blackwell prize (<£W)) for 
a prose essay. He was appointed 
successively editor of the Glasgow 
Commonwealth, the Edinburgh Wit- 
ness, the Dial, and the Weekly 
Serine, the two last published in 
London. His biographical sketches 
in an Edinburgh magazine attracted 
attention, and led to the publica- 
tion, in 1855, of " The Christian 
Life in the present Time," a trea- 
tise intended to prove, in a series of 
illustrative biographies, that belief 
in Christianity is compatible with 
high intellectual gifts, and the 
noblest moral character. The book 
was popular, especially in America, 
where two volumes of Essays by 
Mr. Bayme, were published in 1S57. 
A volume of Biographical and Cri- 
tical Essays, a treatise on "The 
Testimony of Christ to Chris- 
tianity," and an historical drama 
on "The Days of Jezebel," have 
been published by him in this 
country. He has been a contributor 
to the Contemporary, Fortnightly, 
Hritish Quarterly, and London Quar- 
terly Reviews and to Fraser, and 
other magazines. He edited the 
letters, and sketched the life of 
Hugh Miller in two volumes, in 
the course of which it appeared 
that his own views of geological 
evolution are more in accordance 
with those of Darwin and Huxley 
than with those of Miller. An essay 
on the Puritans published by him in 
1862 was well spoken of, and he has 
since engaged in extensive studies 
«»f the Puritan period. A volume 
on " The Chief Actors in the Puritan 
Revolution," was published by him 
in 1K78. He has since published 
*' Lessons from my Masters," being 
his matured views on Carlyle, Ten- 
nyson, and Buskin; and "Two 
Great Englishwomen, with an Essay 
on Poetry," being his final estimate 

of Mrs. Browning, and Charlotte 
Bronte, and a reply to Mr. M. 
Arnold's theory of poetical criti- 
cism. In 1879 the University of 
Aberdeen presented him with the 
degree of LL.D. 

BAYNES, Thomas Spknckb, 
LL.D., born March 21, 1823, at Wel- 
lington, Somersetshire, was edu- 
cated at a private school at Bath, 
at Bristol College, and at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. He was 
assistant to Sir William Hamilton, 
Professor of Logic in that Univer- 
sity, 1851-55 ; Examiner in Logic 
and Mental Philosophy in the 
University of London, 1857-63 ; 
and assistant-editor of the Daily 
News from the autumn of 1857 till 
Oct. 18(H. During his residence 
in London, Mr. Baynes, besides 
writing a large number of articles 
in the Daily News on the civil wnr 
in America, contributed to several 
literary journals, especially the 
Literary Gasette and the Athenaeum, 
but he kept up his studies in his 
special subject — logic and mental 
science — by delivering lectures, ami 
taking private pupils to prepare for 
the University and India Civil Ser- 
vice Examinations. He was elected 
Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and 
Metaphysics in the University of 
St. Andrews in Oct. 1801. Professor 
Baynes has published a translation 
of the "Port Royal Logic," 1851, 
which has gone through seven edi- 
tions ; and an " Essay on the New 
Analytic of Logical Forms," with 
notes and historical appendix, 1852. 
Professor Baynes examined in Men- 
tal Philosophy for the India Civil 
Service in 1871. He was reap- 
pointed Examiner in Logic and 
Mental Philosophy in the University 
of London in 1873, and held the 
office for the usual term of five 
years . Professor Baynes was elected 
a member of the Athenaeum Club 
by the committee in 1877. He is 
now editing the ninth edition of 
the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 
Professor Baynes contributed re- 
gularly to the Edinburgh Reeled 

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(1869-75) eleven articles in all — 
Borne of which attracted consider- 
able notice. At one time he con- 
tributed to the North British Review, 
and he wrote occasionally in Fraser*s 
Magazine, the Pall Mall Gazette, 
and the Saturday Review. He took 
his degree of LL.B. in the Uni- 
versity of London ; and the honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon 
him by the University of Edin- 
burgh, April 22, 1874. 

BAZAINE, Francois Achille, 
a Marshal of France, was .born Feb. 
13, 1811. Having finished his 
studies in the Ecole Polytechnique, 
he entered the army in 1831, served 
in Africa in 1832, was promoted to 
the grade of lieutenant in 1836, 
and received the Cross of the Legion 
of Honour on the field of battle. 
In 1837 he was engaged in the cam- 
paigns in Spain against the Car lists, 
and returned to Algeria with the 
rank of captain in 1839. He took 
part in the expeditions of Milianah, 
Kabylia, and Morocco ; was chosen, 
in 1853, at the outbreak of the war 
in the East, to command a brigade 
of infantry ; and during the siege of 
Sebastopol was honourably men- 
tioned in the despatches of Mar- 
shals Canrobert and Pelissier. He 
subsequently was made a general 
of division, and commanded the 
French portion of the expedition 
which reduced Kinburn. In 1856 
he was appointed inspector of 
several divisions of infantry. In 
1862 he accepted a command in the 
French expedition to Mexico, where 
he greatly distinguished himself, 
succeeding Marshal Forey in the 
supreme command in 1863. He was 
created a Marshal of France, Sept. 
5, 1864, having been previously 
nominated Commander of the Le- 
gion of Honour, Aug. 16, 1856, and 
Grand Cross, July 2, 1863. While 
holding the supreme command in 
Mexico he drove back President 
Juarez to the furthermost frontiers 
of the country (1864) ; made him- 
self master of the fortified city of 
Qajaca, the garrison of which, con- 

sisting of 7,000 men, surrendered 
to him unconditionally (Feb. 8, 
1865) ; and organised against the 
partisans of the Republic a system 
of guerilla warfare, which was car- 
ried into effect with much bravery 
and barbarity, under the direction 
of the notorious Colonel Dupin. 
Fatal misunderstandings arose, 
however, between the Emperor 
Maximilian and the leader of the 
French expedition, who was also 
greatly embarrassed by the obsti- 
nate resistance of the natives and 
the policy pursued by the United 
States. At length, in Sept. 1866, 
Marshal Bazaine, finding the main- 
tenance of the empire impossible, 
commenced preparations for con- 
ducting his troops back to France. 
He "concentrated them on Vera 
Cruz, and prepared for a general 
embarkation, while vigorously re- 
pelling to the last the attacks of 
the natives. On March 12, 1867, 
he quitted Vera Cruz with the 
whole of the expeditionary forces. 
The same year he was appointed to 
the command of the Third Army 
Corps stationed at Nancy, and on 
Oct. 15, 1869, he was nominated 
Commander-in-Chief of the Impe- 
rial Guard. During the earlier 
stages of the disastrous war be- 
tween France and Germany, Mar- 
shal Bazaine acted a most conspicu- 
ous part. On the capitulation of 
Sedan he retired to the fortress of 
Metz, which was immediately in- 
vested by the German forces under 
Prince Frederick Charles. After a 
Biege of seven weeks the place 
capitulated, on which memorable 
occasion three marshals, 50 gene- 
rals, over 6,000 officers, and 173,000 
men, laid down their arms. Mar- 
shal Bazaine left Metz on the day 
of the capitulation, on account of 
his unpopularity and the insecurity 
of his life. After staying in Eng- 
land for some months, he was, in 
August, 1871, summoned to Ver- 
sailles by the Military Commission 
of the National Assembly. The 
Commissioners appointed to inquire. 

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into the capitulations made during 
the war brought serious charges 
Against Marshal Bazaine. In con- 
sequence of their report, he was 
handed over to a Council of War 
organized by a special law, and was 
imprisoned at Versailles during the 
preliminary examination in May, 
1872. He was afterwards tried at 
the Grand Trianon of Versailles by 
a court-martial of general officers, 
presided over by General the Due 
d'Aumale. He was charged not 
only with military incapacity in 
allowing himself to be blockaded 
by a nearly equal force in Metz, 
and in his ultimate capitulation, 
but also with a treasonable design 
of making himself, by the aid of 
his army, and with the connivance 
of the enemy, independent of the 
Government of National Defence, 
which had been universally acknow- 
ledged by Prance. The trial com- 
menced on Oct. 6, and ended on 
Dec. 10, 1873. On the charge of poli- 
tical bad faith the court returned 
no direct verdict ; but on the issue 
whether the Marshal had done all 
that was required by duty and 
honour, he was, by a unanimous 
vote, found guilty. The court 
condemned the prisoner to degrada- 
tion and to death, but at the same 
time recommended him to mercy. 
Two days afterwards, President 
MacMahon commuted the punish- 
ment of death to confinement for 
twenty years in a fortress, and re- 
mitted the ceremony which, ac- 
cording to law, accompanies the 
sentence of degradation. He was, 
however, deprived of all his digni- 
ties, dismissed from the army, and 
sent to undergo his sentence at the 
lie Sainte Marguerite, a small 
island just off Cannes, on the 
Mediterranean coast. Here Bazaine 
lived for nine months, enjoying a 
good deal of freedom, and con- 
stantly in the society of his wife 
and children and of his old aide-de- 
camp, Colonel Villette. On the 
plea that the health of the children 
was affected, Madame Bazaine left 

the island and sought an interview 
with Marshal MacMahon, the Pre- 
sident of the Republic, in the hope 
that he might be induced to allow 
her husband to pass the rest of his 
days an exile but not a prisoner. 
But the President declined to inter- 
fere; and it is believed that the 
coldness of his refusal induced 
Bazaine to try the chance of flight. 
On Sunday, Aug. 9, 1874, he passed 
| the evening in conversation with 
1 Colonel Villette, and on the follow- 
I ing morning a rope was hanging 
down from the parapet of the for- 
I tress, and the prisoner was gone. 
It afterwards appeared that Madame 
Bazaine and her cousin had been 
I waiting for him in a boat at the 
i base of the rock. They took him 
on board a ship which was lying 
1 near, and he succeeded in escaping 
| to Italy. He afterwards proceeded 
I to Cologne (Aug. 14), spent a short 
, time in England, and ultimately 
took up his residence in Madrid, 
' where he arrived Nov. 17, 1874. In 
| Sept. 1874, he addressed to the New 
| Yark Herald an extended and 
, elaborate apology for his conduct 
when in command of the French 
army within Metz. In April, 1883, 
he published a book, dedicated to 
Queen Isabella II ., in which he de- 
scribes the share he took in the 
Franco-German war. 

William, C.B., son of the late 
Captain Joseph William Bazal- 
gette, R.N., was born at Enfield, 
Middlesex, in 1819. At the age of 
eighteen he was articled as a pupil 
to Sir John MacNeil, C.E. In 1845 
he was practising on his own ac- 
count as an engineer in Great 
George-street, Westminster. In 
Nov. of the year in which the rail- 
way mania commenced he found 
himself at the head of a large staff 
of engineering assistants, designing 
and laying out schemes for rail- 
ways, ship canals, and other en- 
gineering works in various parts 
of the United Kingdom, and pre- 
paring the surveys and plans for 

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parliamentary deposit, which had 
to be accomplished by the last day of 
November. While his remarkable 
success was most encouraging, its 
effects soon began to tell upon his 
health, which completely gave way 
in 1847, when he was compelled to 
retire from business and go into 
the country, where a year of perfect 
rest restored him to health. In 
1848 he accepted an appointment 
as assistant-engineer under the 
Metropolitan Commission of Sewers. 
On the death of the chief engineer 
of the Commissioners in 1852, Mr. 
Bazalgette was selected from among 
thirty-six candidates to fill the 
vacant position, being first ap- 
pointed under the title of General 
Surveyor of Works, and soon after- 
wards of Chief Engineer. His re- 
port on the failures of the new 
system of drainage in certain pro- 
vincial towns led to the resignation 
of the Commissioners and the ap- 
pointment of a new Commission by 
Lord Palmerston. Mr. Bazalgette 
was elected engineer to the Metro- 
politan Board of Works on its 
establishment in 1856, and was in- 
structed to devise a scheme for the 
drainage of London. Accordingly 
lie prepared estimates and designs 
which were executed between 1858 
and 1805. The main intercepting 
drainage of London is original in 
design, and it is also the most 
perfect, the most comprehensive, 
and at the same time the most 
difficult work of its class that has 
ever been executed. Though little 
thought of now, because it is un- 
seen, it is the work for which its 
author's reputation as an engineer 
will ever stand highest in the 
opinion of professional engineers. 
Between 1863 and 1874 the Vic- 
toria, the Albert, and the Chelsea 
Embankments, were designed and 
executed by him, besides many 
other metropolitan improvements, 
such as new streets, subways, and 
artisans' dwellings. He has also 
designed and carried out the drain- 
age of many other towns, and has 

devoted much attention to the ques- 
tion of the best means for the dis- 
posal and utilisation of sewage. 
He was created a Companion of the 
Bath in 1871 and knighted in 1874. 
BAZLEY, Sib Thomas, Bart., 
born at Gilnow, near Bolton, in 
1797, was educated at the Bolton 
Grammar School. At an early age 
he was apprenticed to learn cotton- 
spinning at the factory of Ains- 
worth & Co. (once the establish- 
ment of Sir Robert Peel & Co.). 
In 1818 he started in business at 
Bolton and in 1826 removed to 
Manchester. He became the head 
and sole proprietor of the largest 
fine cotton and lace thread spinning 
concern in the trade, employing 
more than one thousand hands, and 
he established, in connection with 
his factories, schools and lecture 
and reading rooms. Mr. Bazley 
was one of the earliest members 
of the Manchester Anti-Corn Law 
Association, and of the Council of 
the League ; and in 1837, with 
Messrs Richard Cobden and John 
Brooks, he opened the Free-trade 
campaign at Liverpool, on which 
occasion he made his first public 
speech. In 1845 he was elected 
president of the Manchester Cham- 
ber of Commerce, which post he 
held till 1859. Mr. Bazley was 
one of the Royal Commissioners of 
the Great Exhibition of 1851 ; he 
served upon the Royal Commission 
for promoting the amalgamation of 
the Laws of the United Kingdom ; 
and in 1855 he was a Commissioner 
of the Paris Imperial Exhibition. 
In 1858 he was elected M.P. for 
Manchester, without a contest. His 
business and parliamentary duties 
pressing severely upon his time 
and attention, in 1862 he retired 
from the former, and disposed of 
his extensive mills and concerns, 
determining to devote his time to 
public life. In 1859 and 1865 he 
was re-elected for Manchester at 
the head of the pollj but in 1868 
he came in second, polling 14,192 
votes against 15,4*16, recorded in 

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favour of Mr. Birley, the Conser- 
vative candidate. At the general 
election of Feb. 187*, he was third 
on the poll, the votes given for the 
three successful candidates being 
as follows :— Birley, 19,984; Cal- 
ender, 19,649^ Bazley, 19,325. He 
was created a baronet in Oct. 1869, 
and retired from parliamentary life 
in March, 1880. 

BEACH, Tarn Right Hon. Sir 
Michael Edward Hicks, Bart., 
M.P., eldest son of the late Sir 
Michael Hicks Hicks- Beach, of Wil- 
liamstrip Park, Gloucestershire, the 
eighth baronet, by his wife Har- 
riet Yittoria, daughter of John 
Stratton, Esq., of Parthinghoe 
Lodge, Northamptonshire, was born 
in Portugal Street, London, in 1837. 
From Eton he waa sent to Christ 
Church, Oxford (B.A. 1858; M.A. 
1861), and in July 1864 he was 
elected M.P. for East Gloucester- 
shire, which constituency he still 
represents in tfcie Conservative inte- 
rest. He waa Parliamentary Sec- 
retary to the Poor Law Board from 
Feb. till Dec. 1868, with the excep- 
tion of a few weeks, during which 
he was Under-Secretary for the 
Home Department; and he served 
as a member of the Royal Commis- 
sion on Friendly Societies. When 
the Conservatives again came into 
office in Feb. 1874, Sir M. H. Beach 
was appointed Chief Secretary for 
Ireland. On taking that office he 
was sworn on the Privy Council, 
and in 1877 he was admitted to a 
seat in the Cabinet. In Feb. 1878 
he was nominated Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, in the place of 
Lord Carnarvon, who had resigned 
in consequence of a difference with 
his colleagues on the Eastern Ques- 
tion. He went out of office with 
his party in April, 1880. Sir Michael 
is a magistrate and deputy-lieu- 
tenant for Gloucestershire, and 
was for fourteen years Captain in 
the Royal North Gloucestershire 

BEAL, Jame6, was born in 1829, 
at Chelsea, and educated at private 

schools. He took an active part as 
the colleague of James Taylor, the 
founder of the Freehold Land move- 
ment, in establishing Land and 
Building Societies. Mr. Beal lec- 
tured several nights weekly for 
years in London, the provinces, 
and through Scotland, and contri- 
buted largely to the Freeholder, In 
consequence of the ritualistic prac- 
tices of the curate of St. Barnabas. 
Pimlico, he brought the well-known 
| suit, afterwards merged in a similar 
| suit brought by Mr. Westerton, 
| and known as " Westerton and Beal 
i r. Liddell," which was the com- 
i menceuient of the movement that 
culminated in the Public Worship 
I Regulation Act of 1874. When the 
gas companies of London privately 
1 " districted " the metropolis, he 
, conducted, on behalf of twenty-five 
I vestries, as hon. secretary to the 
I delegates, the parliamentary in- 
] quiries in 1857-60, and mainly 
secured the passing of the Metro- 
! polis Gas Act, 1860, and subse- 
I quently the City of London Gas 
I Act, 1868. He was largely instru- 
| mental, acting as hon. secretary, in 
the return of the late J. Stuart Mill 
| as M.P. for Westminster in 1863, 
| and he has been a prominent poli- 
j tician in Westminster since 1852. 
! Mr. Beal has devoted much time 
I to parliamentary inquiries into the 
| government and taxation of the 
i metropolis. He was examined 1**- 
I fore the committees of the House 
of Commons in 1861 and 1867, and 
i proposed the scheme adopted by 
i Mr. Mill, and embodied in the 
three bills introduced by him and 
I by the late Mr. C. Buxton and by 
Lord Elcho, to establish a muni- 
cipal government for the metro- 
| polis. He is an active member of 
the City Guilds Reform Associa- 
tion, organised to secure a reform 
in the administration of the City 
Companies, and is the hon. secre- 
tary of the Metropolitan Municipal 
Association, formed to create a 
municipality of London. Mr. Beal 
is the author of " Free Trade in 

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Land/' 1855, an inquiry into the 
social and commercial influence of 
the laws of succession and the 
system of entail (which has been 
recently republished); of pamphlets 
against the Stamp Duty on News- 
papers, and on Direct Taxation. 
He was a frequent contributor to 
the Atlas, said wrote in that journal 
a History of all the great Joint 
Stock Banks, and is the author of 
a series of letters in the Weekly 
Dispatch, dealing with the history 
and trusts of City Companies under 
the signature of "Nemesis." He 
took an active part in securing the 
Royal Commission on City Paro- 
chial Charities, now the subject of 
legislation. He secured the Royal 
Commission on "the Livery Com- 
panies of the City Corporation," 
and has been twice examined before 
the Commission. He contends that 
the guilds are an integral part of 
the Corporation, and that their 
estates and property and halls are 
public property, and must devolve 
to the new municipality about to 
be created. The government is 
pledged to introduce a bill to create 
the Municipality for London he has 
designed. He is the avowed author 
of the letters on the same subject, 
and "London Water Supply" in 
The Echo, under the signature of 
"Father Jean." He has formu- 
lated a demand for the restitution 
of Christ's Hospital to the poor of 
London, and claims that it shall be 
handed over to the London School 
Board . The great return on ' ' Mort- 
main" now before the House of 
Commons was moved for at his 
suggestion. Mr. Beal took an ac- 
tive part in all the movements led 
by Mr. Bright and the late Mr. 

BEALE, Lionel Smith, M.B., 
F.R.S., Physician to King's College 
Hospital, and Professor of the 
Principles and Practice of Medicine 
in King's College, London, formerly 
Professor of Physiology and of 
General and Morbid Anatomy, and 
afterwards Professor of Pathological 

Anatomy, was born in London in 
1828, and educated in King's Col- 
lege School. He was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians in 1859, is an Hon. 
Fellow of King's College, a Fellow 
of the Medical Society of Sweden, 
of the Microscopical Societies of 
New York and California, the 
Royal Medical and Chirurffical, the 
Microscopical, and the Pathological 
Societies, formerly President of the 
Royal Microscopical Society, and of 
the Quekett Club, member of the 
Academy of Sciences of Bologna, 
&c, and the author of several works 
on medicine, physiology, medical 
chemistry, and the microscope. 
Among them are " The Microscope 
in its Application to Practical 
Medicine ; *' " How to Work with, 
the Microscope," of which there 
have been several editions; "The 
Structure of the Tissues of the 
Body;" "Protoplasm: or, Life, 
Matter, and Mind ; " " Disease 
Germs, their supposed and real 
Nature, and on the Treatment of 
Diseases caused by their Presence ; " 
" Life Theories, their Influence 
upon Religious Thought," 1871 ; 
" The Mystery of Life : Facts and 
Arguments against the Physical 
Doctrine of Vitality, in reply to 
Dr. Gull," 1871 ; " The Anatomy 
of the Liver;" "On Slight Ail- 
ments ; " " The Physiological Ana- 
tomy and Physiology of Man," in 
conjunction with the late Dr. Todd 
and Mr. Bowman ; and of other 
works. He has contributed several 
memoirs to the Royal Society, on 
the structure of the liver, on the 
distribution of nerves to muscle, on 
the anatomy of nerve-fibres and 
nerve-centres, &c, which are pub- 
lished in the " Philosophical Trans- 
actions," and in the " Proceedings "* 
of the Royal Society. He was the 
editor of the "Archives of Medi- 
cine," and has also contributed to 
the Lancet, the Medical Times and 
Qauette, the Medical and Chirurgical 
Review, and the Microscopical 

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BEALE, Thomas Whabrt, born 
in London in 1831, is the author of 
•several hundreds of musical compo- 
sitions, duets, quartets, and songs. 
He was called to the bar at Lin- 
coln's Inn in 1863. He is engaged 
in general literature, fiction, and 
criticism, and has contributed to 
the Gentleman's Magazine, Once a 
Week, and other periodicals under 
the nom de guerre " Walter May- 
Hard." Mr. Beale is the author of 
a book called "The Enterprising 
Impresario," containing personal 
reminiscences of Grisi, Mario, 
Viardot, Meyerbeer, "Rossini, and 

BEAUFORT (Duke of), Henry 
Charles Fitzroy Somerset, Mar- 
quis and Earl of Worcester, Earl of 
Glamorgan,Viscoiint Grosniont,&c, 
was born Feb. 1, 1824, and married, 
.July 3, 18io, Georgina Charlotte, 
•eldest daughter of the late Earl 
Howe, by whom he has issue. His 
jgrace, who is a Conservative in 
politics, and succeeded his father 
as eighth duke Nov. 17, 1853, is 
Lieut .-Colonel in the army, was 
Master of tbe Horse under Earl 
Derby's second administration, 
1858-9, and was re-appointed to that 
office under Earl Derby's third 
administration, in July 1866. His 
grace takes a great interest in 
norse-racing, and is President of 
the Four-in-Hand Club. 

BEAUREGARD, Pierre Gtts- 
tavb Toutawt, was born at New 
Orleans, Louisiana, in 1818. He 
graduated from West Point Mili- 
tary Academy in 1838, and was at 
first assigned to the artillery, whence 
he was subsequently transferred to 
the corps of engineers. He served 
in the Mexican war, and was twice 
wounded. He was promoted to a 
captaincy of engineers in 1853, and 
was on duty, superintending the 
erection of Government buildings 
in New Orleans, and fortifications 
on the Gulf coast till Jan. 1861, 
when he was for five days (Jan. 
23-28) Superintendent of the United 
States Military Academy at West 

Point. He resigned Feb. 20, 1861, 
joined the Confederates, and com- 
menced the civil war by the 
bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 12, 1861. He was in actual 
command of the Southern troops at 
Bull Run, July 21, 1861, in which 
the Federals experienced a reverse j 
for this service he was made a 
brigadier-general. He was second 
in command, under General Sydney 
A. Johnston, at the battle of Shiloh, 
or Pittsburgh Landing, Tennessee, 
April 6, 1862 ; and in the summer 
and autumn of 1863 successfully 
defended Charleston and its out- 
works when besieged by General 
Gillmore. He was subsequently 
connected with the army of Joseph 
E. Johnston in North Carolina up 
to the time of that general's sur- 
render, April 26, 1865, which 
brought the war to a close. At the 
close of the war he had attained 
the rank of full general, the highest 
grade in the service. Since the 
termination of the war, General 
Beauregard has resided in the 
Southern States ; became president 
of the New Orleans, Jackson, and 
Mississippi Railroad; and for a 
number of years has been one of 
the managers of the Louisiana 
State Lottery. 

BECKER, Bernard Henry, 
author and journalist, born in 
1833, has for several years past 
been attached toAll the Year Round, 
and has written a large number of 
original stories and sketches in that 
journal. In 187^ he produced 
" Scientific London " — an account of 
the rise, progress, and condition of 
the great scientific institutions of 
the capital. In an article first 
published in Iron, and reprinted in 
"Scientific London," he attacked 
the management of the Gresham 
Lectures with such effect as to bring 
about a reform of the system under 
which professors are appointed. 
Mr. Becker published in 1878 a 
book in two volumes, entitled 
" Adventurous Lives." Having in 
the winter of 1878-9 acted as the 

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Special Commissioner" of the 
Daily News in Sheffield, Manchester, 
and other distressed districts of the 
North and Midlands, he was sent 
in a similar capacity to Ireland in 
the autumn of 1880, when he dis- 
covered Mr. and Mrs. Boycott 
herding sheep, and wrote those 
letters on the state of Connaught 
and Munster which have since 
appeared in a collected form as 
" Disturbed Ireland," and given 
rise to several discussions in the 
House of Commons. While differ- 
ing from Mr. Becker on some minor 
points, the Right Hon. W. E. 
Forster, then Chief Secretary for 
Ireland, bore testimony to the 
perfect fairness and general accu- 
racy of his statements. Mr. Becker 
writes regularly for the Daily News 
and the World, and contributes art 
and dramatic criticisms to several 
other journals. 

BECKLES, The Right Rev. Ed- 
ward Hyndman, D.D., son of the 
late John Alleyne Beckles, Esq. 
(descended from the Beckles family 
of Durham), was born in Barbadoes, 
in 181G, received his education at 
Codrington College, Barbadoes, and 
after holding different cures in the 
West Indies, was consecrated 
Bishop of Sierra-Leone in 1859. 
He resigned that see in 1870, being 
succeeded in it by Dr. Cheethain. 
In the same year he was appointed 
rector of Wootton, Dover, and in 
1873, rector of St. Peter's, Bethnal 
Green, London. In Feb. 1877, he 
was appointed Superintending 
Bishop of the English Episcopalian 
congregations in Scotland. 

BECKX, Peter John, General 
of the Jesuits, was born at Sichem, 
in Belgium, Feb. 8, 1795, and edu- 
cated for the priesthood. Shortly 
after receiving priest's orders he 
was admitted into the Society of 
Jesus, at Hildesheim, in Oct. 1819. 
His superiors soon perceived that he 
possessed rare abilities, and em- 
ployed him on several delicate mis- 
sions. When the Duke Ferdinand 
of Anlmlt-Kothon became a convert 

to the Catholic religion, young 
Beckx was appointed his confessor, 
and he officiated for some years as 
priest of the new Catholic church 
which was built at Kdthen. After 
the decease of the Duke he con- 
tinued at the court with his widow, 
the Countess Julia, whom, at a later 
period, he accompanied to Vienna. 
In 1847 he was appointed procurator 
for the province of Austria, and in 
this capacity he went to the College 
of Procurators at Rome. In the 
following year the Jesuits were tem- 
porarily driven from Austria, and 
consequently Father Beckx, being 
unable to return to that country, 
repaired to Belgium, and was nomi- 
nated rector of the college belong- 
ing to his order at Louvain. When 
the Jesuits were re-established in 
Austria, he zealously supported the 
projects of the Government, which 
were highly favourable to the in- 
terests of the Church. He lent his 
powerful aid to the Primate of 
Hungary, Cardinal Szeitowsky, who 
succeeded in obtaining the re- 
instatement of the Jesuits in that 
portion of the empire, and founding 
the noviciate at Tyrnan. Being 
sent to the assembly summoned at 
Rome in 1853, to choose a successor 
to Father Roothan, he was elected 
Superior of the Order. The success 
of the Jesuits since that time, espe- 
cially in non-Catholic countries, ia 
due, in no slight degree, to the 
ability and foresight of Father 
Beckx. Besides some minor writ- 
ings and occasional discourses, he 
has published a " Month of Mary ? * 
(Vienna, 18 13), which has passed 
through numerous editions, and 
been translated into many Ian- 

BEDDOE, John, M.D., F.R.S., 
born at Bewdley, in Worcestershire, 
September 21, 1826, was educated 
at Bridgnorth School, University 
College, London, and the University 
of Edinburgh. He graduated B.A. 
at London in 1851, and M.D. at 
Edinburgh in 1853. Dr. Beddoe 
st»rv(Ml on the civil medical staff 

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during the Crimean war. Since 
then he has practised as a physician 
at Clifton. and held sundry hospital 
appointments. He was President of 
the Anthropological Society in 1869 
and 1870, and he was a member of 
the council of the British Association 
for several years. He was elected a 
Fellow of the Boyal Society, and a 
Fellow of the Boyal College of Phy- 
sicians, in 1873. Dr. Beddoe has 
written numerous papers, medical, 
statistical, and anthropological, and 
he has largely applied the numerical 
method to ethnology. His principal 
works are, "Stature and Bulk of 
Man in the British Isles," 1869-70 ; 
"Origin of the English Nation" 
(unpublished, but took first prize, 
£150, of the Welsh National Eis- 
teddfod) ; " Relations of Tempera- 
ment and Complexion to Disease ; " 
" On Hospital Dietaries ; " and 
" Comparison of Mortality in Eng- 
land and Australia." He is , joint 
author of the " Anthropological In- 
structions for Travellers" of the 
British Association. 

BEE CHER, Henby Wabd, 
fourth son of Lyman Beecher and 
Roxana Foote Beecher, born at 
Litchfield, Connecticut, June 2J-, 
1813. He studied in public Latin 
schools at Boston, graduated at 
Amherst College, Mass., 1831, and 
studied theology under his father 
at the Lane Seminary, near Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. He first settled as a 
Presbyterian minister at Laurence- 
burg, Indiana, in 1837, removed in 
1839 to Indianapolis, and became 
pastor of the Plymouth Congrega- 
tional Church at Brooklyn, New 
York, in 1W7. His church edifice 
has seating capacity for nearly 3,000 
persons, and his church has a mem- 
bership of over 2,000. During his 
whole career he has mingled to a 
greater extent than almost any other 
preacher and pastor of his denomi- 
nation in matters not directly pro- 
fessional. For nearly a year, during 
his theological course, he edited the 
Cincinnati Journal, a religious 
weekly. In Indiana he was editor 

of the Farmer and Gardener. In 
Brooklyn he was soon known as an 
earnest opponent of slavery, and an 
advocate of temperance, peace, and 
other reforms, and very early be- 
came prominent as a platform ora- 
tor and lecturer. He has always 
been a strong Bepublican, and has 
preached a number of political 
sermons from his pulpit, and has 
addressed a number of political 
meetings. From the date of the 
establishment of the Independent 
newspaper to 1858, he was a con- 
stant contributor to its column*, 
and from 1861 to 1863 its chief editor. 
In 1870 he became the editor-in- 
chief of the Christian Union, a 
weekly religious paper, a position he 
retained for about ten years, when 
he resigned it to Mr. Lyman Abbott, 
his associate editor. Mr. Beecher 
has twice visited Europe, and the 
last time (in 1863) addressed large 
audiences in the principal cities of 
Great Britain on the questions 
evolved by the civil war then raging 
in the United States. In 1871, 
Henry W. Sage, a parishioner of 
Mr. Beecher's, founded a lectureship 
of Preaching, called the «* Lyman 
Beecher Lectureship," in the Yale 
College Divinity School, and the 
first three annual courses were de- 
livered by Mr. Beecher. His regu- 
lar weekly sermons, as taken down 
by stenographic reporters, have 
been printed since 1859. Besides 
these he has published "Lectures 
to Young Men," 1850 ; " Star 
Papers," 1855 ; " Plymouth Collec- 
tion of Hymns and Tunes," 1855 ; 
" Life Thoughts," 1858 ; " Pleasant 
Talks about Fruits, Flowers, and 
Farming," 1859 ; " Eyes and Ears," 
1862 ; " Freedom and War," 1863 ; 
"Boyal Truths," 1861; "Aids to 
Prayer," 1864 ; " Pulpit Pungen- 
cies," 1866; "Prayers from Ply- 
mouth Pulpit," 1867 ; " Norwood," 
a novel, 1867 ; " Overture of Angels," 
1869 ; " Lecture-Boom Talks," 1870 ; 
" Morning and Evening Exercises," 
1870 ; " Life of Christ " (of which 
only the first volume has over been 

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issued), 1871 ; " Yale Lectures on 
Preaching/' 3 vols., 1872-74; and 
" A Summer Parish/' 1874. In the 
summer of 1874 Mr. Theodore Til- 
ton, formerly his associate, and 
afterwards his successor, in the 
editorship of the Independent, 
charged him with criminality with 
Mrs. Tilton. A committee of the 
Plymouth congregation reported 
that this charge was without any 
foundation ; but meanwhile Mr. 
Tilton commenced a civil suit 
against Mr. Beecher, laying his 
damages at $100,000. The trial was 
protracted during six months ; and 
at its close the jury, after being 
locked up for more than a week, 
failed to agree upon a verdict, nine 
being for acquittal of defendant and 
three for conviction. In 1878 Mr. 
Beecher announced that he did not 
believe in the eternity of punish- 
ment, believing that all punish- 
ments are cautionary and remedial, 
and that no greater cruelty could 
be imagined than the continuance 
of suffering eternally, after all hope 
of reformation is gone. He is un- 
derstood to hold both to the an- 
nihilation of the miserable and the 
restoration of all others. In 1882 he 
formally withdrew from the Associa- 
tion of Congregational Churches on 
account of this change in belief. 


BEESLY, Edward Spencer, was 
born at Feckenham, Worcestershire, 
in 1831, and educated at Wadham 
College, Oxford. He was appointed 
Assistant-Master of Marlborough 
College in 1854, and Professor of 
History in University College, Lon- 
don, in 18G0. Professor Beesly is 
the author of several review articles, 
pamphlets, &c, on historical, po- 
litical, and social questions, 
treated from the Positivist point of 
view. His translation of Auguste 
Comte's " System of Positive Polity, 
or Treatise on Sociology," is in 
course of publication. The third 
volume appeared in 1870, under the 
title of "Social Dynamics, or the 

General Theory of Human Progress 
(Philosophy of History)." A series 
of lectures by Mr. Beesly on Roman 
history, entitled " Catiline, Clodius, 
and Tiberius/' was published in 

B £ H I C, Arm and, statesman, 
born at Paris, Jan. 15, 1809. He 
was appointed at an early age to 
the Administration of Finances, 
was attached to the Treasury of the 
Army in the expedition to Algiers, 
and became Inspector of Finances, 
in which position he made several 
journeys to the colonies, especially 
the Antilles. He quitted thiB de- 
partment to join the Ministry of 
Marine, and became Secretary - 
General. He entered the Chamber 
as Deputy for Avesnes in 1846, and 
was charged with the examination 
of the law relating to the railway 
from Paris to Lyons. In 181-9 he 
was named a representative of the 
people, and shortly afterwards en- 
tered the Council of State, in which 
he remained until 1851, when he 
undertook the superintendence of 
the foundries of Vierzon. In 1853 
he became Inspector-General of the 
Maritime service of the Messageries 
Imperiales, and afterwards Direc- 
tor. He took an active part in the 
matter of transports for the Cri- 
mean expedition, and gave great 
impulse to the Indo-China service, 
and to all the details of the admi- 
nistration. He has been succes- 
sively a member of the council of 
administration for public buildings, 
president of the commission for 
the organization of colonial banks, 
member of the Council-General of 
Bouches-du-Ehdne for the canton of 
Ciotat. He was created a Com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour, 
Oct. 3, 1863, and succeeded M. 
Rouher as Minister of Agriculture, 
Commerce, and Public Works, June 
23, 1863, which office he held till 
Jan. 1867, when he was appointed 
a Senator, and received the Grand 
Cross of the Legion of Honour. 
After the fall of the Empire he 
retired from public life for several 

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years, but in Jan., 1876, he was 
elected a Senator for the Depart- 
ment of the G-ironde as a professed 

BELCREDI, Cocnt Richard, 
Austrian statesman, of an ancient 
noble family, was born Feb. 12, 
1823. In March, 1861, he was ap- 
pointed to an important political 
position in Silesia, and in 1862 was 
promoted to the post of govern- 
mental chief in that province. In 
May, 1863, he was Vice-President 
of the Bohemian Government, and 
an imperial decree of May 27, 1861, 
appointed him Viceroy of Bohemia, 
conferring upon him the dignity of 
a Privy Councillor. In aU these 
capacities Count Belcredi showed 
himself to be possessed of consider- 
able administrative talent and great 
powers of work, and it is generally 
admitted that during his adminis- 
tration in Bohemia he was upon 
the best possible terms with both 
Germans and Czechs. Count Bel- 
credi, appointed Minister of State 
for Austria, and President of the 
Council of Ministers at Vienna, 
July 27, 1865, resigned in Feb. 1867. 
BELGIANS, Kino op the. (See 
Leopold II.) 

BELL, Isaac Lowthian, F.B.S., 
D.C.L., son of the late Thomas Bell, 
was born in 1816. After completing 
his studies of physical science at 
Edinburgh University, and the Sor- 
bonne at Paris, he entered the 
chemical and iron works at Walker. 
These, under his subsequent ma- 
nagement, were extended. In 1850 
he became connected with the che- 
mical works at Washington, in the 
county of Durham, then in the 
hands of his father-in-law, the late 
H. L. Pattinson, F.R.S. Under his 
direction they were greatly en- 
larged, and an extensive establish- 
ment was constructed for the 
manufacture of oxy chloride of lead, 
a pigment discovered by Mr. Pat- 
tinson. In 1873 he ceased to be 
a partner in these works, which are 
now carried on by Mr. Pattinson's 
other eons-in-law. Mr. Bell, in con- 

nection with his brothers, Messrs. 
Thomas and John Bell, founded, in 
1852, the Clarence Works on the 
Tees, one of the earliest, and now 
one of the largest iron-smelting 
concerns on that river, which these 
gentlemen carry on in connection 
with extensive collieries and iron- 
stone mines. At present arrange- 
ments are in progress for obtaining 
salt from a bed of the mineral, 
found at a depth of 1200 feet at 
Port Clarence. Mr. Bell has been 
a frequent contributor to various 
learned societies on subjects con- 
nected with the metallurgy of iron, 
and has recently completed a very 
elaborate experimental research on 
the chemical phenomena of the 
blast furnace. In recognition of 
his services as Juror at the Inter- 
national Exhibitions at Philadelphia 
in 187G, and at Paris in 1878, he 
was elected an honorary member of 
the American Philosophical Insti- 
tution, and an Officer of the Legion 
of Honour. He has filled the office 
of Sheriff, and was twice elected 
Mayor of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the 
last time in order to receive the 
members of the British Association 
at their meeting in the year 1863. 
Mr. Bell was a candidate for the 
representation of North Durham in 
Parliament at the general election 
of Dec. 1808, but was unsuccessful. 
At the general election of Feb. 
1871, however, he was elected by 
that constituency in the Liberal 
interest, but on petition was un- 
seated. He again contested the 
seat at the election consequent on 
the petition, but was unsuccessful. 
He was elected M.P. for Hartlepool 
in July, 1875, but ceased to repre- 
sent that borough in 1880. 

BELL, John, sculptor, born in 
Norfolk, in 1811, exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, in 1832, a religious 
group, followed by ft Psyche feed- 
ing a Swan," and other poetic works. 
In 1837 he exhibited the model of 
his " Eagle-slayer," a composition 
which was exhibited in Westminster 
Hall in 1844, and again at the In- 


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ternational Exhibition in 1851. 
Beduced casts in bronze were sub- 
sequently executed for the Art 
Union. In 1841 he exhibited his 
well-known and beautiful figure of 
" Dorothea." The first statue which 
Mr. Bell was commissioned to exe- 
cute for the new Houses of Parlia- 
ment was that of " Lord Falkland." 
Among his other works, which are 
almost wholly of the poetic class, 
may be mentioned "The Babes in the 
Wood," in marble, now in the South 
Kensington Museum, an "Andro- 
meda" (a bronze), purchased by 
the Queen, which formed leading 
attractions in the sculpture of the 
Great Exhibition of 1851, and " Sir 
Robert Walpole," in St. Stephen's 
Hall ; also Miranda," " Imogen," 
"The Last Kiss," "The Dove's 
Refuge," "Herod Stricken on his 
Throne," " Lalage," "The Cross of 
Prayer," now so well known in the 
photographs of the Stereoscopic 
Company, " The Octoroon," " Una 
and the Lion," "Cromwell," "James 
Montgomery," the poet, at Shef- 
field, and various busts and sta- 
tuettes. At Westminster Hall, in 
1844, the sculptor appeared as a 
draughtsman with a cartoon, en- 
titled, " The Angel of the Pillar," 
one of a series of "Compositions 
from the Liturgy," which have 
since been published. He executed 
the Wellington monument in Guild- 
hall, with colossal figures of Peace 
and War ; and the marble statue 
of Armed Science at Woolwich. 
Among his public works are the 
"Guards' Memorial" in Waterloo 
Place, Pall Mall, and the Crimean 
Artillery Memorial on the Parade 
at Woolwich. Mr. Bell, who is the 
author of a " Pree-Hand Drawing 
Book for the Use of Artizans," 
" Primary Sensations of the Mind," 
" The Drama of Ivan," and various 
essays on art, has devoted some 
attention to decoration, having in- 
troduced, twenty-five years ago, the 
ornamental corn bread-platters in 
wood, and bread-knives, which have 
since become a trade, women and 

children being much employed in 
the carving of the platters and 
handles. Also in 1859 he received 
the medal of the Society of Arts 
for the origination of the principle 
of Entasis and definite proportions 
applied to the obelisk ; and he was 
one of the sculptors employed in 
the completion of the Prince Con- 
sort Memorial in Hyde Park, his 
portion being the colossal group of 
the United States directing the 
progress of America, a large copy 
of which, in terra-cotta, stood in 
the centre of the Fine Arts Hall in 
the Centennial Exhibition at Phila- 
delphia, and has since been re- 
moved to Washington. A reduc- 
tion to a statuette size of this group 
has been produced in bronze for 
Prizes of the Art Union of London. 
He is occupied in various works for 
town and country, which, however, 
are rarely exhibited except in the 
situation for which they are exe- 
cuted, as was the case with the 
marble statue of the late Earl of 
Clarendon, in the great hall of the 
Foreign Office, Downing Street. 
Mr. Bell has been for more than 
thirty years a resident in Kensing- 
ton, where his house, garden, and 
studio are all in one. Here he stiH 
continues to execute a variety of 
works of the poetic class in marble, 
bronze, and terra-cotta. His marble 
statue of the Eagle-slayer is in the 
collection of Earl Fitzwilliam, at 
Wentworth, of which there is a 
cast in metal, in front of the South 
Kensington Museum. His Imogen 
is in the possession of Lord Cole- 
ridge, and his statue of Andromeda 
in the collection of Lord Truro ; 
for whom also he is executing a 
life-Bized statue of Eve. All these 
works are in marble. 

BELLOC, Madame Anne Swan- 
ton Louise, widow of J. H. Belloc, 
director of the French Imperial 
School of Design, born at La 
Eochelle, Oct. 1, 17%, is the 
daughter of an Irish officer in the 
French service, named O'Keefe, 
who gave her an excellent English 

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education. She has made the 
writinga of Miss Rdgeworth, the 
"Vicar of Wakefield," Ac, popular 
in France, and has translated 
Moore's ""Life of Byron" into 
French. Madame Belloc is best 
known for her labours in the cause 
of female education in France, 
assisted by Mdlle. Montgolfier, she 
organized a select circulating 
library, designed to supplant in 
some measure those reading-rooms 
which introduced the most danger- 
ous works to the public. The two 
ladies combined in editing a 
monthly journal for the use of fami- 
lies, and in the preparation of 
books, some of which received the 
honours of the Academie, intended 
for the young. 

BELMORE, The Eight Hon. 
Soitrrbst Richard Lo wry -Corby, 
Fourth Earl op, son of the third 
Earl, whom he succeeded in 1845, 
was born in London in 1835, and 
educated at Cambridge. He was 
elected a representative peer for 
Ireland in 1857 ; was Under-Secre- 
tary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment in Lord Derby's third admin- 
istration, from July, 1866, to July, 
1867; and was Governor of New 
South Wales from Jan., 1868, to 
Feb., 1872. 

BELOT, Adolphe, was born at 
Pointe-a-Pitre, in the island of 
Guadeloupe, Nov. 6, 1829, and while 
yet very young travelled extensively 
in the United States, Brazil, and 
other parts of North and South 
America. He studied law at Paris, 
and became an advocate at the bar 
of Nancy in 1854. His first at- 
tempt in literature was "Ch&ti- 
ment '* (Paris, 1855), a novel, which 
failed to attract attention. Two 
years later he brought out "A la 
Campagne," a one - act comedy, 
which gave no indication of the 
immense and lasting success of his 
second dramatic composition, "Le 
Testament de Cesar Girodot," a 
comedy in three acts, written in 
conjunction with M. Charles Ed- 
mond Villetard, and first performed 

at the Odeon Theatre, Paris, Sept* 
30, 1859. This play still holds pos- 
session of the French stage. M. 
Belot has written a large number 
of other dramatic pieces, including 
"Fromont jeune et Risler atneV' 
founded on the celebrated novel of 
M. Alphonse Daudet. He is also 
the author of numerous novels, 
some of which have passed through 
as many as forty editions. The 
most celebrated of these is " Made- 
moiselle Giraud, ma femme" (1870), 
a work distinguished rather by its 
immoral audacity than by its lite- 
rary merit. His later works are 
"Le Parricide" (1873), in conjunc- 
tion with M. J. Dautin ; " Dacolard 
et Lubin/' a sequel to the preceding 
(1874); "Memoiresd'unCaissier;* 
"Helene et Mathilde;" "La 
Femme de Feu j " " Deux Femmes ; " 
" Folies de Jeunesse ; " "La Sul- 
tane Parisienne," an English tran- 
slation of which appeared in 1879 ; 
and an elaborate romance in four 
volumes (1875-6), entitled respect- 
ively, — "Les Mysteres Mondains;" 
" Les Baigneuses de Trouville ; " 
" Madame Vitel et Mademoiselle 
Lelievre ; " and " Une Maison cen- 
trale de Femmes." His drama, 
"Les Etrangleurs de Paris," was 
acted for the first time at the Porte 
Saint-Martin Theatre, March 17, 
1880. M. Belot was nominated a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour 
in 1867. 

BELT, Richard, sculptor, born 
in 1851, in Smith Square, Westmin- 
ster, was educated at Baroness 
Burdett Coutts* School, Westmin- 
ster. He left school at the age of 
nine, was admitted into Mr. Foley's 
studio in J 
of the 
He exhibit 
and up 
every yean 
Royal Insl 
cil of the^g<fcietj£ 
He has 
works, amon 1 

in Stafford Cffarcn to 7 ]$AiW M 
- - . h 2 

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"The Byron " in Hyde Park, 
Charles Kingsley in Chester Cathe- 
dral, Lord Beaoonsfield in Hughen- 
den Church, a commission from the 
Queen ; also the Prince Imperial in 
Windsor Castle, a statue bust of the 
Prince Imperial at the Woolwich 
Academy, the Memorial to Lord 
Beaoonsfield in the Guildhall, and 
busts of the same statesman in 
many London clubs; statue of 
William Spottiswoode in the Royal 
Institution, Lord Beaconsfield's 
statue bust for the Merchant Tay- 
lors' Company ; presentation busts of 
the late Lord Mayors Sir T. Owden 
and Sir John Ellis; busts of Mr. Eliot 
Yorke, the late Mr. Whalley, M.P., 
Mr. George Payne, Lord Cottenham, 
Admiral Rous, Lord John Russell, 
Jabez Burns, Lord William Graham, 
Mrs. Wilkinson (the Bishop of Tru- 
ro's late wife), Lord Shrewsbury, 
Dean Stanley, Sir George Beaumont, 
the Rev. Morley Punshon, Mr. Regi- 
nald Handbury, and Sir Richard 
Musgrave . Mr. Belt is now engaged 
upon busts of Lord Shaftesbury, 
for the Young Men's Christian 
Association ; Mr. Alexander Yorke, 
Sir H. Selwyn Ibbetson, M.P., 
Lady Lewisham, the Hon. Mrs. 
Eliot, Mr. W. H. Gladstone, M.P., 
the Princess Frederica of Han- 
over, Mr. Howard Vincent, the 
Prince of Wales (for the Mansion 
House), Lord Baring, M.P., Mr. Ed- 
gar Vincent, the Dowager Duchess 
of Cleveland, Mr. George Hanbury ; 
statuettes of the painters James 
Webb and John Varley ; also Kyrle 
Bellew, the actor, and many others ; 
a statue of Hypatia and the two 
Pageanti busts, the last one of these 
executed in the Court of Queen's 
Bench, Westminster. He is also 
erecting a memorial to Sir Henry 
Parker, in Lewisham Church ; and 
one to the late Professor Evans, in 
the Ante-Chapel, Eton. Mr. Belt is 
the plaintiff in the well-known case 
of " Belt v. Lawes," which is still 
before the law courts. 

BENDEMANN, Edwabd, a cele- 
brated painter of the Dusseldorf 

school, was born in Berlin, Dec. 3, 
1811. After receiving a good lite- 
rary education, he became a student 
at the Dusseldorf Academy, under 
the well-known Schadow, who soon 
discovered that he had chosen his 
true vocation. When only one-and- 
twenty he exhibited at Berlin a 
large painting, "The Grief of the 
Jews," suggested by Psalm cxxxvii. 
It was popularized by means of 
lithographs, and is in the Cologne 
Museum. In 1833 he executed a 
picture, afterwards engraved by 
Pelsing — " Two Young Girls at the 
Fountain," — which was purchased 
by the Society of Arts of West- 
phalia. In 1837 he exhibited at 
Paris a large canvas, "Jeremiah 
amid the ruins of Jerusalem," 
which gained the gold medal. This 
picture, of which Weiss published 
a good lithograph, is in the private 
gallery of the Emperor of Ger- 
many. " Harvest " followed, which 
was engraved by Eichens. The 
success of this piece led Bendemann 
to produce others of the same class, 
such as " The Shepherd and Shep- 
herdess," from one of Uhland's 
idyls, and "The Daughter of the 
Servian Prince," from a Servian 
ballad. After having been ap- 
pointed Professor in the Academy 
of Arts of Dresden, he received the 
commission to decorate the royal 
palace, and undertook the grand 
frescoes, upon which, above all, 
his reputation is founded. The 
progress of this undertaking was 
interrupted by a disease of the 
eyes, which the artist contracted in 
Italy. Bendemann executed a 
frescoe of " Poetry and the Arts ; " 
a design for a monument to Sebas- 
tian Bach, which was afterwards 
erected at Sandstein ; a portrait of 
the Emperor Lothaire II. for the 
city of Frankfort, many other por- 
traits of celebrated Germans, and 
among them that of Schadow's 
daughter, whom he married in 1838. 
In 1800 he succeeded his father-in- 
law as Director of the Academy at 

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BEXEDETTI,ViNCEirr, a French 
diplomatist, of Italian extraction, 
torn in Corsica, about 1815, was 
educated for the consular and 
diplomatic service. After having 
"been appointed Consul at Palermo 
in 1&1S, he became First Secretary 
to the Embassy at Constantinople, 
until May, 1859, when he was ap- 
pointed to replace M. Bouree as 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
at Teheran. M. Benedetti, who 
declined to accept the office, was 
some months afterwards named 
Director of Political Affairs to the 
Foreign Minister ; a position asso- 
ciated with the successful career of 
MM. de Eayneval and d'Hauterive, 
and with the names of Desages, 
Armand, Lefebre, and Thouvenel. 
It fell to the lot of M. Benedetti to 
act as secretary and editor of the 
protocols in the Congress of Paris 
in 1856, and he was made Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour in June, 
1845, Officer in 1853, Commander 
in 1856, Grand Officer in June, 
1860, and Grand Cross in 1866. 
Having been appointed Minister 
Plenipotentiary of France at Turin 
in 1861, on the recognition of the 
Italian kingdom by the French 
Government, he resigned when M. 
Thouvenel retired from the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs, and was ap- 
pointed Ambassador at Berlin, Nov. 
27, 1864. M. Benedetti obtained 
great notoriety in connection with ! 
the remarkable draft of a secret j 
treaty between France and Prussia, 
which was published in the Times 
on the 25th of July, 1870, at the 
very commencement ef the war 
between those two Powers. The 
document stated that the Emperor 
Napoleon III. would allow and 
recognise the Prussian acquisitions 
consequent upon the war against 
Austria ; that the King of Prussia 
would promise to assist France in 
acquiring Luxemburg ; that the 
Emperor would not oppose a Fede- 
ral re-union of North and South 
Germany ; that if the Emperor 
should occupy or conquer Belgium, 

the King should afford armed 
assistance to France against any 
other Power that might declare war 
against her in such case ; and that 
the two Powers should conclude an 
offensive and defensive alliance. 
The publication of this extraor- 
dinary document caused great con- 
sternation and excitement through- 
out Europe. Its authenticity was 
not denied, but France declared 
that although M. Benedetti had 
written the document, he had done 
so at the dictation of Count Bis- 
marck ; whereas the latter states- 
man declared that through one 
channel or another France had 
incessantly demanded some compen- 
sation for not interfering with 
| Prussia in her projects. Both 
statesmen agreed in saying that 
I their respective sovereigns declined 
to sanction the treaty. On the out- 
break of the war, M. Benedetti was 
of course recalled from Berlin ; and 
since the fall of the Empire he has 
disappeared from public notice. In 
Oct., 1871, however, he published a 
pamphlet, in which he threw upon 
Count Bismarck the whole responsi- 
bility of the draft treaty. In 1872 
he was elected a member of the 
Conseil General of Corsica, and 
since then he has been an advocate 
at the bar of Ajaccio. 

BENEDICT, Sir Julius, musi- 
cian and composer, born at Stutt- 
gart, Nov. 27, 1804, at an early age 
showed so much musical talent that, 
having commenced his studios un- 
der Hummel, at Weimar, he was 
introduced to the notice of Weber, 
who, though he had always refused 
to take pupils, was induced to alter 
his resolution in Benedict's favour. 
From the beginning of 1821 till the 
end of 1821 he had the benefit of 
Weber's exclusive instruction, and 
was treated by him rather as a son 
than as a pupil. At the age of 
nineteen he was, on Weber's recom- 
mendation, engaged to conduct the 
German operas at Vienna, and was 
afterwards employed in a similar 
capacity at the San Carlo and the 

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Fondo, at Naples. In 1827 his first 
dramatic attempt, an opera in two 
acts, called " Giacinta ed Ernesto," 
was produced at the Fondoj but, 
being essentially German in style 
and colour, it did not please the 
Neapolitan public ; nor was he more 
successful with a grand opera after- 
wards performed at the San Carlo. 
In 1830 he returned to Stuttgart, 
where this work, " I Portoghesi in 
Goa," which had been coldly re- 
ceived at Naples, found a more con- 
genial audience. After a visit to 
Paris, and a second residence of 
several years at Naples, Benedict 
came to London for the first time in 
1835, chiefly at the instance of his 
friend, Madame Malibran. In 1836 
he undertook the direction of the 
Opera Buffa at the Lyceum, under 
the management of the late Mr. 
Mitchell. Here his operetta, " Un 
Anno ed un Giorno," originally pro- 
duced at Naples in 1836, was well 
received ; and after this Benedict 
turned his attention to the English 
musical stage. His first English 
opera, "The Gipsy's Warning," was 
produced in 1838 with remarkable 
success. His subsequent operas, 
" The Brides of Venice," and " The 
Crusaders," had a long run at 
Drury Lane, of which theatre, when 
under Mr. Bunn's management, he 
was the musical director. He has 
written many pieces for the piano- 
forte, of which instrument he is a 
great master, besides orchestral and 
vocal compositions of excellence. 
The musical festivals at Norwich, 
the London Monday Popular, and 
Liverpool Philharmonic concerts 
were for a considerable time under 
his direction. In 1850 he accompa- 
nied Jenny Lind as conductor and 
pianist to the United States and 
Havannah, and shared in her un- 
exampled success in a series of 122 
concerts. After his return to Eng- 
land, he formed a choral society, 
"The Vocal Association," and con- 
ducted the Italian operas at Drury 
Lane and Her Majesty's Theatre 
during the seasons of 1859 and 1860, 

when he brought out an Italian 
version of Weber's " Oberon," with 
recitatives and additions chiefly 
from his master's works, which was 
much approved. At the Norwich 
Festival in Sept., 1860, he produced 
a cantata, "Undine," which ob- 
tained very great success. The first 
performance of this work in London, 
towards the end of the same year, 
derived an additional interest from 
the circumstance that on that occa- 
sion Clara Novello took her farewell 
of the English public in the part of 
"Undine." In 1862 his most popu- 
lar opera, "The Lily of Killarney," 
was produced at Covent Garden, and 
subsequently at the principal thea- 
tres in Germany. A cantata, 
" Richard Coeur de Lion," composed 
for the Norwich Festival of 1863, and 
afterwards performed in London, 
met with general approbation . Be- 
nedict's operetta, "The Bride of 
Song," for the Royal English Opera, 
Covent Garden, in 1864, was fol- 
lowed by a cantata, entitled "St. 
Cecilia," written for the Norwich 
Festival of 1866, which was received 
most favourably, and has since been 
produced successfully in the metro- 
polis and the principal towns of the 
United Kingdom. His last choral 
work, — the oratorio "St. Peter," 
written expressly for the Bir- 
mingham Musical Festival, 1870, 
achieved an extraordinary success, 
and is considered by far his best 
composition. He has since com- 
posed incidental music to " Romeo 
and Juliet" (1882), produced at the 
Lyceum Theatre ; and " Graziella," 
a cantata, performed at the Bir- 
mingham Festival of 1882. His 
first symphony, composed in 1873, 
met with great favour at its per- 
formance by the Crystal Palace 
Band. He conducted the Liverpool 
Festival in September, 1874, and 
has been appointed, for the twelfth 
time, conductor of the Norwich 
Festival, in 1878. The honour of 
knighthood was conferred on him 
by the Queen, March 24, 1871. He 
is a corresponding member of the 

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French Academy. He was also 
honoured by the Emperor of Austria 
and King of Wurtemberg, who ap- 
pointed him Knight Commander of 
the Orders of Francis Joseph and 
Frederick, on the occasion of his 
seventieth anniversary in 1374 ; be- 
sides which he received the decora- 
tions of the Crown of Prussia, Third 
Class, of Italy, of Wurtemberg, Leo- 
pold of Belgium, Gustav Wata of 
Sweden, Ernest August of Hanover, 
the Portuguese Order of Christ, the 
Golden Lion of Holland, the 8axe 
Ernestine family order, and a testi- 
monial subscribed by his numerous 

BENHAM, The Rkv. William, 
B.D., was born at West Meon, 
Hants, Jan. 15, 1831, his father 
being the village postmaster, as his 
grandfather had been before him. 
Me was educated at the village 
National school, and was favourably 
• noticed by the rector, Archdeacon 
Bayley, who took him to his house 
as his little secretary, he being 
blind. He taught ths youth Latin 
and Greek, and after his death in 
1844. Mr. Benham was sent to St. 
Markr's College, Chelsea, to be 
trained for a schoolmaster. After 
working in that capacity for a few 
years, Archdeacon Bayley's family 
furnished him with the means of 
going through the Theological De- 
partment of King's College, London. 
He went out with a first-class, and 
was ordained by the late Archbishop 
of Canterbury, then Bishop of Lon- 
don, as Divinity Tutor to his old col- 
lege at Chelsea. He remained there 
from 1857 to 1864, when he became 
Editorial Secretary to the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
and curate of St. Lawrence Jewry, 
under the present Dean of Man- 
chester. In 1867 he was favourably 
noticed as a preacher by some mem- 
bers of Archbishop Longley's family, 
unknown to himself, and this led to 
the Archbishop offering him the 
vicarage of his own parish of Ad- 
dington . He acted as the Primate's 
private secretary during the first 

Lambeth Conference, and passed 
the Resolutions through the press, 
and also his last Charge. Arch- 
bishop Tait also made him one of 
the Six Preachers of Canterbury in 
1872, and gave him the vicarage of 
Margate in the same year. His 
chief work there was the carrying 
out the restoration of the parish 
church. In 1880 he was appointed 
to the vicarage of Marden, and in 
1882 to the rectory of St. Edmund 
the King, Lombard Street, in the 
City of London. Mr. Benham has 
published "The Gospel of St. Mat- 
thew, with notes and a commen- 
tary ," 1862 ; " English Ballads, with 
introduction and notes/' 1863 ; 
"The Epistles for the Christian 
Year, with notes and commentary," 
1864; "Readings on the Life of Our 
Lord and His Apostles," 1880; 
"The Church of the Patriarchs," 
1867; the "Globe" edition of Cow- 
per*s works, 1870 ; Commentary on 
the Acts in the "Commentary of 
the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge," 1871; "A Companion 
to the Leetionary," 1872; a new 
translation of Thomas a Kempis's 
"ImitatioChristi," 1874; "Memoirs 
of Catherine and Craufurd Tait," 
1879; and "How to Teach the Old 
Testament," 1881. He has also 
contributed articles to "The Bible 
Educator," Macmillan's Magazine, 
and other periodicals. 

BENJAMIN, Judah Philip, 
Q.C., was born in St. Croix, a 
Danish West India Island, in 1811, 
of English parents of the Jewish 
faith, who emigrated in 1816 to 
Wilmington, North Carolina, where 
his father became naturalised as an 
American citizen, the son remain- 
ing a native born subject of Eng- 
land. He entered Yale College in 
1825, but left without graduating 
in 1828, when he went to New Or- 
leans, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1832. He entered prominently 
into politics, originally as a Whig, 
but on the merger of that party 
into the " Know Nothing," or Na- 
tive American party, he attached 

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himself to the Democratic party. 
He was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1852, and re-elected in 
1858. On Dec. 31, 1860, in a speech 
to the Senate, he avowed his ad- 
hesion to the State of Louisiana, 
which had seceded from the Union, 
and he at once withdrew from the 
Senate and returned to New Or- 
leans. He was then called by 
Jefferson Davis, who had just been 
elected President of the Southern 
Confederacy, to join the Cabinet as 
Attorney-General. To the duties 
of this office were added those of 
Acting-Secretary of War during a 
temporary vacancy in that office. 
On the appointment of a permanent 
Secretary of War, the Cabinet was 
reorganised, and Mr. Benjamin was 
made Secretary of State, retaining 
that office and the confidence of | 
the President until the overthrow I 
of the Confederacy. He then es- | 
caped the pursuit of the Northern 
troops, and succeeded in reaching ; 
Nassau, New Providence, whence he ' 
sailed for England, where he ar- | 
rived in Sept. 1865. Mr. Benjamin | 
had been in reality the soul of the > 
rebellion. His entire property was ' 
confiscated, and it is an interesting j 
fact that his law library was bought 
in by public subscription and pre- 
sented to him. He came to Eng- 
land in Sept., 1865, and through the 
personal influence of Lord Cairns | 
was called to the bar in 1866, after | 
keeping his terms for one year | 
only. He at once acquired a large 
practice at Liverpool, where the ; 
principal firms of solicitors have 
intimate relations with the leading 
legal houses of New Orleans. He 
received a silk gown in 1872, and I 
from that date was engaged in al- 
most every case of importance. I 
Among his many arguments, the | 
one most generally known is that 
which he delivered before the Court i 
for Crown Cases Reserved on behalf I 
of the captain of the Franconia. I 
His last great Nisi Prius case was I 
that of Anson and others against i 
the London and North- Western I 

Railway. After this he entirely 
refused any briefs except upon 
Appeal, and was only to be seen in 
the House of Lords and the Privy 
Council. In the latter his know- 
ledge of general jurisprudence 
gave him a great advantage. He 
was, indeed, in the widest sense of 
the term, an international lawyer. 
Mr. Benjamin retired from practice 
in Feb., 1883. In 1868 he pub- 
lished the 1st, and in 1873 the 2nd 
edition of a " Treatise on the Law 
of Sale of Personal Property." 

BENNET, James Henry, M.D., 
was born at Manchester in 1816. 
His father was an influential manu- 
facturer, connected with the dis- 
coveries in textile fabrics which 
marked the beginning of this cen- 
tury, and was the first to obtain a 
patent for uniting cotton and wool 
in one fabric, and was the inventor 
and patentee of the cloth named by 
him " corduroy." After his father's 
death his mother took him to Paris 
to be educated, by the advice of M. 
Fernaux, an eminent French manu- 
facturer, and a friend of the family. 
He was placed at a French college 
(" St. Louis "), and remained there 
until the age of seventeen. He 
was then apprenticed in the usual 
course to Mr. Ormond Tabberer, a 
maternal uncle, a clever surgeon, 
practising at Rep ton, in Derby- 
shire. With him he remained until 
the age of twenty, when he re- 
turned to Paris for a visit. Find- 
ing, through his former college 
friends, that the Paris medical 
schools presented very great advan- 
tages, he got his uncle to release 
him from the unexpired years of 
his apprenticeship, and began his 
medical studies de novo in the 
French capital, where he remained 
for seven years, competing for and 
gaining every appointment that 
was open to competition, and alBo 
teaching and writing for the medi- 
cal press. During the last four of 
these years he was an "Interne ties 
Hopitauz," or House Physician to 
the Paris hospitals, an appointment 

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gained by an arduous competitive 
examination. At the age of 27 he 
left Paris, and settled in London as 
^ consulting physician, choosing 
midwifery and gynecology, or the 
diseases of women, as a special 
branch. He published, in 1845 — 
64, an important work on female 
diseases, which procured for him at 
an early age a large and important 
practice in that department of 
medicine. In 1869 he became con- 
sumptive from hard work, the re- 
sult of over-success. He was 
obliged to give up his medical ap- 
pointment, to resign practice, and 
to fly for his life to the Genoese 
Riviera. But freedom from profes- 
sional anxieties, a mild climate, and 
rational treatment, effected a cure 
in the course of a few years, but he 
has continued to spend his winter 
ever since at Mentone on the Ri- 
viera, only undertaking consulting 
practice in the summer in London, 
and residing at his country resi- 
dence, The Ferns, Weybridge, 
Surrey, during his sojourn in Eng- 
land. In 1878 he retired entirely 
from practice in England in sum- 
mer, but still resides at his country 
home, The Ferns, and continues to 
practise in the winter at Mentone. 
Dr. Bennet has always shown in- 
domitable energy, ever rallying and 
ever returning to the battle of life, 
however severely stricken by ill- 
ness, and by social disasters. He 
is the author of " A Practical 
Treatise on Inflammation of the 
Uterus and its Appendages, and on 
its Connexion with other Uterine 
Diseases/' 4th edit. 1861 ; " A Re- 
view of the Present State of Uter- 
ine Pathology," 1856 ; "Nutrition 
in Health and Disease," 3rd edit. 
1877 ; " Nutrition," cheap edition, 
1879 ; second thousand — trans- 
* lated into French by M. Barru^, 

1882; "Winter and Spring on 
the Shores of the Mediterranean ; 
or, the fiivieras, Italy, Spain, 
Sardinia, Malta, Corfu, Corsica, 
Sicily, Algeria, and Tunis, as 
Winter Climates," 5th edit. 1876 ; 

| "On the Treatment of Pulmonary 
, Consumption by Hygiene, Climate, 
| and Medicine," 3rd edit. 1878 ; 
i " Recherches sur le Traitement de 
la Phthisie Pulmonaire/' Paris, 
I 1875; "La Corse et la Sardaigne, 
I Etude de Voyage/' Paris, 1876 ; 
I and " La Mediterranee et la Riviere 
de Genes," Paris, 1880. 
, BENNETT, Sib James Risdon, 
I M.D., F.R.S., Ex-President of the 
Royal College of Physicians, eldest 
son of the Rev. James Bennett, D. D. 
by Sarah, daughter of Mr. John 
Comley, of Romsey, Hampshire, 
was born at Romsey, in 1809. He 
was educated by private tuition, 
and received his professional educa- 
tion in Paris and Edinburgh, at 
which latter university he took his 
degree of M.D. in 1833. After 
travelling for two years on the 
Continent, he settled in London, 
and lectured at the Charing Cross 
Hospital and Grainger's School in 
the Borough. He was elected, in 
1843, Assistant-Physician to St. 
Thomas's Hospital, and on becom- 
ing full Physician, lectured there 
for many years on the " Practice of 
Medicine." He was one of the 
Founders and Secretary of the first 
Sydenham Society for the Publica- 
tion of Medical Works. After 
filling the offices of Censor, Lum- 
leian and Croonian Lecturer, and 
Representative of the College of 
Physicians in the General Medical 
Council, he was elected President 
of the College in 1876, and annually 
re-elected up to 1880. In the same 
year he had been elected Fellow of 
the Royal Society. Sir Risdon 
Bennett is Consulting Physician to 
the Victoria Park Hospital for Dis- 
eases of the Chest, Hon. Physician 
and Governor of St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital, and Fellow of various medi- 
cal and scientific societies. He has 
published a translation from the 
German of Kramer on " Diseases of 
the Ear;" "An Essay on Acute 
Hydrocephalus," which gained the 
Fothergillian Gold Medal ; Lum- 
leian Lectures on Cancerous and 

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other Intra-Thoracic Growths." He 
has also contributed numerous 
papers to the Transactions of the 
Pathological Society and various 
medical journals. Sir Bisdon Ben- 
nett was one of the Commissioners 
of the Paris Universal Exhibition 
for 1878. In that year he received 
from the University of Edinburgh 
the honorary degree of LL.D. In 
1881 he received from Her Majesty 
the honour of knighthood, and was 
elected Chairman of the Executive 
Committee of the International 
Medical Congress. Sir Bisdon is at 
present Member of the Council, 
and Vice-President of the Boyal 
Society. He married, in 1841, 
Miss Ellen Selfe Page, daughter 
of the Bev. Henry Page, M.A., of 
Bose Hill, Worcester. 

BENNETT, William Cox, 
LL.D., the son of Mr. John Ben- 
nett, watchmaker, of Greenwich, 
where he was born in 1820, was 
educated at a school in his native 
town, from which, on account of 
his father's death, he was removed 
at the age of fourteen to assist his 
mother in the business. Whilst 
still a youth, he took an active part 
in the formation of a literary insti- 
tution on the most popular basis, 
which has above 1,200 members, 
and in connection with which he 
has formed a library consisting of 
above 12,000 volumes. He has 
likewise been instrumental in 
establishing at Greenwich cheap 
baths and wash-houses, a large pro- 
prietary school, and other popular 
institutions. He acted as Honorary 
Auditor of the Association for the 
Bepeal of the Taxes on Knowledge, 
till that great reform was effected. 
He has taken an active part in all 
the agitations for the education of 
the people during the past thirty 
years ; is the Hon. Sec. to the 
Greenwich branch of the National 
Education League, and a member 
of the London Council. Dr. Ben- 
nett printed volumes of poetry 
privately in 1843 and 1845. After 
this, he contributed poems to various 

periodicals, and published several 
volumes. Perhaps best known as a 
song-writer, Dr. Bennett has pub- 
lished, amongst other works, 
" Poems," 1860 ; " Verdicts," 1862 ; 
" Bean's School : a Chapter in the 
Educational History of England/' 
which secured the reform of a large 
endowed school at Greenwich, and 
threw it open to the children of aU 
the inhabitants, irrespective of 
their religious beliefs ; " War 
Songs," 1865; "Queen Eleanor's 
Vengeance, and other Poems," 
1867 ; " Songs, by a Song-Writer," 
1869 ; " Baby May, and other 
Poems on Infants," 1861, let and 
2nd editions; " The Worn Wedding 
Bing," &c, 1861 ; "The Politics of 
the People," Parts I. and II.; "Our 
Glory Boll, National Poems," 1866; 
"Proposals for Contributions to a 
Ballad History of England," 1867. 
A collected edition of his poems 
appeared in 1862, in " Boutledge's 
British Poets." Dr. Bennett is a 
practised political writer, and was 
attached to the staff of the Weekly 
Dispatch, during the years 1868-9- 
70, contributing leaders, essays, 
reviews, and fine-art criticisms. He 
acted as Secretary to the Refugees' 
Benevolent Fund during the con- 
tinuance of the Franco-Prussian 
War. He has been for several 
years engaged on a "Ballad and 
Song History of England, and of 
the States sprung from Her." He 
has also ready for press his " Becol- 
lections of the late Miss Mitford, 
with Selections from her Corre- 
spondence." The University of 
Tusculum conferred on him the 
degree of LL.D. in 1869. 

BENNETT, The Bev. William 
James Early, M.A., born about 
1805, was educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, of which he was a student, 
and where he graduated B.A. in 
1827. He held for some years the 
incumbency of Portman Chapel, and 
that of St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, 
but resigned the latter in 1861, in 
consequence of a popular outcry 
raised against his " Tractarian " 

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tendencies, and. almost immediately 
afterwards was presented to the 
rkarageof Frome Selwood, Somer- 
setshire. He is the author of a large 
number of theological works, of 
which the heat known are — •' Prin- 
ciples of the Book of Common 
Prayer ;" " The Eucharist : its His- 
tory, Doctrines, and Practice ; " 
" Errors of Romanism ; " " Lives of 
Fathers of the Church of the Fourth 
Century/' and various sermons and 
pamphlets ; has edited the " Theo- 
logian, ,, " The Old Church Porch," 
&c, and has contributed largely to 
religious periodical literature. In 
1871 the case of "Sheppard v. 
Bennett" came on for hearing 
before the Privy Council, and was 
decided in favour of Mr. Bennett's 
teaching on the subject of the Real 
Presence. Since then, the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, having referred 
to it, was answered by Mr. Bennett 
in a pamphlet entitled " A Defence 
of the Catholic Faith/' 

BENNIGSEN, Rudolph Von, 
born at Lnneberg, Hanover, July 
lO, 1824, studied Jurisprudence at 
Gottingen and Heidelberg, and 
qualified as an advocate, but entered 
the judiciary and rose to the func- 
tions of a judge at Gdttingen. In 
1855 the city of Aurich elected him 
to the Second Chamber of the 
Hanover Legislature, but the King 
refused him the indispensable con- 
sent of the Crown to accept that 
legislative office. Thereupon he 
resigned his judgeship, and being 
thus freed from the trammels of 
official life, he took his seat in the 
Parliament (1856), and at once 
assumed a position as leader of the 
Opposition. In 1859 Bennigsen 
and Miguel, with a few others, 
drew up and issued a programme 
or scheme of German unity. In this 
document it was declared that only 
Prussia could be at the head of a 
united Germany, and in fact Bennig- 
sen advocated at this period that 
which Prince Bismarck long after- 
wards accomplished. TheNational- 
Yerein held its first sitting Sept. 16, 

1859, at the invitation of Bennigsen, 
and he himself was chosen President. 
The Frankfort Assembly formed 
the permanent organization of the 
National- Verein, and fixed its seat 
in the city of Coburg. At the time' 
of its dissolution in 1866, it num- 
bered 30,000 members, of whom 
10,000 were from Prussia. In that 
year the organization of the North 
German Confederation making in- 
evitable the speedy realization of 
the Empire, the Union had no 
further raison d'etre, and it was 
accordingly dissolved. Bennigsen, 
who by the annexation of Hanover 
was made a Prussian, became a 
member both of the Prussian Lower 
Chamber and of the North German 
Reichstag. During the war of 
1870 he was in confidential relations 
with the Prussian authorities, and 
undertook two important missions 
— one to the South German States, 
where he discussed the conditions 
of a possible unity ; the other to 
the camp of Versailles in the winter 
of 1871, where the same negotiations 
were afterwards carried out to a 
practical result. In 1873 he was 
elected President of the Prussian 
House of Deputies. At the elec- 
tions of 1877 the Socialist party 
opposed his candidature, but with- 
out success. 

BENSON, The Most Rev. 
Edward White, D.D., Archbishop 
of Canterbury, Primate of all Eng- 
land, and Metropolitan, son of 
Edward White Benson, Esq., of 
Birmingham Heath, and formerly 
of York, was born near Birming- 
ham in 1829. He was educated at 
hong Edward's School, Birming- 
ham, and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, of which he was«suceessively 
Scholar and Fellow, and where he 
graduated B.A. in 1852, as a First 
Class in classical honours, and 
Senior Chancellor's Medallist, ob- 
taining also the place of a Senior 
Optime in the mathematical tripos. 
He graduated M.A. in 1855, B.D. 
in 1862, and D.D. in 1867. He was 
for some years an assistant master 

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in Rugby school, and he held the 
head mastership of Wellington Col- 
lege from its first opening in 1858 
down to 1872, when he was appointed 
a Canon Residentiary and Chancel- 
lor of Lincoln Cathedral, having 
been a Prebendary of the same 
cathedral for three years previously. 
He was a select preacher to the 
University of Cambridge (1864-71), 
and to the University of Oxford 
(1875-76). For several years he 
was Examining Chaplain to the 
Bishop of Lincoln. In Dec. 1876 
he was nominated by the Crown, on 
the recommendation of the Earl of 
Beaconsfield, to the newly-founded 
Bishopric of Truro, and he received 
episcopal consecration in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, April 25, 1877. The 
diocese, which has been taken out 
of the diocese of Exeter, consists of 
the county of Cornwall, the Isles of 
Scilly, and five parishes of Devon- 
shircconstituting the Archdeaconry 
of Cornwall; with the church of 
St. Mary, Truro, as a cathedral. 
During his occupation of the see he 
began the building of a new cathe- 
dral at Truro, of which the out- 
ward shell is to cost ^890,000, most 
of that sum having been gathered 
through the energy of the Bishop. 
In Dec. 1882 Dr. Benson was ap- 
pointed by the Crown, on Mr. 
Gladstone's recommendation, to the 
Archbishopric of Canterbury, in 
succession to Dr. Tait. Dr. Benson 
has published " Sermons preached 
in Wellington College Chapel," 
1859 ; " SoAiricrei. A memorial Ser- 
mon preached after the death of 
J. P. Lee, first Bishop of Manches- 
ter," 1870; "Work, Friendship, 
Worship," being three sermons 
preached before the University of 
Cambridge in 1871 ; " Boy-Life, its 
trial, its strength, its fulness. Sun- 
days in Wellington College, 1859- 
72," Lond.8vo,1874 ; " Singleheart," 
1877; and "The Cathedral, its 
necessary place in the Life and 
Work of the Church," 1879 ; besides 
numerous single sermons; and he 
is one of the contributors to " The 

Speaker's Commentary on the 
Bible." Dr. Benson married, in 
1859, Mary, daughter of the late 
Rev. William Sidgwick, of Skipton, 

BENTINCK, The Rioht Hon. 
George Augustus Frederick 
Cavendish, M.P., son of the late 
Major-General Lord Frederick Ben- 
tinck, C.B., was born in London in 
1821, and educated at Westminster 
School, and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge (M. A., 1847). He was called 
to the bar, at Lincoln's Inn, in 18-U5. 
Mr. Bentinck unsuccessfully con- 
tested Taunton in April, 1859 ; but 
he was elected in the following 
August, and continued to represent 
that borough till July, 1865, when 
he was returned for Whitehaven. 
He was appointed Parliamentary 
Secretary to the Board of Trade in 
Feb., 1874. In Nov., 1875, he was 
appointed Judge- Advocate-General, 
and sworn of the Privy Council. He 
went out of office with his party in 
April, 1880. 

BENTLEY, Robert, F.L.S., a 
botanist, who has more particularly 
directed attention to the applica- 
tions of botany to medicine. He 
was born at Hitchin, Herts, in 1825, 
and became a member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons in 1847. He 
is Dean of the Medical Faculty, 
Honorary Fellow, and Professor of 
Botany in King's College, London ; 
Honorary member of, and Professor 
of Materia Medica and Botany to 
the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain ; Honorary member of the 
American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion ; Professor of Botany in the 
London Institution; Examiner in 
Botany to the Royal College of 
Veterinary Surgeons; Member of 
the Council, and Chairman of the 
Garden Committee of the Royal 
Botanic Society of London ; and 
was formerly Lecturer on Botany 
at the Medical Colleges of the Lon- 
don, Middlesex, and St. Mary's 
Hospitals. Professor Bentley was 
President of the British Pharma- 
ceutical Conferences in 186ti and 

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1S67. He has contribxrted numerous 
articles to the Pharmaceutical 
/ranul, of wnicK for ten years he 
wa* one of the editors. He has 
written a " Manual of Botany/' 
which has reached the fourth 
edition; has jointly edited two 
editions of Pereira's Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics ; is the author of 
an elementary work on Botany, in 
the series of Manuals of Elementary 
Science, published by the Society 
for Promoting Christian Know- 
lodge; and has, in conjunction 
with Dr. Trimen, brought out an 
illustrated work on Medicinal 
Plants, in four volumes. Professor 
Bentley has also published a Series 
of Papers " On New American 
Remedies/' a Lecture " On the 
Characters, Properties, and Uses of 
Eucalyptus globulus," " Lectures 
on the Organic Materia Medica of 
the British Phajrmacopceia," and 
various other Lectures and Papers 
on Botany and Materia Medica. 

BERESFOBD, The Most Rkv. 
a:nd Right Hon. Mabcus Gervais, 
E>. D., Archbishop of Armagh, son of 
the late Bishop of Kilmore, who was 
a nephew of the first Marquis of 
"Waterford, was born in 1801, and 
educated at Richmond School, York- 
shire, under Dr. Tate, whence he 
passed to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. Having graduated and 
t&ken orders, he was appointed 
Kector of Kildallen in 1825, after- 
wards held the vicariates of Drung 
and Lara, and was also Vicar- 
General of Kilmore and Archdeacon 
of Ardagh. In 1854 he was conse- 
crated to the united sees of Kilmore, 
Klphin, and Ardagh, and in 1863 
was translated to Armagh. His 
Grace is Primate of all Ireland, 
Lord Almoner of Ireland, and Pre- 
late of the Order of St. Patrick. 
The see of Armagh is of the annual 
value of £U t 500. 

BERESFOBD, Lord William 

Charles Dzlafosb, second son of 

the Rev. John Beresford, fourth 

M*rqnis of Waterford, by Christiana 

JuJia, fourth daughter of the late 

Colonel Charles Powell Leslie, of 
Glaslough, co. Monaghan, was born 
Feb. 10, 1&46, at Philiptown, co. 
Dublin. He entered the Royal 
Navy in 1859, was appointed a 
lieutenant in 1868, and advanced 
to the rank of commander in 1875. 
He served successively in the 
" Marlborough ," the " Defence/' 
the "Clio," the "Tribune/' the 
" Luchez," the " Research/' the 
Royal yacht " Victoria and Albert," 
and the "Galatea." In 1872 he 
was appointed Flag Lieutenant to 
the Commander-in-Chief at Devon- 
port; and he accompanied the 
Prince of Wales as naval aide-de- 
camp to India in 1875-76. His 
lordship received the gold medals 
of the Royal Humane Society, and 
of the Liverpool Shipwreck and 
Humane Society, for having on 
three occasions jumped overboard 
and saved lives at sea. On one of 
these occasions, when he rescued a 
marine who had fallen overboard at 
Port Stanley, Falkland Island, he 
was attired in heavy shooting clothes, 
and his pockets were filled with 
cartridges. At the time of the 
bombardment of the forts of Alex- 
andria, Lord Charles Beresford was 
in command of the gunboat " Con- 
dor," and in the action of July 11, 
1882, he greatly distinguished him- 
self by his gallant conduct. The 
ironclad, "Temeraire," which got 
ashore at the beginning of the en- 
gagement, was safely assisted off by 
the "Condor." Then the formid- 
able Marabout batteries, which con- 
stituted the second strongest de- 
fence of the port of Alexandria, were 
effectually silenced. This latter suc- 
cess was chiefly due to the gallant 
way in which the " Condor" bore 
down on the fort and engaged guns 
immensely superior to her own. So 
vigorous, indeed, was the attack on 
the big fort, that the Admiral's ship 
signalled "Well done, 'Condor.'" 
It was ascertained that the Khedive, 
who had taken refuge with Dervish 
Pasha at Ramleh, was in imminent 
danger. Arabi Pasha had sent a 

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body of troops to guard the palace, 
and ordered them to kill the Khedive, 
but Tewfik and Dervish managed to 
bribe the men, and to communicate 
with Admiral Sir Beauchamp Sey- 
mour, who dispatched the "Condor" 
in shore to keep the Egyptian troops 
in check. The Khedive then suc- 
ceeded in getting away, and drove 
to Ras-el-Tin. As the conflagration 
and looting continued in the city of 
Alexandria, the Americans were 
asked to land marines to assist in 
keeping order, and a regular police 
system was organized under Lord 
Charles Beresford, while Captain 
Fisher, of the "Inflexible," took 
command of the land forces. Strong 
measures were necessary to subdue 
the looters. Several of the scoun- 
drels detected in the very act of 
setting fire to houses were sum- 
marily shot in the great square, and 
those caught plundering were flog- 
ged. Lord Charles Beresford was 
promoted to the rank of captain 
(Aug. 7, 1882) for the services he 
had rendered at the bombardment 
of Alexandria. His lordship sat in 
the House of Commons, as member 
for the county of Waterford, in the 
Conservative interest, from Feb., 
1874, till April, 1880, when his can- 
didature was unsuccessful. He is 
heir-presumptive to his brother, the 
present Marquis of Waterford. He 
married in 1878 Mina, eldest daugh- 
ter of the late Mr. Richard Gardner. 
BERGH, Henry, born in New 
York, in 1823. He graduated at 
Columbia College, studied law, and 
when quite young wrote several 
dramas, poems, and tales. In 1863 
he was appointed Secretary of Lega- 
tion at St. Petersburg, and was 
afterwards Vice-Consul. Returning 
to America in 1866, he organized the 
American Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals, to which he 
has devoted his very considerable 
fortune, and which has grown to 
be an important institution, with 
branches in nearly every State of 
the Union. In the city of New 
York the officers of this Society are 

constituted special policemen with 
authority to arrest summarily any 
person who is found committing 
cruelty to animals. 

BERGHAUS, Henby, geogra- 
pher, born at Cleves, May 3, 1797, 
served as a volunteer in the army 
during the campaign of 1815, and 
at the end of the war, having ob- 
tained a situation as topographical 
engineer at Berlin, was engaged in 
the trigonometrical survey of Prus- 
sia. Through the influence of the 
Minister of War, he was in 1821 
appointed to a post in the Berlin 
Academy of Architecture, and three 
years afterwards received the ap- 
pointment of Professor of Applied 
Mathematics in the Berlin School 
of Civil Engineering, which he has 
since held. Berghaus has contri- 
buted to the improvement made in 
the construction of maps since the 
beginning of the present century, 
has written on a variety of geo- 
graphical subjects, and has pub- 
lished a number of useful maps. 
He assisted the late Dr. Alexander 
Keith Johnston in the preparation 
of the " Physical Atlas." 

BERKELEY, The Rev. Miles 
Joseph, F.R.S., M.A., born at 
Biggin, in the parish of Oundle, in 
1803, was educated at Rugby and 
at Christ's College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated in honours in 
1825, and after holding the curacy 
of Margate was appointed in 1833 
to the incumbency of two small 
parishes near Wansf ord, Northamp- 
tonshire, and rural dean for a por- 
tion of the deaneries of Oundle and 
Weldon. He was presented to the 
vicarage of Sibbertoft in 1868. He 
is a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
the Linnsean Society, Honorary 
Fellow of the Royal Horticultural 
Society of London, a member of the 
Academy of Sciences of Sweden, and 
the Academia Nature Curiosorum, 
Corresponding Member of the Agri- 
cultural Societies of Paris and Lille, 
and of the Society de Biologic of 
Paris. He is the author of " Glean- 
ings of British Alga" (1833), and 

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of the concluding volume of the 
"English Flora** (1836), as well as 
of articles " On tbe Diseases of 
Phnts ," in the ** Encyclopaedia of 
igriooltore t " a series of papers on 
Vegetable Pathology, in the Qar- 
d«m* Chronicle; an introduction 
to "dyptogamic Botany/' "Out- 
linesof British. I^ungology/' " Hand- 
book of British Mosses;" of nu- 
merous papers in the Transactions 
of t&e Linntean Society, the " Zoolo- 
gical Journal/* " Hooker's Journal 
of Botany/' " Hooker's Himalayan 
Journal," and the " Antarctic and 
New Zealand Flora/' and of a 
sermon preached at the Comme- 
moration of Benefactors at Christ's 
College, Cambridge. 

BERNARD, The Hon. and 
Right Rbv. Charles Bbodrick, 
Bishop of Tuam, Killala, and 
Achonry, son of the second Earl of 
Bandon, born Jan. 4, 1811, and 
educated at Eton and Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, was ordained in 1835. 
He was made Vicar of Bantiy in 
1840, Sector of Kilbrogan, Senior 
Prebendary of Cork, and Rural 
Dean, in 1842, and was consecrated 
"Bishop of this see in 1867. He is 
-the author of "Sermons and Lec- 
trures/' published by request. 

BERNHARDT, Rosinb, called 
Sarah, a French actress, born at 
Paris, Oct. 22, 1844. She is a 
Jewess ; her mother was Dutch ; 
her father was a Frenchman. She 
spent the greater part of her early 
life in Holland, visiting at the 
house of her grandfather, an Am- 
sterdam optician. In 1858 she 
entered the Paris Conservatoire, 
became a pupil of MM. Provost 
and Samson, professor of elocution, 
gained a second prize for tragedy 
in 1861, and a second prize for 
comedy in 1862. She made her 
first public appearance on the stage 
at the Theatre Francais in Racine's 
" Iphigenie " and the " Valerie " of 
8cribe. She attracted hardly any 
notice, and after a brief withdrawal 
from the stage she reappeared at 
i the Gymn&se and the Porte Saint- 

Martin, in burlesque parts. In 
Jan. 1867 she returned to high art 
at the Odeon, playing several minor 
parts with much applause till she 
achieved a notable success in that 
of " Marie de Neuborg " in " Ruy 
Bias." She was thereupon recalled 
to the Theatre Francais, and first 
showed her higher power in " An- 
dromaque" and "Junie;" but it 
was as "Berthe de Savigny" in 
the play of "Le Sphinx," per- 
formed in March, 1874, that she 
won the greatest applause. In 
1879 she visited London with the 
other members of the Com&iie 
Francaise, who on June 2 in that 
year began a series of brilliant per- 
formances at the Gaiety Theatre, 
under the direction of Mr. John 
Holling8head. In the following 
year Mdlle. Bernhardt returned 
alone to the Gaiety, M. Coquelin, 
who was expected to accompany 
her, being prevented from doing 
so by his tenure at the Theltre 
Francais. About this time Mdlle. 
Bernhardt severed her connection 
with the Comedie Francaise, and 
was condemned to pay JB4000 costs 
and damages for the breach of her 
engagement. In June, 1881, she 
again appeared in London at the 
Gaiety Theatre in " La Dame aux 
Came'lias " for a short series of per- 
formances, and she afterwards made 
a most successful tour, from a pecu- 
niary point of view, in the United 
States. In April, 1882, she was 
married in the church of St. An- 
drew, Wells Street, London, to M. 
Damala, a Greek gentleman. 

BERT, Paul, a French physio- 
logist and statesman, born at 
Auxerre, 19 Oct., 1833. He began 
his studies in the college of his 
native town, and then went to Paris, 
where he attended simultaneously 
the lectures in the Faculty of Law 
and the Faculty of Medicine. Ap- 
pointed assistant at the course of 
lectures delivered by M. Claude 
Bernard in the College of France, 
he afterwards became professor in 
the Faculty of Science at Bordeaux, 

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then deputy to M. Flourens at the 
Museum, and had the degree of 
Doctor of Science conferred upon 
him. In 1868 he was- appointed 
Professor of Physiology in the 
Faculty of Science, in succession 
to M. Claude Bernard. M. Paul 
Bert achieved a high reputation 
in the scientific world by his in- 
teresting physiological researches, 
and especially by his bold experi- 
ments for ascertaining the con- 
ditions of human existence at diffe- 
rent altitudes. An enthusiastic 
member of the Aeronautical Society 
of France, M. Bert furnished his 
colleagues with the means of reach- 
ing very great heights from the 
surface of the earth, but unfortu- 
nately the aerial voyages which 
were undertaken, although some- 
times attended by successful results, 
sometimes terminated fatally, as in 
the case of the catastrophe of the 
balloon " Zenith " when the two 
brave aeronauts who ascended in 
it, Sivel and Croce Spinelli, lost 
their lives (April 15, 1875). In 
the month of August following, 
the Institute awarded to M. Bert 
its biennial prize of 10,000 francs. 
After the events of Sept. 4, 1870, 
M. Bert was appointed general 
secretary of the prefecture of the 
Yonne, and on Jan. 15, 1871, 
Prefect of the department du Nord. 
On June 9, 1872, he was elected 
to the National Assembly by the 
department of the Yonne in the 
place of M. Javal, and took his 
seat among the members of the 
Extreme Left party. He addressed 
the Assembly several times on ques- 
tions relating to education, particu- 
larly medical education. He was 
re-elected Deputy for the Yonne in 
the second circonscription of the 
arrondissement of Auxerre, Feb. 
20, 1876. In the new Assembly 
he signalised himself by his ex- 
treme Radical opinions, and after 
the act of May 16, 1877, he was 
one of the 363 deputies who refused 
a vote of confidence to the Cabinet 
of the Duke de Broglie. At the 

general election in the following 
October he was re-elected in the 
same circonscription which he had 
previously represented. He has 
since advocated with great earnest- 
ness various educational schemes, 
and endeavoured to exclude the 
clergy and members of the reli- 
gious orders from the schools. In 
1878 he was elected President of 
the Biological Society. From 1877 
to 1879 he represented the canton 
of Aillant in the General Council 
of the Yonne. In the short-lived 
Gainbetta Cabinet, formed on Nov. 
14, 1881, M. Paul Bert was Minister 
of Public Instruction . In April, 1882, 
he was elected a member of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences by 30 votes to 26. 
Besides numerous scientific contri- 
butions to the Rtpublique Fran^aise, 
he has published " Revue des Tra- 
vaux d' Anatomic et de Physiologic 
publics en France pendant Tannee 
1864" (8vo. 1866); "Notes d'Ana- 
tomie et de Physiologie comparees," 
2nd series, 1867-70; "Recherche* 
sur lc Mouvemcnt de la Sensitive " 
(1867-70); "Lecons sur la Physio- 
logie comparce de la Respiration," 
1869; "Recherches experimentales 
sur l'influence que les modifications 
exercent sur les phenomenes de la 
vie," 1874 ; " La Pression Baroin£- 
trique : Recherches de Physiologie 
experimentales," 1877 ; a biographi- 
cal sketch of Dr. C. Bernard, pre- 
fixed to his work " La Science Ex- 
perimentale," 1878; "La Morale 
des Jesuites," 6th edit. 1880; " Le- 
cons, discours, et conferences," 
1880; "Lecons de Zoologie pro- 
fessces a la Sorbonne " 1881 ; " La 
premiere annee d'enseignement 
scientifique : Sciences naturelles et 
physiques," 1882 ; " L'lnstruction 
civique a l'Ecole (Notions funda- 
mentals . Causeries du Maitre 
avec ses Eleves "), 3rd edit. 1882 ; 
and" Discours parlementaires, 1872- 
1881," published in 1882. 

BESANT, Walter, was born at 
Portsmouth, in 1838, and educated 
at King's College, London, and 
Christ's College, Cambridge, where 

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be graduated in high mathematical 
honours. He was intended for the 
Church, and obtained several theo- 
logical prizes, but abandoned this 
career. Then lie was appointed 
Senior Prof easor in the Royal Col- 
lage of Mauritius, but was com- 
pelled by ill health to resign, and 
returned to England, -where he has 
since resided. In 1868 he produced 
his first work, " Studies in Early 
French Poetry." In 1873 he brought 
out •* The French Humourists ; " in 
1877, " Rabelais/' for tihe " Ancient 
and Foreign Classics ; " in 1879, 
"Coligny," and in 1881, " Whit- 
tington," for the " New Plutarch " 
series, of which he is one of the 
editors. Mr. Besant has acted for 
many years as secretary of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, in 
which capacity he wrote in 1871 a 
** History of Jerusalem/' with the 
hate Professor Palmer; and he is 
now editor of the great work en- 
titled "The Survey of Western 
Palestine." He has contributed to 
most of the magazines. In 1871 he 
entered into the partnership with 
the late Mr. James Rice, which pro- 
duced the series of novels that 
bear their joint name. Mr. Besant 
has also written, under his own 
name, "The Revolt of Man/' and 
** All Sorts and Conditions of Men : 
an impossible story," 1882. He 
also, with Mr. Rice, put on the stage 
two plays, one performed at the 
Koyal Court, a dramatic version of 
" Ready Money Mortiboy ; " and the 
other, " Such a Good Man," the play 
from which their story bearing the 
same title was written. Mr.Besant's 
most recent literary productions 
are a biography of the late Pro- 
fessor Palmer (1883); and "The 
Captain's Room, a novel (1883). 

Nicolas, was born at Paris, June 
10, 1802, studied at the Bourbon 
College, and became librarian of the 
Louvre in 1828. He devoted his 
attention to a critical study of the 
.French language. He published 
three very able works, in which he 

showed that general usage and the 
authority of standard writers were 
at variance with the arbitrary rules 
laid down by modern theorists. The 
titles of these works are, " Le Par- 
ticipe Passe ramene* a sa veritable 
Origine" (1820); "Revue Gram- 
maticale, ou Refutation des princi- 
pales Erreurs des Grammairiens " 
(1829) ; and "Refutation Complete 
de la Grammaire de MM. Noel et 
Chapsal" (1838). M. Bescherelle 
is also the author of a number of 
grammars and dictionaries for uso 
in schools. The best known of these 
are : — " Grammaire Nationale " (2 
vols., 1831-38, 5th edit. 1852); 
" Dictionnaire Usuel de tous les 
Verbes Francais" (2 vols., 1842-13) ; 
"Dictionnaire National, ou Grand 
Dictionnaire Critique de la Languc 
Francaise " (2 vols., 1813-46); 
" Grand Dictionnaire de Geographie 
Uhiverselle " (1 vols., 1850-58, new 
edit. 1865, compiled in collaboration 
with M. Devars} ; " Petit Diction- 
naire National " (1857) ; and" Gram- 
maire pour Tous " (1865). 

BESSEMER, Sib Henry, F.R.S., 
civil engineer and inventor, whose 
name is inseparably associated with 
the development of the steel in- 
dustry of England and other coun- 
tries, is a son of the late Mr. 
Anthony Bessemer, of Old Broad 
Street, London, and subsequently 
of Charlton, Hertfordshire, where 
the subject of this notice was born, 
Jan. 19, 1813. He was, to a very 
great extent, self-taught, and at 20 
years of age he exhibited a design 
at the Royal Academy, then located 
at Somerset House. He first at- 
tracted the attention of Lord Al- 
thorp, then Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, by an ingenious con- 
trivance which he made for pre- 
venting frauds which were perpe- 
trated on a large scale by the 
transfer of stamps from old docu- 
ments to new ones ; but, though the 
saving to the public purse was esti- 
mated at nearly .£400,000 a year, he 
never received any remuneration 
for his ingenuity. In 185G he read 

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before the British Association, at 
Cheltenham, his first paper on the 
manufacture of malleable iron and 
steel. His discovery of the means 
of rapidly and cheaply converting 
pig-iron into steel, by blowing a 
blast of air through the iron when 
in a state of fusion, was the result of 
labours and experiments which ex- 
tended over a period of more than i 
ten years, and in which the ultimate 
result was only attained after many | 
and disheartening failures. Prior j 
to this invention, the entire pro- 
duction of cast steel in Great Britain 
was only about 50,000 tons annually ; 
and its average price, which ranged 
from £50 to £00 per ton, was pro- 
hibitory of its use for many of the 
purposes to which it is now univer- 
sally applied. In the year 1877, 
notwithstanding the depression of 
trade, the Bessemer steel produced 
in Great Britain alone amounted to 
750,600 tons, or 15 times the total 
of the former method of manufac- 
ture ; while the selling price aver- 
aged only JB10 per ton, and the coal 
consumed in producing it was less 
by 3,500,000 tons than would have 
been required in order to make the 
same quantity of steel by the old, 
or Sheffield, process. The total re- 
duction of cost is equal .to about 
£30,000,000 sterling upon the quan- 
tity manufactured in England dur- 
ing the year ; and in this way steel 
has been rendered available for a 
vast number of purposes in which 
its qualities are of the greatest pos- 
sible value, but from which its high 
price formerly excluded it. During 
the same year the Bessemer steel 
manufactured in the five other 
countries in which the business is 
chiefly conducted — namely, the 
United States, Belgium, Germany, 
France, and Sweden — raised the 
total output to 1,874,278 tons, with 
a net selling value of about 
£20,000,000 sterling. The first 
honorary recognition of the import- 
ance of the Bessemer process in 
this country was made by the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers about 

1858, when that body awarded Mr. 
Bessemer the Gold Telford Medal, 
for a paper read by him before thein 
on the subject. Sweden was the 
next country to appreciate a process 
which touched so nearly the great 
staple manufacture of that kingdom. 
The Bessemer process was early 
established there, and the Crown 
Prince, who is the President of the 
Iron Board of Sweden, inspected 
the first operation of making steel, 
with which he was so satisfied as to 
make Mr. Bessemer an honorary 
member of the Iron Board. Ham- 
burg was the next to adopt the pro- 
cess, and afterwards to present Mr. 
Bessemer with the freedom of the 
city. The process of manufacture 
then spread to Styria and other 
parts of Germany, and the King of 
Wiirtemberg presented Mr. Bes- 
semer with a gold medal, accom- 
panied by a complimentary letter of 
acknowledgment. Meanwhile the 
system had been adopted at the 
works of Prince Deniidoff, and those 
of the Northern Eailway, near 
Vienna. The Emperor of Austria 
took great interest in its progress, 
and conferred on its inventor the 
honour of Knight Commander of 
the Order of Francis Joseph, the 
jewelled cross and crimson collar 
being accompanied by a complimen- 
tary letter. In 1867 a scientific 
commission in Paris reported to the 
Emperor, Napoleon III., upon the 
progress and importance of the Bes- 
semer process, suggesting that his 
Majesty should confer on Mr. Bes- 
semer the Grand Cross of the Legion 
of Honour. The Emperor assented, 
on condition that the English Minis- 
ter in Paris would permit Mr. Bes- 
semer to wear it ; which permission, 
however, he failed to obtain, and so 
the intended honour was never con- 
ferred. At the Exhibition in Paris, 
however, in 1867, although Mr. 
Bessemer was not an exhibitor, the 
Emperor presented him in person 
with a magnificent gold medal, 
weighing 12 ounces, in recognition 
of the value of his inventions. 

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Another graceful acknowledgment 
of the ralne of tne process was made 
in 1871 by the Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute o! Great Britain, which society 
elected Mr. Bessemer its president. 
The Americans have adopted a very 
special method, of showing their ap- 
preciation of Mr. Bessemer* s ser- 
vices to science. In the midst of 
one of the richest iron and coal dis- 
tricts in the world, in Indiana, they 
have built a new city, which from 
its geographical position and local 
advantages is destined eventually 
to become one of the largest centres 
of trade in America. To this city 
they have given the name of Bes- 
semer. In 1872, the Albert Gold 
Medal of the Society of Arts was 
awarded, by the Council, to Mr. 
Bessemer " for the eminent services 
rendered by him to arts, manufac- 
tures, and commerce, in developing 
the manufacture of steel." His 
next invention was the " Bessemer 
Saloon " for preventing sea-sick- 
ness, and for which a company was 
formed, Mr. Bessemer himself sub- 
scribing JB25,000 towards the capi- 
tal. Unfortunately, however, the 
** Saloon Company " fell into liquida- 
tion, and Mr. Bessemer a ingenious 
invention was never submitted to 
the test of practical working at sea, 
so that this great problem still re- 
mains unsolved. Mr. Bessemer was 
elected a member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers in 1877. The 
first Howard quinquennial prize, 
being that for the year 1877, was 
awarded by the Institution of Civil 
Engineers to Mr. Bessemer as — in 
terms of the bequest — the inventor 
of a new and valuable process re- 
lating to the uses and property of 
iron. Mr. Bessemer was elected a 
Fellow of the Boyal Society, June 
12, 1879, and on the 26th of the 
same month he was knighted by the 
Queen at Windsor. On April 15, 
1880, the Company of Turners pre- 
sented the freedom and livery of 
their company to Sir Henry Bes- 
semer, and on Oct. 6 in the same 
year he was presented with the free- 

dom of the City of London, "in 
recognition of his valuable dis- 
coveries, which have so largely 
benefited the iron industries of this 
country, and his scientific attain- 
ments, which are so well known and 
appreciated throughout the world/' 
BEST, William Thomas, son of 
a solicitor at Carlisle, was born 
there Aug. 13, 1826. He was edu- 
cated in his native city under a 
private tutor. It was intended that 
he should adopt the profession of a 
civil engineer, but he chose music 
as a profession before the comple- 
tion of his term in the former 
pursuit. He became Organist of 
the Panopticon, Leicester Square, 
in 1853; Organist of the chapel 
of Lincoln's Inn ; Organist of St. 
Martin 's-in-the-Fields ; Organist of 
St. George's Hall, Liverpool, in 
1855 (a position he still holds) ; and 
Organist of the Boyal Albert Hall, 
Kensington, in 1871. In 18 K) Eng- 
lish organs were unsuitable for the 
performance of Bach's great organ 
works, the functions of the separate 
or " obbligato " pedal not being then 
understood. Goss, Thurle, and other 
well-known men of the same day 
merely played the organ as " piano/' 
with an occasional holding-bass or 
drone-bass on the pedals. Mr. Best, 
however, induced organ-builders to 
reconstruct their instruments in 
accordance with Bach's system, in 
which the bass of organ music 
should be assigned to the pedals, 
and not to the left hand. This re- 
quires a complete and separate 
organ for the feet, the same as the 
keyboards for the hands. Bach's 
theory of music is now universal in 
England. Mr. Best has published 
the following works on organ 
music : — " Modern School for the 
Organ," 1854, a collection of ori- 
ginal studies ; " Art of Organ-Play- 
ing," 1870; sonatas, preludes and 
fugues, concert pieces in all styles, 
1850-82 ; " Arrangements from the 
Scores of the Great Masters," 5 
vols., 1873; "The Organ Student/' 
2 vols. ; and several of Handel's 
i 2 

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works, including " Choral Fugues," 
185G, " Organ Concertos," 1868, 
and "Handel Album," 1880. He 
has also published some pianoforte 
music, and an overture for orchestra 
and triumphal march, composed for 
musical festivals. In 1880 he re- 
ceived a Civil List pension of J6100 
per annum. 

BEUST (Viscount von), Frede- 
rick Constantine, a mineralogist 
and geologist, born at Dresden, April 
13, 1806, studied mathematics and 
natural science at the Academy of 
Freiberg, and law at the universities 
of Leipsic and Gdttingen. After- 
wards he was employed in the ma- 
nagement of various mines, and in 
1842 he received the appointment of 
Chief Inspector of Mines in Freiberg. 
His writings on special subjects 
brought him into public notice, and 
gained for him an honourable posi- 
tion among political economists and 
statesmen. In the latter capacity he 
became the leader of a small party 
in Saxony, and he was sent to the 
conference which commenced its 
sittings in London on April 25, 
1864, as representative of the Diet 
of Frankfort. Among his writings 
are a "Geognostic Sketch of the 
Principal Masses of Porphyry 
between Freiberg, Frauenstein, 
Tharandt, and Nossen," Freiberg, 
1835 j " Criticism of Werner's 
Theory of Metallic Veins," Frei- 
berg, 1840 ; and a large number of 
smaller works and memoirs. 

BEUST (Count von), Frede- 
rick Ferdinand, a distinguished 
German statesman, brother of the 
above, born at Dresden, Jan. 13, 
1809, studied at Gdttingen and 
Leipsic, and entered the Foreign 
Office. After holding the post of 
Assessor of Land-Survey in 1832, 
he spent between two and three 
years in visiting Switzerland, 
France, and England. He became 
Secretary of the Saxon Legation at 
Berlin in 1836, occupied the same 
post at Paris in 1838, was Charge* 
d' Affaires at Munich in 1841, in 
London in 1846, Ambassador to the 

Court of Berlin in 1848, and Minister 
for Foreign Affairs for Saxony in. 
Feb. 1849, receiving the portfolio 
for Agriculture in the following 
May. He took a prominent part in 
the discussions preceding the treaty 
of 1852, and in 1853 became Minister 
of the Interior, when he resigned 
his post as Minister of Agriculture. 
On the breaking out of the Danish 
war in 1863, Baron von Beust 
distinguished himself by his fidelity 
to Federal interests, and by a 
rebuke he administered to Lord 
Bussell in answer to a despatch 
from the latter. He represented 
the Germanic Diet at the London 
Conference of 1864, during the con- 
tinuance of which he twice visited 
Paris, to confer with the Emperor 
Napoleon, whose guest he was after- 
wards at Fontainebleau. After the 
war between Austria and Prussia, 
Baron von Beust was made Minister 
for Foreign Affairs in Austria, Oct. 
30, 1866, Minister of the Household, 
Nov. 14, 1866, and President of the 
Council, with the title of Chancellor 
of the Empire, on the retirement of 
Count Belcredi, Feb. 4, 1867. The 
Emperor of Austria, acting under 
Baron von Beust's advice, made 
great concessions to Hungary. He 
succeeded in completely conciliating 
that country, and on June 8, 1867, 
the coronation of the Emperor aa 
King of Hungary was celebrated at 
Pesth, amid the acclamations of the 
people, the event being hailed as a 
pledge of the lasting reconciliation 
with the Magyars. Baron von Beust 
inaugurated a Liberal policy in 
regard to the interior organization 
of the Empire, and, himself a Pro- 
testant, he has invariably shown 
the bitterest hostility to the parti- 
sans of the Church. During his 
tenure of office the Jews were ad- 
mitted to equal civil and religious 
rights with the rest of the popula- 
tion ; the Beichsrath assented to 
the separation of the Church from 
the State, and declared all religious 
bodies to be equal in the eye of the 
law; the Concordat entered into 

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with the Holy See in 1835 was 
repudiated ; civil marriage was 
established ; imprisonment for debt 
vas abolished. ; and press offences 
were referred to the decisions of 
juries. Baron von Beust also 
directed his energies to the im- 
provement of the financial condi- 
tion of Austria, and the increase of 
her military strength. He accom- 
panied the Emperor Francis Joseph 
to France on the occasion of the 
Universal Exposition of 1867. He 
resigned the post of Chancellor of 
the Empire in Nov., 1871, and 
shortly afterwards was appointed 
Austrian Ambassador at the Court 
of St. James's in the place of Count 
Apponyi. He remained in London 
tiU Nov., 1878, when he was ap- 
pointed Austrian Ambassador at 
Paris. A sketch of "The Austro- 
Mungarian Empire, and the Policy 
of Count Beust, by an Englishman/' 
was published at London in 1870. 
Count von Beust is Grand Cross of 
tike Legion of Honour, and in Sept., 
1871, the Emperor of Germany con- 
ferred on him the cordon of the 
Order of the Black Eagle. He has 
Also received many other German 
and foreign decorations. 

BE YE ELY, William Roxby, 
painter, was born in 1824, at Rich- 
mond, in Surrey, where he received 
his education. His father was a 
midshipman, named Roxby, who 
had served under Lord Nelson, but 
who left the sea and appeared on 
the stage under the assumed name 
of Beverly. It was intended that 
the son should follow his father's 
profession, but he had a pencil in 
his hand whenever it was possible 
to get one, and he was well thrashed 
for daubing the walls of his bed- 
room with soot and red lead in the 
endeavour to paint landscapes. In 
1851 Mr. Beverly became painter 
and director of the painting rooms 
at Covent Garden and Drury Lane 
Theatres ; but for some years past 
he has been engaged at Drury Lane 
excJusively. He is renowned for his 
gorgeous visions of fairyland, and 

his magnificent transformation 
scenes. Mr. Beverly's works in 
water-colours are always well placed 
on the line at the exhibitions of the 
Royal Academy, and, for the most 
part, they find -their way into the 
best collections. 

BEWICK, The Rioht Bsv. John 
William, D.D., Bishop of Hexham 
and Newcastle, was born at Minster 
Acres, Northumberland, April 20, 
1824, and at the age of thirteen be- 
came an alumnus of St. Cuthbert's 
College, Ushaw, where he completed 
his course of studies for the priest- 
hood, distinguishing himself as a 
first-class scholar. Promoted to 
priest's orders in 1850, he was first 
placed as assistant priest at the ca- 
thedral in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
In 1854 he was removed to a more 
responsible position in North 
Shields, where he laboured for fif- 
teen or sixteen years. Shortly after 
being appointed in 1868 by Bishop 
Chad wick his Vicar-General, he 
resigned the rectory of North 
Shields, and took up his residence 
at Tynemouth, where he founded 
the mission of Our Lady and St. 
Oswin. He was appointed a canon 
of the cathedral chapter in 1865, 
and ten years later received the 
doctor's cap from the Holy See. 
In Sept., 1882, he was nominated to 
the See of Hexham and Newcastle, 
which had become vacant by the 
death of Dr. James Chadwick, and 
he was consecrated by Cardinal 
Manning on the 18th of the follow- 
ing month in St. Mary's cathedral 
church, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

B I A R D, Augusts Francois, 
a French painter, born at Lyons, 
Oct. 8, 1798; after studying in the 
Academy of Fine Arts of his native 
place, visited Spain, Greece, Syria, 
and Egypt, and his sketches rapidly 
found their way into public collec- 
tions and private residences. His 
" Arabian overtaken by the Simoom 
in the Desert," exhibited at Paris in 
1833, was followed by the " Odalisque 
of Smyrna." M. Biard was, however, 
more successful in the delineation 

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of comic and burlesque groupings, 
which, always taken from life, made 
him the favourite of his mirth- 
loving countrymen. Among these 
are " The Sequel of a Masquerade," 
" A Skirmish of Masquers with the 
Police," and " The Family Concert/' 
a diverting satire upon wonderful 
children. His power extends to 
the delineation of grim subjects, 
such as his " Slave-market on the 
Gold Coast of Africa." His love of 
travel led him to visit Russia, Nor- 
way, Lapland, Greenland, and Spits- 
bergen, whither he was accompanied 
by his wife, and he produced a 
number of sketches and studies of 
nature in these regions. His most 
celebrated picture of this period is 
the "Combat with Polar Bears." 
In 1857 he exhibited "The Bom- 
bardment of Bomarsund " and "A 
Ball on board an English Corvette." 
This artist obtained two medals of 
the second-class in 1828 and 1848 
respectively, one of the first-class 
in 183G, and the "Order of Merit" 
in 1838. Many of his pictures have 
been engraved. 

Edward, D.D., F.R.G.S., Dean of 
Lichfield, the second son of the late 
Rev. John Bickersteth, M.A., ne- 
phew of the late Lord Langdale, 
and brother of the present Bishop 
of Ripon, was born in 1814, at 
Acton, Suffolk; entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1832, and gra- 
duated B.A. in honours, from Sid- 
ney Sussex College in 1836, having 
previously obtained the Taylor's 
Mathematical Exhibition. He after- 
wards entered as a student in 
theology at Durham University, 
where he gained the first prize for 
a Theological Essay in 1837; was 
ordained deacon at the end of that 
year, and priest in Jan., 1839. He 
served as curate to Archdeacon 
Vickers at Chetton, Shropshire, in 
1838-39, when he was appointed to 
the curacy, with sole charge, of the 
Abbey, Shrewsbury. Having occu- 
pied this position for nine years, he 
was presented by the late Earl 

Howe in 1848 to the incumbency of 
Penn Street, Buckinghamshire . Dr. 
Bickersteth was appointed Rural 
Dean of Amersham, by the Bishop of 
Oxford, the same year; Vicar of 
Aylesbury and Archdeacon of Buck- 
ingham in 1853; Select Preacher 
before the University of Cambridge 
in 1861, 1864, 1873, and 1878; and 
Deputy Prolocutor of the Convoca- 
tion of Canterbury in 1861-2. He was 
elected Prolocutor of the Convoca- 
tion of Canterbury upon the resig- 
nation of the Dean of Bristol, and 
admitted to the degree of D.D., 
propter merita, by a Grace of the 
Senate of the University of Cam- 
bridge in 1864; again elected Pro- 
locutor at the opening of the new 
Convocation in 1866, and First 
Honorary Canon of Christ Church, 
Oxford. He was for the third time 
elected Prolocutor in Dec. 1868; 
and again for the fourth time in 

1874. He was Select Preacher be- 
fore the University of Oxford in 

1875. In Feb. 1875, he was nomi- 
nated by the Crown to the Deanery 
of Lichfield, which had become va- 
cant by the death of the Very Rev. 
William Weldon Champneys. He 
has published " Questions 'illustrat- 
ing the Thirty-nine Articles," 
"Catechetical Exercises on the 
Apostles' Creed," " Prayers for the 
Present Times," Charges delivered 
at his Visitations in 1855, 1856, 
1858, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1864, 1865, 
1867, 1868, and 1870; "God's Judg- 
ments in India, a Warning to Eng- 
land," — a sermon on the Fast Day, 
Oct. 7, 1857; "Church Music,'— a 
sermon; "The Convictions of Ba- 
laam," — an Oxford Lenten sermon ; 
"The Anthem of Creation," — a 
Choral Festival Sermon ; " The Con- 
flict with the Spirit of Expediency/' 
— an Oxford Lenten Sermon ; vari- 
ous tracts in the 3rd series of 
" Tracts for the Christian Seasons ; 

a paper on " Diocesan Synods," read 
at the York Congress in 1866; "The 
Authority and Responsibilities of 
the Christian Ministry," — an ordi- 
nation sermon preached in Ripon 

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Cathadial in I860 ; "The Victor on 
his Throne delivering up the King- 
dom" — mi Oxford. Lenten sermon, j 
1S67; a Consecration sermon in 
Westminster Abbey, Feb. 24, 1869 ; 
u Enoch," — an Oxford Lenten ser- 
mon, 1869; "Counsels of Peace for 
the Church, of "England," — an ad- 
dress to the Clergy of the Rural 
Deanery of Handsworth, 1877 ; "The 
Reform of Convocation/' 1877; "St. 
Paul's Message to Archippas," — an 
Ordination sermon, 1878; "The 
Mercian Church and St. Chad/' — 
an Address delivered in Lichfield 
Cathedral on March 2, 1880; "Man 
in the Universe without God," — a 
sermon preached at the request of 
the "Christian Evidence Society," 
July, 1880; "Marriage with a De- 
ceased Wife's Sister," Oct., 1881. 
He also brought out a new edition 
of Evans's "Bishopric of Souls/' 
1 S77 . Dean Bickersteth was a mem- 
ber of the company appointed hy 
Convocation to revise the New Tes- 
tament ; and he is the writer of an 
Exposition of St. Mark's Gospel for 
the " Pulpit Commentary." 

ward Henry, MA., horn at Isling- 
ton, Jan. 25, 1825, son of the late 
Rev. Edward Bickersteth, Rector of 
^Watton, was educated at Watton 
and Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He was Chancellor's English Medal- 
list in 1844, 1845, and 1846; pro- 
ceeded B.A. (Sen. Opt.) in 1847, 
Classical Tripos, 3rd Class ; took the 
degree of M.A. in 1850; and gained 
the Seatonion Prize in 1854. Mr. 
Bickersteth became Curate of Ban- 
ningham, Norfolk, in 1848 ; Curate 
of Christ Church, Tunbridge Wells, 
in 1852; Rector of Hinton Martell, 
Dorset, in the same year ; Vicar of 
Christ Church, Hampstead, in 1855 ; 
f Thaplain to the Bishop of Ripon in 
1801 ; and Rural Dean of High gate 
in 1878. He is author of the fol- 
lowing books:— "Poems," 1818; 
"Water from the Well-Spring," 
1853; "The Rock of Ages; or, 
Scripture Testimony to the One 
Eternal Godhead of the Father, and 

of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," 
1858; "Practical and Explanatory 
Commentary on the New Testa- 
ment," 1804; "Yesterday, To-day, 
and for Ever: a Poem in 12 books/' 
1860; "The Spirit of Life; or, Scrip- 
ture Testimony to the Divine Person 
and Work of the Holy Ghost/' 180S ; 
"The Hymnal Companion to the 
Book of Common Prayer," 1870; 
"The Two Brothers, and other 
Poems," 1871 ; " The Master's Home- 
Call," 1872; "The Reef and other 
Parables," 1873; "The Shadowed 
Home and the Light Beyond," 
1874; and, "The Lord's Table," 
1882. The "Hymnal Companion," 
of which a revised and enlarged 
edition, with tunes, appeared in 
1876, is now in use in more than 
two thousand churches in England 
and the colonies. 

Rev. Robert, D.D., F.R.S., Bishop 
of Ripon, fourth son of the Rev. 
John Bickersteth, M.A., Rector of 
Sapcote, Leicestershire, and nephew 
of the late Lord Langdale, born at 
Acton, Suffolk, Aug. 24, 1810 ; was 
intended for the medical profession, 
but preferring the Church, entered 
Queen's College, Cambridge, and 
graduated B.A. in honours in 1811, 
and M.A. in 1810. He was ordained 
to the curacy of Sapcote in 1841 ; 
was Curate at St. Giles's, Reading, 
in 1843-4, at the parish church of 
Clapham in 1845, and became In- 
cumbent of St. John's Church, 
Clapham, towards the close of that 
year. He was appointed to the rec- 
tory of St. Giles-in-the-Fields in 
1851, though, from the diminution 
of income which he suffered by 
the operation of the Metropolitan 
Burials Act, his promotion con- 
siderably curtailed his revenue. 
He was appointed a Canon Resi- 
dentiary of Salisbury in 1854, and 
was promoted to the see of Ripon 
in 1850. Dr. Bickersteth has written 
"Bible Landmarks," published in 
1850 ; " Lent Lectures, Means of 
Grace," in 1851 ; a volume of Ser- 
mons in 1860 ; Charges delivered to 

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the Clergy of the DioceBe of Eipon 
in 1858, 1861, 1864, 1867, and 1870; 
Beveral single Sermons, and Lec- 
tures on various subjects. 

BICKMORE, Albert Smith, 
born at St. George's, Maine, March 
1, 1839. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1860, and imme- 
diately commenced the study of 
natural history under Agassiz, who, 
in the following year, placed him 
in charge of the department of 
Mollusca in his Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology at .Cambridge. 
He had, very early in his scientific 
career, determined to establish at 
New York a Museum of Natural 
History. Partly to make collec- 
tions for this, and partly to supply 
some deficiencies in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, he sailed in 
1865 for the East Indies. He spent 
one year making collections of shells 
and small animals in the East In- 
dian Archipelago ; then traversed 
a large portion of China, visited 
and explored Japan, crossed Sibe- 
ria, visiting its mines, Central and 
Northern Russia, and other Euro- 
pean countries, and returned to 
New York in about three years 
from the date of his departure. In 

1869 he published in London and 
New York a volume of his " Travels 
in the East Indian Archipelago," 
and a German edition at Jena. In 

1870 he was elected Professor of 
Natural History in Madison Uni- 
versity, Hamilton, New Yorjr. He 
has been a frequent contributor to 
the American Journal of Science, 
and the Journal of the Royal 
Geographical Society j and is now 
Superintendent of the Museum of 
Natural History, New York, which 
was inaugurated at the close of 

BIDDULPH, Lieut.-Gen. Sir 
Michael Anthony Shrapnel, 
K.C.B., is the second son of the 
late Rev. Thomas Shrapnel Bid- 
dulph, of Amroth Castle, Pembroke- 
shire, sometime Prebendary of 
Brecknock, by Charlotte, daughter 
of the Rev. James Stillingfleet, 

Prebendary of Worcester, and was 
born in 1825. He was educated at 
Woolwich, and entered the Royal 
Artillery in 1843 as a second lieu- 
tenant. He was promoted to first 
lieutenant in the following year; 
became captain in 1850, brevet 
major in 1854, brevet lieutenant- 
colonel in 1856, colonel in 1874, 
major-general in 1877, and lieu- 
tenant-general in 1881. General 
Biddulph served throughout the 
Eastern campaign of 1854-55, in- 
cluding the battles of Alma, Bala- 
clava, and Inkerman, and the siege 
and fall of Sebastopol. He was 
Deputy Adjutant-General of Artil- 
lery in India from 1868 to 1871, 
and in 1876 he was appointed 
Brigadier-General in command of 
the Rohilkund district; he also 
commanded the Quettah field force 
in Afghanistan in 1878-9. He was 
nominated a Companion of the 
Order of the Bath (military divi- 
sion) in 1873, and promoted to a 
Knight Commandership of that 
Order in 1879. In 1881 he was 
appointed to the divisional staff of 
the army in Bengal. Sir Michael 
Biddulph married, in 1857, Katha- 
rine, daughter of Captain Stamati, 
Commandant of Balaclava. 

BIDDULPH, Sir Robert, 
K.C.M.G., is son of the late 
Mr. Robert Biddulph, of Ledbury, 
Herefordshire, by Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Mr. George Palmer, M.P., of 
Nazing Park, Essex. He was born 
in London, Aug. 26, 1835, and edu- 
cated at the Royal Military Aca- 
demy, Woolwich. He was appointed 
second lieutenant in the Royal 
Artillery in 1853 ; captain in I860; 
major in the army in 1861 ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1864; colonel in 
1872 ; brigadier-general in 1879 ; 
and major-general in Cyprus in 
July, 1879. He was Deputy Assist- 
ant-Adjutant-General in India from 
1858 to I860; Military Secretary 
in China in 1860-61 ; Military 
Secretary in Madras from 1861 to 
1865; and Deputy Assistant-Quar- 
termaster-General at Woolwich 

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froml86S to 1871. He was one of 
the assistant Boundary Commis- 
sioners under the Reform Act of 
1867, and acted as private secretary 
to Mr. Cardwell when that states- 
man was Secretary for War, in 
1871-73. From 1873 to 1878 he 
was Assistant Adjutant-General at 
headquarters -, in March, 1879, he 
was nominated Her Majesty's Com- 
missioner for arranging the pay- 
ment due to the Turkish Govern- 
ment under the Convention con- 
cluded in the previous year; and 
in May, 1879, he was appointed 
High Commissioner and Comman- 
der-in-Chief of the island of Cyprus, 
on the transfer of Sir Garnet Wolse- 
ley to Natal. He was nominated a 
Companion of the Order of the Bath 
(military division) in 1877, and 
created a Knight Commander of 
the Order of SS. Michael and George 
in 1880. He married, in 1864, 
Sophia, daughter of the Rev. A. L. 
Lambert, rector of Chilbolton, 
Hampshire, and widow of Mr. B. 
Stuart Palmer. 

BIEBSTADT, Albert, born at 
Duaeeldorf, in Germany, in 1828. 
His parents emigrated to the United 
States when he was two years of 
age, and settled in New England. 
He went to Germany in 1853, 
studied painting in the Dfisseldorf 
Academy, spent a winter in Borne, 
made the tour of Switzerland and 
the Appennines, and returned to 
the United States in 1857. In 
1858 he accompanied General 
Lander's expedition to the Becky 
Mountains, where he spent several 
months in making sketches. He 
was made an Academician in 1860. 
In 1863 he produced his celebrated 
picture, " View of the Becky Moun- 
tains, — Lander's Peak," which at 
once gave him a high reputation. 
Among his subsequent works, the 
most noticeable have been — " Sun- 
light and Shadow," "The Storm in 
the Rocky Mountains/' " Domes of 
the Yoseinite," "Laramie Peak," 
"Emigrants Crossing the Plains," 
"Mount flood," "Mount Whit- 

ney," and " Scene near Fort Lara- 
mie." In 1873 he visited the 
Pacific coast, and engaged upon 
new pictures of that region. In 
1871 he was made a member of 
the Academy of Fine Arts of St. 
Petersburg. His house and studio 
at Irvington, New York, were 
destroyed by fire in November, 1882 ; 
but, though his loss was consider- 
able, his more valuable pictures 
were fortunately at his studio in 
New York City, and so escaped 

BIGELOW, John, born at Mai- 
den, New York, Nov. 25, 1817, 
graduated at Union College in 1835. 
He was admitted to the bar in 
1839, and practised at New York for 
about ten years. In 1840 he was 
connected with the Plebian, and in 
1843 — *5 was a frequent contribu- 
tor to the Democratic Review. He 
was State Prison Inspector from 
1845 to 1848, and originated some 
important reforms in the discipline 
of the prisons of New York. In 
1850 he became a partner with 
William C. Bryant, in the owner- 
ship and editing of the Neiv York 
Evening Post, and was the manag- 
ing editor until 18G1. He visited 
Jamaica, and on his return pub- 
lished "Jamaica in 1850." In 1854 
he sailed again for the West Indies. 
In 1861 he was appointed American 
Consul at Paris ; in .Dec., 1864, he 
became Charge* d* Affaires ; and in 
April, 1865, he was appointed 
Minister to the Court of France. 
He resigned in December, 1866, 
and after spending some time in 
travel in Europe, returned to the 
United States in 1868 ; but in the 
following year he again returned 
to Europe, making Berlin his resi- 
dence for several years. Besides 
several political essays, he has pub- 
lished a "Life of John C. Fre- 
mont." 1856; "Les Ktats-Unis en 
1863," Paris, 1863; an edition of 
the " Autobiography of Benjamin 
Franklin from materials collected 
in France," 1868 ; " Some Becollec- 
tions of Antoine Pierre Berryer," 

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1869; "France and Hereditary 
Monarchy," 1871 ; " The Wit and 
Wisdom of the Haytians," 1877; 
and " Molinos, the Quietist," 1882. 
He had for some years up to 1872 
belonged to the Republican party, 
but in that year he joined with the 
"Liberals" in opposing the re-elec- 
tion of President Grant; subse- 
quently became affiliated with the 
Democratic party, and in 1875 was 
elected Secretary of State of New 
York. Since 1877 he has taken no 
active part in public life, but has 
contributed some papers to the 
periodicals. He resides at New 
York, with a summer residence at 
Highland Falls, New York. 

BILLOT, Jean Baptiste, a 
French general, born at Chaumeil 
(Correze) Aug. 15, 1828, entered at 
the age of nineteen the military 
college of St. Cyr, which he left in 
1849 as sub-lieutenant, and became 
attached to the staff. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant in 
1852 ; of captain in 1854 ; of major 
in 18G3 ; of lieutenant-colonel in 
1869; and of colonel in 1870. 
During the greater part of his 
brilliant military career he was 
stationed in Algeria, and he after- 
wards served in Mexico. Recalled 
from Africa at the time of the war 
against Prussia he was made a 
brigadier-general by the Govern- 
ment of the National Defence, and 
a few weeks later, an auxiliary 
general of division. Subsequently, 
however, he was replaced in the 
rank of brigadier-general by the 
commission for the revision of 
ranks. Placed at the head of the 
Army Corps he gained a consider- 
able advantage over the enemy 
near Baune-la-Rollande, and he 
took part in the victory of Villers- 
Sexel. During the armistice Gene- 
ral Billot was elected to the Na- 
tional Assembly as a representative 
for the department of Correze. He 
took his seat among the members 
of the Republican Left, and was 
appointed president of that group. 
Besides taking part in the discus- 

sion of the measures relating to 
Army Reform, he joined in politi- 
cal debates on several occasions, 
and he opposed with great vigour 
the attempts made by the Legiti- 
mists to place the Comte de Cham- 
bord on the throne of his ancestors 
in 1873. At the close of the year 
1875 he was elected a Senator for 
life. In the De Freycinet Cabinet, 
which was constituted in Jan., 1882, 
General Billot held the portfolio of 
Minister of War. In Jan., 1883 
General Billot and Admiral Jaur£- 
guiberry, the Minister of Marine, 
resigned their posts in consequence 
of differing in opinion from their 
colleagues as to the advisability 
of striking the Orleans princes 
off the active list of the army. 
The result of the double resigna- 
tion was the instant collapse of the 

BINNEY, The Right Rev. Hib- 
bert, D.D., Bishop of Nova Scotia, 
son of the Rev. Dr. Binney, rector 
of Newbury, Berks, born in Nova 
Scotia, in 1819, came to England, 
and studied at King's College, Lon- 
don, and afterwards at Worcester 
College, Oxford, of which he be- 
came scholar and fellow, and where 
he graduated in 1842 in classical 
and mathematical honours. Having 
taken orders, he was consecrated 
fourth Bishop of Nova Scotia in 
1851. This was the first bishopric 
founded by England in her colonial 
dependencies, and the diocese for- 
merly included Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island, 
and some portion of Lower Canada. 
It is now confined, however, to the 
Province of Nova Scotia and the 
Island of Prince Edward. 

BIRCH, Charles Bell, A.R.A., 
sculptor, is the only surviving son 
of the late Jonathan Birch, and 
was born at Brixton, in Surrey, 
Sept. 28, 1832. His father, who 
spent his early life in Germany, 
possessed considerable literary 
talent, was the author of several 
original works, and translated 
"Faust," and the "Niebelungen 

Digitized by 




Lied." Frederick William IV. of 
Prussia honoured Him Y>y many 
marks of appreciation, and he en- 
joyed the friendship of Baron Hum- 
boldt, Cheyalier Bunsen, Sir Wil- 
liam Alien, and other leading 1 men 
of the day. The snoject of this 
memoir was 9ent at the age of 
twelve to study at the Somerset 
House School of I>eai&n. In 1845 
the King of Prussia having offered 
his father a residence at Berlin, he 
accepted the offer, and removed 
with his family to that capital. 
Two years later* when his father's 
death occurred, Charles Birch was 
already a student of the Berlin 
Royal Academy, drawing and 
modelling from the antique, and 
attending the life, anatomical, per- 
spective, and animal classes. He 
also received valuable instruction, 
as a pupil, in the studios of Pro- 
fessors Ranch and Wiehmann. He 
remained at the Berlin Academy 
until 1852. Before leaving he pro- 
duced his first work of any import- 
ance — a bust of the late Earl of 
Westmoreland, English Ambassa- 
dor at Berlin , subsequently executed 
in marble for the King of Prussia. 
On his return to England in 1852 
Mr.. Birch passed through the 
schools of the Royal Academy, 
gaining two medals, and after some 
further years spent in study, en- 
tered the studio of the late J. H. 
Foley, B.A., where for ten years 
he acted as principal assistant. In 
1864 the Art Union of London 
having offered a premium of ,£600 
for the best original figure or 
group, a prize open to all nations, 
Mr. Birch was the successful com- 
petitor with his group "A Wood 
Nymph." The work was subse- 
quently executed in marble, and it 
was selected by the Royal Commis- 
sioners as one of the representa- 
tive works of British Art for the 
Vienna, Philadelphia, and Paris 
Exhibitions ; its present owner, 
Mr. Hornsby, of Beckenham, being, 
however, only willing to part with 
it temporarily for exhibition in the 

French Capital. The following 
list comprises a selection from Mr. 
Birch's contributions to the Royal 
Academy since 1852 : — Busts of the 
late E. M. Ward, R.A., and Mrs. 
E. M. Ward; statuette of Mary 
Agatha, youngest daughter of 
Lord and Lady John Russell ; bust 
of Prince Frederick William of 
Prussia, from sittings taken at 
Buckingham Palace before his mar- 
riage with the Princess Royal ; a 
marble group, " The Good Samari- 
tan," executed for the late Mrs. J. 
S. Mort, of Sydney ; marble group, 
"Children of the late Edwin 
Tooth, of Sydney;" "Marguerite 
with the Jewel Casket" (from 
Faust); marble bust, "Ruth;" 
bust of J. J. Lonsdale, Recorder of 
Folkestone ; bust of Lord John 
Russell, in marble, for the City 
Liberal Club ; colossal statue of S. 
T. Chad wick, M.D., executed in 
bronze for the town of Bolton in 
Lancashire ; and an ideal work, 
" Retaliation," subsequently cast 
in bronze and purchased by the 
Commissioners of the Sydney Art 
Gallery. In 1879 Mr. Birch ex- 
hibited " The Last Call," a group 
of heroic size, representing a 
trumpeter of Hussars and his 
horse shot down simultaneously 
whilst in the act of charging. 
In 1880 he exhibited a group 
representing Lieutenant Hamilton, 
V.C., in his last and gallant at- 
tempt to save the Residency at 
Cabul in Sept. 1879. In 1881 he 
executed a colossal statue in bronze 
of the late Maharajah of Bulram- 
pore. Amongst other works in pro- 
gress are a colossal figure of Earl 
Beaconsfield for Liverpool, and a 
large group "Godiva." As a 
draughtsman on wood and stone, 
Mr. Birch has for a long time past 
contributed to the pages of the 
Illustrated London News and other 
periodicals and books. He exe- 
cuted, in 1880, a series of twenty 
original designs for the Art Union 
of London, in illustration of Lord 
Byron's poem of " Lara." He was 

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elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy April 23, 1880. 

BIRCH, The Rev. Henry Mil- 
dred, B.D., eldest son of the Rev. 
Henry Rous Birch, of Southwold, 
Suffolk, born about 1820, was edu- 
cated on the foundation at Eton, 
and proceeded in due course to 
King's College, Cambridge, where 
he succeeded to a Fellowship, and 
graduated B.A. in 1843, having ob- 
tained the Craven Scholarship, and 
other university distinctions. He 
afterwards went to Eton as one of 
the assistant-masters, and whilst 
there was selected as tutor to His 
Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales. Having resigned his post 
and taken orders, he was appointed, 
in 1852, rector of Prestwich, near 
Manchester. He is chaplain to the 
Queen and to the Prince of Wales, 
and was appointed by the Crown to 
a canonry in Ripon Cathedral, 
vacant by the promotion of Dr. 
Atlay to the see of Hereford, in 
May, 1868. He was elected Proctor 
in Convocation for the Dean and 
Chapter of Ripon, in 1868, and 
again in 1874. Mr. Birch was some 
time honorary canon of Manches- 
ter Cathedral. 

BIRCH, Samuel, LL.D., F.S.A., j 
eldest son of the late Rev. Samuel 
Birch, D.D., rector of St. Mary 
Woolnoth, London, and vicar of 
Little Marlow, Bucks, born in Lon- 
don, Nov. 3, 1813, was educated at 
private schools at Greenwich and 
Blackheath, and afterwards at 
Merchant Taylors' School, which he 
left in 1831. He was employed 
under the Commissioners of Public 
Records in 1834, and in 1836 was 
appointed assistant in the depart- 
ment of Antiquities of the British 
Museum, from which he rose to be 
assistant-keeper in 1844, on the re- 
tirement of Mr. Barnewell, and on 
the new organization of the de- 
partment in 1861, he was appointed 
keeper of the Oriental, Mediaeval, 
and British Antiquities and Ethno- 
graphical Collections. In 184£ Mr. 
Birch visited Italy by order of the 

trustees to examine the Anastasi 
collection of Egyptian antiquities 
at that time at Leghorn, and to 
see the collections of Rome and 
other cities. In 1856 he was again 
sent to Rome by Sir G. Corne- 
wall Lewis, Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, to examine and value, 
in conjunction with Mr. Newton, 
the Campana collection, which had 
been offered to the British Govern- 
ment for purchase. In 1863 the 
description which he drew up of a 
papyrus belonging to the Prince of 
Wales was printed for private cir- 
culation by His Royal Highness. 
In 1839 he was elected correspond- 
ing member of the Archaeological 
Institute of Rome ; in 1851, of the 
Academy of Berlin ; in 1852, of 
Herculaneum ; and in 1861, of the 
Academy of Inscriptions and Belles- 
Lettres of the French Institute. 
The honorary degree of LL.D. was 
conferred upon him by the Univer- 
sity of St. Andrews in 1862. He is 
an honorary member of the Royal 
Society of Literature, of the Society 
of Antiquaries, of the Oriental So- 
ciety of France, and of the Ethno- 
logical Society of America, and is 
one of the direction of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute of Rome. At an 
early period of his career he paid 
particular attention to the study of 
Egyptian hieroglyphics, and his re- 
searches attracted the notice and 
secured him the lasting friendship 
of the late Baron Bunsen, with 
whose labours he was associated in 
his work on Egypt, Mr. Birch hav- 
ing contributed the philological 
portions relating to the hierogly- 
phics. One of the last requests of 
Boron Bunsen was that he should 
undertake the revision of future 
editions of this work. Accordingly, 
in 1867, after the Baron's death, 
he published the fifth aud conclud- 
ing volume, four-fifths of which is 
the composition of Dr. Birch him- 
self. His labours extend over 
most branches of antiquities, he 
having, besides his researches in 
hieroglyphics, published memoirs 

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md dissertations on Greek, Roman, 
and British, antiquities, numisma- 
tics, and ethnography, and assisted 
in the editing of cuneiform inscrip- 
tions. In addition to these he has 
published in the Asiatic Journal 
translations from the Chinese, seve- 
ral papers in the " Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Literature/' 
the Arehceologia, the Revue Archto- 
logique, the Archaologitehc Zeitung, 
the Zeittchrift fur wgyptische 8prache 
und AUerthumskunde, and the works 
of various societies. He also con- 
tributed many articles to the " Eng- 
lish Encyclopaedia." The late 
King of Prussia presented him 
with a copy of the great work of 
Leperns, the " Denkmaler," for his 
Egyptian researches. Dr. Birch's 
other publications are : — the " Gal- 
lery of Antiquities/' 1842; the 
text of Owen Jones's ,( Views on 
the Nile/' 1843 ; "Catalogue of 
Greek Vases " (with Mr. Newton), 
1851 ; " Introduction to the Study 
of the Hieroglyphics," 1867; a 
" History of Ancient Pottery," 
1858 ; " Description of the Papyrus 
of Nash-khem/' 1863 ; the " Ehind 
Papyri," 1866; and "Egypt from 
the Earliest Times," 1875. He 
edited " The Secords of the Past," 
from 1873-80 ; Wilkinson's " Man- 
ners and Customs/' 1878; and 
Eber's " Egypt," 1879. Dr. Birch 
presided over the Congress of 
Orientalists, held in London in 
Sept., 1874. The German Emperor 
conferred on him the Order of the 
Crown, and the University of Cam- 
bridge its honorary LL.D. degree, 
in 1875, and he was made honorary 
Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 
in the same year, and D.C.L. of the 
same university in 1876, in recogni- 
tion of his exertions on that occa- 
sion. He was appointed Rede 
Lecturer at Cambridge for the year 
BIBDWOOD, Sib Georgb Chbis- 


eldest son of General Christopher 
Birdwood, late of the 3rd Native 
Infantry, and Commissary-General, 

' Bombay, was born at Belgaum, 
i Bombay, Dec. 8, 1832. He was 
educated at Plymouth New Gram- 
j mar School and at the Univer- 
l sity where he took the degree 
- of M.B., and passed the usual 
I examination of the College of Sur- 
1 geons in 1854. He was appointed 
i to the medical service of the East 
i India Company on their Bombay 
I establishment in the same year. 
I His first charge was of the Southern 
, Mahratta Horse, Kalludghee, in 
1855. Later he was transferred to 
the 1st Battery 2nd Brigade of 
Artillery at Sholapore, where he 
was also at different times in charge 
of the 8th Madras Cavalry, 3rd 
Bombay Native Infantry, and the 
Civil Station. In 1856 he was 
sent to the Persian Gulf in 
medical charge of the Company's 
steamship Ajdaha and the detach- 
ment of Her Majesty's 6Atb Regi- 
ment on board, and was present at 
the bombardment and capture of 
Mohammarah, for which he re- 
ceived the medal and clasp given 
for the Persian War of 1856-57. 
On his return to Bombay in April, 
1857, he was appointed Acting Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy and Physiology 
in Grant Medical College, and from 
that date to his leaving India con- 
tinued to be connected with the 
college almost without interruption 
in the chairs successively of Ana- 
tomy and Physiology and Botany 
and Materia Medica. In the same 
year Dr. Birdwood was appointed 
Curator of the Government Central 
Museum at Bombay. With the 
assistance of the late eminent 
Hindoo physician and scholar, Dr. 
Bhawoo Dhaiee, and the liberal co- 
operation of the leading native 
gentlemen of all religions and races 
he succeeded in establishing the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, and 
the Victoria Gardens in Bombay. 
In 1867 Dr. Birdwood was sent 
by Sir Bartle Frere, at the ex- 
press desire of the leading mer- 
chants of Bombay, as Special Com- 
missioner for the Government, to 

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the Universal Exhibition held in 
Paris in that year. These services 
were acknowledged by his being 
appointed Sheriff of Bombay and 
by the addresses presented to him 
on his being forced to finally leave 
India, through permanently broken 
health, in 1869, by the Royal Asiatic 
Society, the Agri - Horticultural 
Society, the University of Bombay, 
of which he was then Registrar, 
and the students of Grant Medical 
College. On the occasion, also, of 
the proclamation of the Queen as 
Empress of India, Jan. 1, 1877, he 
was appointed to the Companion- 
ship of the Star of India. Since 
his return to this country Dr. Bird- 
wood has chiefly devoted himself to 
writing on Indian subjects, and more 
especially on Indian art. For his 
services on behalf of Indian art the 
Queen conferred on Dr. Birdwood 
the honour of knighthood in Sept., 
1881. Sir George Birdwood also still 
maintains his official ties with 
India, having been appointed about 
1879 Special Assistant in the 
Revenue, Statistics, and Commerce 
Department of the India Office. 
He is the author of " Catalogue of 
the Economic Products of the Bom- 
bay Presidency (Vegetable)/' 1st 
edition, 1862, 2nd edition, 1868; 
"The Genus Boswellia (Frankin- 
cense plants), with illustrations of 
three new species ;" in the "Trans- 
actions of the Linnean Society," 
vol. xxvii. ; the article " Incense," 
in the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" ; 
"Handbook to the British Indian 
section, Paris Exhibition of 1878 " ; 
" Handbook on the Industrial Arts 
of India," 1880; "The Arts of 
India," 1881; " Austellung In- 
discher Kunst - Gegenstande, zu 
Berlin," 1881; " Indiens Konstslojd 
en Kortfattad Skildring," Stock- 
holm, 1882. He was a constant 
contributor to the Indian Press, and 
for some time editor of the Bombay 
Saturday Review. He wrote two 
letters in the Times of 6th Dec., 
1881, and 26th Jan., 1882, in which 
he contended that the opium reve- 

nue of the Indian Government is 
as sound and moral as the revenue 
derived by this country from the 
excise. These letters were repub- 
lished in Mrs. W. H. Brereton's 
" Truth about Opium," 1882. 

BIRKS, The Rev. Thomas Raw- 
son, M.A., born Sept., 1810, gradu- 
ated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1831, as second wrangler and 
second Smith's prizeman. In the 
same year he became fellow of his 
college, and won the Seatonian 
prize for the best English poem in 
1813-11. In the latter year he 
became rector of Kelshall, Herts. 
He is the author of "Memoirs of 
the Rev. E. Bickersteth, of Wat- 
ton," whose daughter he married. 
He was for five years examining 
chaplain to Bishop Villiers, of Car- 
lisle, and afterwards of Durham ; 
and for 21 years, from 1850 to 1871, 
he was one of the honorary secre- 
taries of the Evangelical Alliance. 
He was appointed vicar of Holy 
Trinity, Cambridge, in 1865, and 
held that incumbency till 1877. 
He was an examiner for the Theo- 
logical Examination in 1867 and 
1868, and a member of the Board 
of Theological Studies. He has 
been one of the Select Preachers 
before the University. Mr. Birks 
was elected Knightbridge Professor 
of Moral Theology, Casuistical 
Divinity, and Moral Philosophy at 
Cambridge, on the death of the 
Rev. J. T. D. Maurice, in April, 
1872. His principal works are: — 
"First Elements of Prophecy," 
"The Four Empires," "The Two 
Later Visions of Daniel," " Out- 
lines of Unfulfilled Prophecy," 
"The Mystery of Providence," 
" Treasures of Wisdom," " Modern 
Rationalism," " The Christian 
State" (afterwards republished as 
"Church and State"), "Hone 
Apostolicaj, a Supplement to Paley's 
Horee Paulinas " j " Hone Evan- 
gelic®/' on the internal evidence 
of the Gospels ; " The Bible and 
Modern Thought," "The Exodus 
of Israel," "The Pentateuch and 

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ite Anatomists," " Matter and 
Ether, or the Secret Laws of Phy- 
sical Change" •, " The Difficulties 
of Belief," " The Ways of God/' 
" The Victory of Divine Goodness," 
"The Scripture Doctrine of Crea- 
tion," "The Sacraments, Science 
and Prayer *' ; " Commentary on 
the Book of Isaiah," " First Prin- 
ciplea of Moral Science," " Modern 
Utilitarianism/' «' Modern Physical 
Fatalism/ ' " Supernatural Eevela- , 
tiom," an answer to Supernatural 
Religion ; " An Essay on the Bight 
Estimation of Manuscript Evi- 
dence in the Text of the New Testa- ' 
naent," " Thoughts on Sacred Pro- | 
phecj," 1880 ; besides various I 
papers for the Christian Observer, \ 
The Victoria Philosophical Institute, 
and other pamphlets. 

BIRMINGHAM, Bishop of. (Sec 

(Parses von), Kabl Otto, states- 
man, born at Schcenhausen, April 1, 
1615 ; studied at Gdttingen, Berlin, 
and Griefswald ; entered the army, 
and was afterwards a lieutenant in 
the Landwehr. He became a mem- 
ber of the Diet of the province of 
Saxony in 1846, and of the General 
Diet, in which he made himself 
remarkable by the boldness of his 
speeches, in 1847. On one occasion 
he argued that all great cities 
should be swept from the face of 
the earth, because they were the 
centres of democracy and constitu- 
tionalism. Nor did the events of 
1848 modify his opinions. In 1851 
he entered the diplomatic service, 
and was intrusted with the legation 
at Frankfort. Begarding Austria 
as the antagonist of Prussia, he 
was sent in 1852 to Vienna, where 
he proved a constant adversary to 
Count Bechberg. In 1858, a pam- 
phlet entitled "La Prusse et la 
Question Italienne " appeared, the 
authorship of which was generally 
attributed to him. In this publi- 
cation reference was made to the 
Antagonism existing between Aus- 
tria and Prussia, and a triple alliance 

between France, Prussia, and Russia 
was advocated. In March, 1859, 
M. von Bismarck was sent as Am- 
bassador to St. Petersburg, which 
post he held until 1862, and having 
conciliated the Czar, was decorated 
with the order of Saint Alexander 
Newski. In May, 1862, he was 
appointed Ambassador to Paris, 
where he received the Grand Cross 
of the Legion of Honour from the 
Emperor Napoleon, and he was made 
Minister of the King's House and of 
Foreign Affairs in Prussia, Sept. 22. 
The budget having been rejected 
by the Deputies, but adopted by 
the Upper Chamber, M. Bismarck, 
in the name of the king, dissolved 
the former after a series of angry 
altercations. The newspapers which 
protested against this despotic act 
were proceeded against with great 
severity, as were numerous public 
officials, magistrates, and others 
who openly expressed views hostile 
to the Government. In Jan., 1863, 
he protested against an address 
which the Deputies presented to the 
King, in which he was accused of 
having violated the constitution. 
Shortly after, the affairs of Poland 
caused fresh difficulties. The Cham- 
ber of Deputies, by a majority of 
five to one, censured the Ministry 
for having concluded (Feb. 8) a 
secret treaty with Bussia. After 
the close of the aggressive war 
waged by Prussia and Austria 
against Denmark, in which Austria 
had very reluctantly taken part, 
Bismarck thought the time had 
arrived for carrying out his long- 
cherished project of making Prussia 
the real head of Germany. His 
preparations for another aggressive 
war were completed, and, aided by 
an alliance with Italy, in a campaign 
of a few weeks' duration Austria 
and her allies were defeated. It is 
probable that dread of a still more 
formidable alliance induced M. von 
Bismarck to stop Bhort in his career 
of victory, as the Emperor Napo- 
leon, in his speech to the French 
Chambers, declared that he had 

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arrested the conqueror at the gates 
of Vienna. A preliminary treaty 
of peace with Austria was concluded 
at Nikolsburg, July 26, 1866, and 
as Austria consented to retire from 
Germany, the terms of a general 
pacification were arranged. M. von 
Bismarck was created a Count, 
Sept. 16, 1865, on which occasion 
he received from the King of Prus- 
sia a valuable estate in Luxemburg. 
He lost no time in turning to account 
the victory gained by Prussia over 
Austria, and in advancing his 
favourite scheme for the unification 
of Germany, provinces and king- 
doms were at once annexed. The 
free town of Frankfort received a 
Prussian garrison in spite of the 
indignant protests of the population; 
Hanover was incorporated in the 
Germanic Confederation ; and at 
the close of the year 1866 Count 
Bismarck succeeded in concluding 
with Bavaria, Baden, and Wurtem- 
berg treaties of peace, and of alliance 
offensive and defensive, with a 
proviso that in the event of war 
the King of Prussia should have 
the chief military command. In 
1867 Count Bismarck organised the 
North German Confederation, which 
comprised twenty-two States, repre- 
senting a population of 29,000,000. 
The king of Prussia was at the 
head of this powerful Confederation, 
and a Federal Council, composed 
of delegates of the different States, 
was established, together with 
a Diet or common Parliament, the 
members of which were elected by 
universal suffrage. The new federal 
constitution was adopted by the 
Prussian Chambers in June, and 
came into operation on the 1st of 
the following month, Count Bis- 
marck receiving as the reward of 
his services the post of Chancellor 
of the Confederation and President 
of the Federal Council. The Luxem- 
burg question now gave rise to 
serious differences between the 
Prussian and French Governments, 
and Count Bismarck strenuously 
opposed the projected cession of 

that province by Holland to France. 
Eventually the dispute was settled 
by the Luxemburg territory being 
neutralized, and the fortresses dis- 
mantled. After this both Powers 
declared their intention to be 
pacific, but nevertheless they both 
increased their already bloated 
armaments. Ill-health compelled 
Count Bismarck to retire from pub- 
lic life for a short period in 1868, 
but he returned to Berlin in Octo- 
ber of that year, and resumed the 
direction of affairs. On the 1st of 
January he entered on his functions 
as Foreign Minister of the North 
German Confederation. In July, 
1870, it transpired that General 
Prim had sent a deputation to 
Prussia to offer the Crown of Spaiu 
to Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern. 
The French people were greatly 
agitated at the receipt of this intel- 
ligence. Some of their leading 
statesmen declared that France 
would never consent to see a Prus- 
sian prince seated on the throne 
of Spain, and explanations were 
demanded from the Berlin cabinet. 
It was alleged by Count Bismarck 
that the King of Prussia gave his 
consent to the acceptance of the 
crown by the prince only as the 
head of the Hohenzollern family, 
and not as an act of the Government. 
A few days later the withdrawal of 
the prince's candidature was an- 
nounced ; but in spite of this 
France declared war against Prus- 
sia, and the campaign commenced, 
the latter Power receiving great 
assistance from the troops sent into 
the field by the King of Bavaria 
and the Dukes of Baden and Wur- 
temberg. This is not the place to 
record the complete successes of 
the German armies. Suffice it to 
say, that Count Bismarck accom- 
panied the King throughout the 
campaign, and that after the 
capitulaion of Paris he dictated 
the terms of peace, which were 
adopted by the Assembly then 
sitting at Bordeaux. He succeeded 
in uniting Germany, and on Jan, 

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Id, 1SJ1, lie had. the satisfaction 
of seeing King William of Prussia 
crowned 'Emperor of Germany in 
the Palace of the French kings, at 
Versailles. In the same month he 
was appointed by his Imperial 
master Chancellor of the German 
Empire, and in the following March 
raised to the rank of Prince. In 
September of the same year he was 
present at the memorable meeting 
of the German and Austrian em- 
perors at Gastein. Subsequently 
S*rince Bismarck greatly offended 
the Catholic party throughout Ger- 
many by promoting the legal 
measures which were directed 
against the freedom of the Church, 
and which resulted in the expulsion 
of the Jesuits, and the incarceration 
of several bishops. In Dec., 1872, 
he resigned the presidency of the 
State Ministry, although he con- 
tinued to confer with the Emperor 
on the affairs of the empire and its 
foreign policy. The Emperor also 
authorised him, in the event of his 
being unable to appear personally 
at a meeting of the Ministry of 
State, to give his vote on matters 
concerning the interests of the 
empire through the President of 
the Imperial Chancellery. On this 
occasion Prince Bismarck received 
from his royal master the Order of 
the Black Eagle, set in diamonds. 
In Oct., 1873, he was re-appointed 
as Prussian Premier. On July 13, 
1874, as the Prince was driving in 
the country at Kissingen, he was 
fired at by a young man named 
Kullman, and slightly wounded by 
a shot which grazed his right wrist. 
The culprit was apprehended, and 
eventually sentenced to fourteen 
years' hard labour, with a further 
ten years' loss of civil rights, police 
inspection, and costs. An attempt 
was made to prove that Kullman 
was connected with the clerical 
party, and a statement to that effect 
made by Prince Bismarck himself 
afterwards led to an exciting scene 
in the German Parliament. Towards 
the close of 1874, at the instigation 

of Prince Bismarck, Count Arnim 
was imprisoned, and tried on a 
charge of having abstracted docu- 
ments from the archives of the 
German embassy at Paris. He 
presided over the Congress of the 
representatives of the Great Powers 
which assembled at Berlin to dis- 
cuss the provisions of the Treaty 
of San Stefano in 1878. 

BJ0BJNSON, Bjornstens, a Nor- 
wegian novelist and dramatic poet, 
born at Quikne (Oesterdal), Dec. 8, 
1832, first became known in conse- 
quence of some articles and stories 
which he contributed to newspapers, 
especially the " Folkeblad," an illus- 
trated journal, in the columns of 
which appeared his " Aanum," " Ole 
Stormsen," and " En munter Mand." 
The years 1856 and 1857 he passed 
at Copenhagen, where he studied the 
works of Baggesen, of (Elenschlager, 
and of the principal Danish writers. 
Afterwards he published in " Faedre- 
landet," his novel of " Thrond," 
which was followed by " Arne" and 
" SynncBve Solbakken." He has also 
produced several tragedies and other 
pieces for the stage. The following 
works of his have been translated 
into English : — " Arne : a Sketch of 
Norwegian Country Life," trans- 
lated from the Norwegian, by A. 
Plesner and S. Rugeley Powers, 
8vo, London, 1866 ; "Ovind: a Story 
of Country Life in Norway," trans- 
lated by S. and E. Hierleid, 8vo, 
London, 1869; "The Fisher 
Maiden," a Norwegian tale, trans- 
lated from the author's German 
edition, by M. E. Niles, 8vo, New 
York, 1869— also translated from 
the Norwegian, under the title of 
" The Fishing Girl," by A. Plesner 
and F. Richardson, 8vo, London, 
1870; "The Happy Boy: a Tale of 
Norwegian Peasant Life," translated 
by H. E.G., Boston, U.S., 1870; "The 
Newly-married Couple," translated 
by S. and E. Hjerleid, 8vo, London, 
1870; and "Love and Life in Nor- 
way," translated from the Nor- 
wegian, by the Hon. A. Bethell and 
A. Plesner, 8vo, London, 1870. 

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BLACHFORD (Baron), The 
Right Hon. Frederick Rogers, is 
the eldest son of the late Sir Frede- 
rick Leman Rogers, Bart., of Wis- 
dome, by Sophia, daughter of the 
late Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Rus- 
sell Deare, of the Bengal Artillery, 
who was killed in action in 1791. 
He was born in London on Jan. 31, 
1811, and educated at Eton and 
Oriel College, Oxford, where he took 
his B.A. degree in 1832, obtaining 
first-class honours in the school of 
Liter® Humaniores, and also in that 
of mathematics. He had already 
obtained the Craven University 
Scholarship; and he subsequently 
gained a Fellowship at Oriel Col- 
lege, to which he added the Vinerian 
Scholarship and Fellowship. He 
graduated 1835, and B.C.L. 
in 1838. He was called to the bar 
at the Inner Temple in 1836. In 
1845 he was appointed Registrar of 
Joint-Stock Companies, and in the 
following year one of the Commis- 
sioners of Lands and Emigration. 
In 1857 he was nominated Assistant 
Commissioner for the Sale of En- 
cumbered Estates in the West 
Indies ; and in May, 1860, Per- 
manent Under-Secretary- of State 
for the Colonies, a post which he 
held until 1871, when he was sworn 
Privy Councillor, in recognition of 
his long and arduous labours in the 
public service. In Oct., 1871, he 
was raised to the peerage of the 
United Kingdom, with the title of 
Baron Blachford, of Wisdome, in 
the county of Devon. He was Chair- 
man of the Royal Commission ap- 
pointed in 1881 to inquire into the 
condition of the London Hospitals 
for small-pox and fever cases, and 
into the means of preventing the 
spread of infection. 

BLACK, William, was born at 
Glasgow in 1841, and received his 
education at various private schools. 
His youthful ambition was to become 
an artist, and he studied for a short 
time in the Government School of 
Art in his native city, but eventually 
he drifted into journalism, becoming 

connected with the Glasgow Weekly 
Citizen while yet in his teens. In 
1864 he came to London, and wrote 
for magazines. He was attached, 
in the following year, to the staff of 
the Morning Star, and was special 
correspondent for that paper during 
the Franco-Austrian war of 1866, 
scenes from which appeared in his 
first novel, " Love or Marriage," 
published in 1867. This novel dealt 
too much with awkward social 
problems, and was not successful, 
but the author's next work of fiction 
was more favourably received. It 
was entitled " In Silk Attire" (1869), 
and a considerable portion of it was 
devoted to descriptions of peasant 
life in the Black Forest. Then fol- 
lowed "Kilmeny" and "The 
Monarch of Mincing Lane," the 
former dealing mostly with Bohe- 
mian artistic life in London. But 
his first real hold of the novel- 
reading public was obtained by " A 
Daughter of Heth" (1871), which 
went through many editions. Next 
came " The Strange Adventures of 
a Phaeton" (1872), which literally 
described a driving excursion that 
the author made from London to 
Edinburgh, with a thread of fiction 
interwoven. It is said that a good 
many Americans, amongst others, 
have adopted this plan of exploring 
the English counties, and have 
taken the "Adventures" as a sort 
of guide-book. In 1873 was pub- 
lished " A Princess of Thule." It 
was followed by " The Maid of Kil- 
leena and other Stories," 1874; 
" Three Feathers," 1875, the scene 
of which was laid in Cornwall; 
"Madcap Violet," 1876; "Green 
Pastures and Piccadilly," 1877; 
" Macleod of Dare," 1878 ; " White 
Wings: a Yachting Romance," 
1880 ; " Sunrise : a story of these 
Times," 1881 ; " The Beautiful 
Wretch," 1882 ; and " Shandon 
Bells," 1883. For four or five years 
Mr. Black was assistant editor of 
the Daily News, but he practically 
ceased his connection with journal- 
ism some years ago. 

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BLACKBURN (Baron), Thi 
Sight Hon. Colin Blackbubn, 
second son of the late John Black- 
born, Esq., of Killearn, co. Stirling, 
by Rebecca, daughter of the late 
Rev. Dr. OHlliea, was born in 1813, 
and educated at Eton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. as a high Wrangler in 
183o. lie was called to the bar at 
the Middle Temple, and for some 
rears went the Northern circuit. 
For about eight years he conducted, 
with the late Mr. Ellis, the regular 
recognized Reports in the Court of 
Queen's Bench, and the eight or 
ten volumes of ** Ellis and Black- 
burn" are of high authority. He 
published an exceUent legal work 
" On Sales.'* At Liverpool he had 
secured a large amount of business 
in heavy commercial cases, when, 
in 1859. he was made a puisne 
judge of the Queen's Bench. On 
that occasion he received the honour 
of knighthood. In Oct. 1876, he 
was made a Lord of Appeal under 
the provisions of the Appellate 
Jurisdiction Act (1876), and created 
a peer for life under the title of 
Baron Blackburn. In Aug. 1878, 
he -was nominated a member of the 
Royal Commission appointed to con- 
sider the provisions of a draft Code 
relating to Indictable Offences. 

BLACKBTJBN, Henry, son of 
Mr. Charles Blackburn, B.A., of 
Cambridge, born at Portsea, Feb. 
15. 1830, and educated at King's 
College, London ; was appointed 
private secretary to the Bight Hon. 
E. Horsman, M.P., in 1853. He is 
a foreign correspondent and art- 
critic for London papers and maga- 
zines. Mr. Blackburn visited Spain 
and Algeria in 1855, 1857 and 1864, 
and delivered illustrated lectures 
on these subjects. He was ap- 
pointed editor of London Society in 
1870, but resigned that post in 
1872. He also held an appoint- 
ment in the Civil Service Commis- 
sion. Mr. Blackburn wrote and 
partiy illustrated the following 
Works- "Ldfe ** Algeria" 1864; 

" Travelling in Spain " 1860 ; " The 
Pyrenees," illustrated by Gustavo 
Dore, 1867; "Artists and Arabs/' 
1868; "Normandy Picturesque," 
1869; "Art in the Mountains : the 
Story of the Passion-Play in Ba- 
varia," 1870 ; " Harz Mountains," 
1873; and "Breton Folk," with 
illustrations by B. Caldecott, 1879. 
Mr. Blackburn is the originator of 
the system of Illustrated Catalogues 
to Exhibitions with Facsimiles of 
Sketches drawn by the artists. He 
is editor of the annual Academy 
Notes and Orosvenor Notes, and a 
lecturer on Art. 

BLACKER, Thi Bbv. Beaver 
Henry, M.A., was born May 31, 1821, 
in Dublin, being the eldest son of 
the late Latham Blacker, Esq. He 
was educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin (BA. 1843; M.A. 1816). 
He was appointed to the vicarage 
of Booterstown, co. Dublin, in 1857, 
and to the rural deanery of South 
Dublin in 1862— both of which he 
resigned in 1874. Mr. Blacker is 
a member of several literary socie- 
ties in England, Ireland, and 
America. He has published " Ser- 
mons on National Humiliation," 
1847 ; " The Imprecatory Passages 
in the Psalms, and the Athanasian 
Creed," 1851 ; " Doctrines and 
Duties," 1852 ; " Brief Sketches of 
the Parishes of Booterstown and 
Donnybrook, in the county of Dub- 
lin ; with Notes and Annals," 1860- 
74, and other writings, besides 
contributions to several leading 
periodicals. He is also the editor 
of Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. 

BLACKIE, John Stuart, Pro- 
fessor of Greek in the University of 
Edinburgh, son of a banker in Aber- 
deen, born at Glasgow, in July, 1809, 
was educated at Aberdeen and Edin- 
burgh. During two years passed 
in G&ttingen and Berlin, and at 
Borne, he devoted himself to the 
study of German, Italian, and clas- 
sical philology. In 1834 he pub- 
lished a metrical translation of 
Goethe's " Faust," with notes and 
prolegomena (2nd edit., 1880), 
k 2 

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and was called to the Scottish bar. 
He became a frequent contributor 
of articles bearing on German litera- 
ture to Blackwood, Tait, and the 
Foreign Quarterly Review. In 1841 
he was appointed to the newly- 
formed chair of Latin Literature 
in Marischal College, Aberdeen. 
This post he held for eleven years, 
during which time he entered 
warmly into the movement for 
University Reform in Scotland, 
which resulted in the appointment 
of a Parliamentary Commission on 
that subject in 1858, by which 
some important changes were ef- 
fected in the higher branches of 
education in Scotland. He con- 
tributed several philological articles 
to the Classical Museum, published 
in 1850, then edited by Dr. L. 
Schmitz, and a metrical translation 
of -flCschylus, which led to his ap- 
pointment, in 1852, to the Greek 
chair in the University of Edin- 
burgh. This was followed by an 
essay on the " Pronunciation of 
Greek, Accent and Quantity," 1852 ; 
a " Discourse on Beauty, with an 
Exposition of the Theory of Beauty 
according to Plato appended," 1858 ; 
"Songs and Legends of Ancient 
Greece," 1857, 2nd edition, 1880; 
and another volume of Poems, 
English and Latin, 1860. In 1853 
he travelled in Greece, and pub- 
lished a lecture warmly recom- 
mending the study of modern 
Greek, and articles on modern 
Greece in the Westminster and 
North British Reviews. He is the 
author of various articles in the 
North British Review, an article on 
Plato in the " Edinburgh Essays," 
and the article "Homer," in the 
" Encyclopaedia Britannica." In 
addition to his academical work, 
which, since he settled in Edin- 
burgh, has been principally con- 
nected with Plato and Homer, Pro- 
fessor Blackie has been very active 
as a popular lecturer, and made 
himself somewhat conspicuous as a 
warm advocate of Scottish nation- 
laity. In the discussions which pre- 

ceded the passing of the Reform 
Act of 1867 he took a warm inte- 
rest, and supported the principles 
of the British constitution against 
the advocates of American demo- 
cracy in a public debate with Ernest 
Jones, the well-known Chartist. 
Professor Blackie's argument on 
" Democracy," on this occasion, was 
published, and went through six 
editions in a fortnight. His name 
is closely connected with the move- 
ment which resulted in the abolition 
of the Test Act, requiring the pro- 
fessors of the Scottish Universities 
to be members of the Established 
Church. In 1866 he published 
" Homer and the Iliad," contain- 
ing a translation of the Iliad in 
ballad measure, a third volume of 
Critical Dissertations, and a fourth 
of Notes Philological and Archaeo- 
logical ; and in 1869 " Musa Burschi- 
cosa," a volume of songs for stu- 
dents and university men. In 1870 
he put forth a volume of " War 
Songs of the Germans," with his- 
torical sketches, in which he advo- 
cated the cause of the • Germans 
against France with great energy 
and decision. In 1872 he published 
"Lays of the Highlands and Is- 
lands." Professor Blackie also ap- 
peared as a lecturer in the Royal 
Institution, London, where he com- 
bated the views of Mr* John Stuart 
Mill in moral philosophy, of Mr. 
Grote in his estimate of the Greek 
sophists, and of Max Muller in his 
allegorical interpretation of ancient 
myth b. His views on moral philo- 
sophy against the Utilitarian school 
were set forth in " Four Phases of 
Morals," Edinburgh, 1871, 2nd 
edit., 1874, reprinted in America. 
His principal philological papers 
appeared in a collected form in 
1874, under the title of "Hone 
Hellenic® ; " and in the same year 
he put forth a little volume of prac- 
tical advice to young men, entitled 
" Self -Culture," which had a large 
sale in England, India and America, 
has gone through thirteen editions, 
and has been translated into French, 

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German and Bohemian. His more 
reeeut works are "The Wise Men 
af Greece ; or, Sketches of ancient 
Greek philosophy from Thalea to 
Plato in a series of dramatic dia- 
logues" 1877 ; •« The Natural His- 
tory of Atheism ; a defence of 
Theism against modern Atheistic 
and Agnostic tendencies," 1877 ; 
"Lay Sermons: a series of dis- 
courses on important points of 
Christian doctrine and morals," 
1881 ; " The Language and Litera- 
ture of the Highlands of Scotland, 
with poetical translations of some 
of the most popular pieces of Gaelic 
poetry," 1875 ; " Altavona ; or, fact 
and fiction from my life in the 
Highlands," 1882. Professor Blackie 
has crowned his contributions to- 
wards a proper estimate of Scottish 
Celts by the foundation of a Celtic 
chair in the University of Edin- 
burgh, for which by four years' con- 
siderable exertion he collected a 
sum of £12,000 sterling. He re- 
signed the chair of Greek in the 
University of Edinburgh in Aug. 

BLACKLEY, Thb Rev. Wil- 
u am Lkwsbt, M.A., is the second 
son of the late Travers R. Blackley, 
Esq., of Ashtown Lodge, Phoenix 
Park, Dublin. He was born at 
Ihindalk, Ireland, Dec. 30, 1830, 
and received part of his early edu- 
cation on the Continent. Having 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 
his sixteenth year, he obtained his 
B.A. degree in 1850, and his M.A. 
in 1854, in which year he was 
ordained to the curacy of St. 
Peter's, Southwark; on leaving 
which charge shortly after, he be- 
came curate of Prensham, where, 
having remained thirteen years, he 
was promoted by Bishop Sumner 
in 1867 to the rectory of North 
Waltham, Hants, which he still 
holds. In 1857 he published his 
metrical translation from the Swe- 
dish, of Bishop Tegner's famous 
poem, "The Frith jof Saga." This 
was Followed by the publication of 
his "Practical German Dictionary," 

which, in its original and abridged 
forms, has passed through many 
editions. In 1867 he published his 
"Critical English New Testament," 
and his volume on " Word Gossip " 
followed in 1869. He also wrote for 
the National Society the Teacher's 
Manual, " How to Teach Domestic 
Economy," 1879; and "The Social 
Economy Beading Book," 1881. 
It was not, however, till the end 
of 1878 that the essay was pub- 
lished destined to bring his name 
into such prominence in public no- 
tice as it now occupies. It appeared 
in the November issue for that 
year of the Nineteenth Century, 
under the title of "National In- 
surance, a cheap, practical and 
popular way of preventing Pauper- 
ism," and immediately attracted 
an extraordinary share of public 
attention. A remarkable sermon, 
preached by Mr. Blackley in West- 
minster Abbey, in Sept. 1879, on 
"Our National Improvidence," also 
attracted much notice. The Na- 
tional Providence League was 
formed in 1880, for the purpose of 
educating public opinion on the 
subject of National Insurance ; and 
a great number of public meetings 
have been held, in which the pro- 
posals have been discussed. Mr. 
Blackley's proposals have reached 
far beyond this country, with the 
result that movements more or less 
upon his lines have been started in 
{Vance, Switzerland, Italy, Ger- 
many, and New Zealand. 

BLACKMORE, Richard Dod- 
dbidoe, son of the Rev. John Black- 
more, was born at Longworth, Berk- 
shire, in 1825. His maternal grand- 
mother was a grand-daughter of 
Dr. Doddridge. He was educated 
at Tiverton School, and Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he obtained a 
scholarship and graduated B.A. in 
1817, taking a second class in clas- 
sics. He was called to the bar at 
the Middle Temple in 1852, and 
afterwards practised as a convey- 
ancer. He is the author of " Eric 
and Karine," " Epullia," "The 

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Bugle of the Black Sea," and the 
following novels : — " Clara Vau- 
ghan," 186 A; "Cradock Nowel: a 
Tale of the New Forest," 1866; 
" Lorna Doone : a Romance of Ex- 
moor," 1869 ; « The Maid of Sker," 
1872; "Alice Lorraine: a Tale of 
the South Downs," 1875; "Crippe 
the Carrier: a Woodland Tale," 
1876; "Eremaj-or, My Father's 
Sin," 1877; "Mary Anerley," 1880; 
and " Christowell : a Dartmoor 
tale," 1882. Mr. Blackmore has 
also published " The Fate of Frank- 
lin," a poem, 1860 ; " The Farm and 
Fruit of Old," a translation of the 
first and second Georgics of Virgil, 
1862; and a translation of "The 
Georgics of Virgil," 1871. 

BLACKWELL, Elizabeth, born 
in Bristol, England, Feb. 3, 1821. 
Her father, in 1832, removed to the 
United States, where he died in 
1838, leaving his widow and nine 
children almost penniless. Miss 
Blackwell aided in their support by 
teaching, at the same time studying 
medicine at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, and at Philadelphia. She ap- 
plied for admission to a number of 
medical schools, but was refused by 
all, except those of Castleton, Ver- 
mont, and Geneva, New York, and 
at the latter she was matriculated 
in 1847, and in 1849 received the 
first medical degree conferred upon 
a woman in the United States. 
After her graduation she spent a 
year and a half in the Maternity 
Hospital of Paris, and that of St. 
Bartholomew in London, and in 
1851 established herself as a phy- 
sician, mainly in the treatment of 
women and children, at New York, 
where, in 1857, she founded an in- 
firmary for women and children, 
having also a large private prac- 
tice. She has published "The 
Laws of Life," 1852 ; " Counsel to 
Parents on the Moral Education of 
their Children," 1879; and other 
professional works. In 1859 she 
again visited England, and deli- 
vered a course of medical lectures. 
Her younger sister, Emily Black- 

well, took her degree of M.D. in 
1854, completed her studies in the 
hospitals of New York, Edinburgh, 
Paris, and London, and is connected 
with the New York Infirmary for 
Women and Children. 

BLADES, William, born at 
Clapham, Surrey, in 1824, was 
educated at Clapham Grammar 
School, under the Rev. C. Prit- 
chard, F.R.S., Savilian Professor 
at Oxford, and succeeded his father 
as a printer in London. He has 
edited "The Gouvernayle of 
Helthe," and other early-printed 
books; has contributed numerous 
articles to the current literature of 
the day upon the History of Print- 
ing and PalsBOtypography ; but is 
best known by his works " The Life 
of William Caxton," 2 vols., 1863, 
and "The Enemies of Books/' 
1881 ; the former of which for the 
first time placed the study of early 
printing in England upon a sure 

BLAINE, James Gillbspik, born 
in Washington County, Pennsyl- 
vania, Jan. 31, 1830. He entered 
the preparatory department of 
Washington College in his thir- 
teenth year, and graduated in 
1847 at the head of his class. He 
then went to Kentucky, where he 
was Professor of Mathematics in a 
military institute. Here he met 
his wife, who was from Maine, and 
at her persuasion removed to 
Augusta, Maine, where he has since 
resided. Adopting journalism as a 
profession, he became part owner 
and editor of the Kennebec 'Journal 
in 1854, and editor of the Portland 
Daily Advertiser in 1857. He was 
one of the organizers of the 
Republican party in Maine, and 
served in the State Legislature 
from 1858 to 1862, the last two 
years being Speaker. In 1862 he 
was elected a Representative in 
Congress, and was re-elected for 
each successive term until 1876. 
He was Speaker of the House of 
Representatives from 1869 to 1874, 
and was again the Republican 

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candidate in 1875, but was defeated, 
the Democrats then having a ma- 
jority in that body. In 1876 and 
in 1880 he was a candidate for the 
Republican nomination for Presi- 
dent, but was defeated by Mr. 
Hayes in the one case and by Mr. 
Garfield in the other. In 1876 
Mr. Blaine was appointed U.S. 
Senator from Maine to fill a 
vacancy, and was subsequently 
elected for the term expiring in 
1883. This position he resigned in 
March, 1881, to accept the Secre- 
taryship of State offered him by 
Mr. Garfield. The assassination of 
the latter caused Mr. Blaine to 
tender his resignation to Mr. 
Arthur, which was accepted, Dec, 
1881. Since that date he has filled 
no office. 

BLAIB, Montgomery, born in 
Franklin County, Kentucky, May 
10, 1813. He graduated in 1835 at 
the United States Military Academy 
at West Point, and served in the 
war against the Seminole Indians 
in Florida. Resigning his commis- 
sion in 1836, he studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar at St. 
Louis, and from 1839 to 1849 held 
civil and judicial positions in Mis- 
souri. In 1852 he removed to 
Maryland, and was appointed soli- 
citor of the United States in the 
Court of Claims. He had been a 
Democrat, but upon the repeal of 
the Missouri Compromise joined the 
Republican party, and was removed 
from office by President Buchanan. 
In 1861 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln Postmaster-General, 
retaining the office till 1861, when 
he resigned. Having become dis- 
satisfied with the policy of the 
Republicans, he joined their oppo- 
nents, and has since acted with the 
Democrats. With the exception of 
one term in Legislature (1876-77), 
he has held no office for some 
years. „ 

BLAKE, Th* Hon. Edward, 
MJL., Q.C., M.P., ia the eldest son of 
the htie Bon. Wm. Hume Blake, a 
distinguished jurist of Upper Ca- 

nada, and at one time Chancellor of 
that Province. He was born in the 
township of Adelaide, co. Middle- 
sex, Ontario, Oct. 13, 1833, and re- 
ceived his education at Upper Canada 
College, and Toronto University, 
where he graduated with honours in 
1857. Afterwards he studied law, 
was called to the bar of Upper 
Canada in 1856, and made a Queen's 
Counsel in 1864. He is a Bencher 
of the Law Society of Upper Ca- 
nada, and Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. He entered the 
political arena in 1867, being re- 
turned for South Bruce in the 
Ontario Assembly, and for three 
years was leader of the Opposition 
in that body. In 1871 he succeeded 
the Hon. John Sandfield Macdonald 
in the Premiership of the Ontario 
Legislature, and held the office of 
President of the Executive Council 
until 1874. For a number of years 
he also represented South Bruce in 
the Dominion Parliament, and at 
one time sat for West Durham. 
In Nov., 1873, he was made a 
member of the Canadian Privy 
Council, and joined the Mackenzie 
Administration, in which, for 
various periods, he held the Minis- 
tership of Justice and the portfolio 
of President of Council. For a 
time ill-health withdrew him from 
public life, and the same cause 
obliged him to refuse the Chancellor- 
ship of Ontario and the Chief 
Justiceship of the Supreme Court of 
the Dominion, which were succes- 
sively offered to him. In 1876 he 
visited England on public business, 
and three years later re-entered the 
Dominion Parliament as member 
for West Durham, which he con- 
tinues to represent. Mr. Blake is 
an Independent - Liberal in poli- 
tics, and at the present time is 
leader of the Opposition in the 
Ottawa Parliament. Among the 
public men of the Dominion he 
holds the foremost place, being 
alike distinguished for his ability 
and his high character. Mr. Blake 
in 1862 married Margaret, daughter 

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of the late Right Rev . Dr. Cronyn, 
Bishop of Huron. 

BLAKENE Y, The Rev. Richabd 
Paul, D.D., LL.D., born in Roscom- 
mon, June 2, 1820, was educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, taking a 
first-class place in theology in 1843. 
He was appointed to the curacy of 
St. Paul's, Nottingham, in June, 
1843 ; to the vicarage of Ison-Green, 
Nottinghamshire, in June, 1844 j 
and in Jan., 1852, to the vicarage 
of Christ Church, Claughton, 
Birkenhead, which he resigned in 
1874, on being appointed vicar of 
Bridlington, Yorkshire. In 1868 
the Senatus of the University of 
Edinburgh conferred on him the 
degree of D.D. honoris causd. Dr. 
Blakeney has written largely on 
the controversy with the Catholic 
Church. Among his works are a 
" Manual of Romish Controversy," 
1851, which has reached its tenth 
edition; "The Book of Common 
Prayer in its History and Interpre- 
tation," 1865— 2nd ed. 1866; 3rd 
ed. 1870; " Catechism of the Prayer 
Book," 1869; and a "Protestant 
Catechism," 1851, which has passed 
through sixty editions. 

BLAKESLEY, The Vert Rev. 
Joseph Williams, B.D., the son of 
a London merchant, was born in 
1808, and educated at St. Paul's 
School and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 
1831 as 21st Wrangler and Senior 
Chancellor's Medallist. He was sub- 
sequently elected Fellow and Tutor 
of his college, and twice appointed 
select preacher before the university, 
in which capacity he preached the 
two courses of sermons on the Dis- 
pensation of Paganism and the Evi- 
dences of Christianity, published 
under the title " Conciones Acade- 
mic® ." In 1845 he was presented by 
his college to the vicarage of Ware. 
He was an unsuccessful candidate for 
the Regius Professorship of Divinity 
at Cambridge in 1850 ; was offered, 
but declined, the Regius Professor- 
ship of Modern History in I860; 
was appointed a classical examiner 

in the University of London in 
1861 ; and was presented by the 
Crown to a canonry in Canterbury- 
Cathedral in 1863 ; after which he 
sat as Proctor for the Chapter of 
Canterbury in the Lower House of 
Convocation, and was named one of 
the Committee for revising the 
authorised version of the New- 
Testament. In June, 1872, he was 
appointed Dean of Lincoln, and on 
the death of Bishop Thirlwall, was 
appointed by the Crown as his suc- 
cessor in the Senate of the Uni- 
versity of London. Dean Blakesley, 
the reputed " Hertfordshire Incum- 
bent" of the Times, has published 
"The Life of Aristotle, with a 
Critical Examination of some ques- 
tions of Literary History," 1839; 
an edition of Herodotus in the 
" Bibliotheca Classica," 1854 ; 
" Four Months in Algeria, with a 
Visit to Carthage," 1859 ; and has 
been a contributor to several of the 
principal reviews. 

BLANCHARD, Edwaed Leman, 
son of William Blanchard, who for 
thirty-five years was a distinguished 
comedian at Covent Garden Theatre, 
was born Dec. 11, 1820. Mr. E. L. 
Blanchard became a constant con- 
tributor to periodical and dramatic 
literature at a very early period of 
his life, and before his twenty-fifth 
year was known to the public as the 
editor of "Chambers's London 
Journal," the author of " Brad- 
shaVs Descriptive Railway Guides," 
and a series of handbooks, tales, 
essays, dramas, farces, and bur- 
lesques, which showed the exercise 
of a ready pen in the service of 
publishers and managers. He 
afterwards edited WUloughby's 
" Shak8pere," " England and Wales 
Delineated," and wrote the novels 
of " Temple Bar," and " Man with- 
out a Destiny," besides supplying 
Miss Emma Stanley and Mr. W . S. 
Woodin with some of the most 
popular " entertainments " perhaps 
ever brought before the public. 
In addition to a quantity of literary 
work of a miscellaneous character, 

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Mr. E. L. Blanehard haa furnished 
the theatres with about one hundred 
pieces, most of them Christmas 
extravaganzas, in which he seems 
specially to have aimed at the dra- 
matic Ulnstobtion of fairy mytho- 
logy. During more than thirty 
successive years the " Drury Lane 
Christmas Annuals" have proceeded 
from his pen. For the last twenty- 
one years he has been on the lite- 
rary staff of th e Daily Telegraph. 

BLBWITT, Octavian, was born 
Oct. 3, 1810, in St. Helen's Place, 
Bishopsgate, London, "where his 
father was settled as a merchant. 
Entering the medical profession, he 
served the usual five years' appren- 
ticeship, partly to his uncle, Mr. 
Dryden , assistant-surgeon of Devon- 
port Dockyard, and partly to Mr. 
Pollard of Torquay. At the close of 
the year 1893 he came to London, 
where he continued his medical 
studies in the Infirmary of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, and 
spent much of his time in the house 
of Sir James Clark, acting as tutor 
in classics to the son of that emi- 
nent physician, and assisting him 
in preparing for the press his work 
on " Phthisis." Mr. Blewitt after- 
wards visited the island of Madeira 
with a patient, remained at Funchal 
for eight months, and subsequently 
travelled much in Italy, Egypt, 
Greece, Turkey, and other countries. 
In March, 1839, he was elected Sec- 
retary of the Royal Literary Fund, 
which office he still continues to 
hold. During his secretaryship the 
institution has largely extended the 
sphere of its operations and attained 
a thoroughly safe and assured posi- 
tion . Mr. Blewitt spent many years 
in arranging the papers, literary, 
financial, and historical, which con- 
stituted the records of the associa- 
tion; and these documents, when 
classified, were stitched into covers 
so as to be read like a book, and are 
now -preserved in 130 folio boxes. 
In 1872 the King of the Belgians 
presided over the BxmirBrn^ci the 
Literary Fund, and testified his 

I sense of Mr. Blewitt's services by 
| creating him a Knight of the Order 
of Leopold. The earliest of Mr. 
I Blewitt's numerous contributions to 
literature was the "Panorama of 
1 Torquay," 1828, which was so suc- 
cessful that the impression was 
! speedily exhausted; and a second 
I and enlarged edition, professing to 
; be "A Descriptive and Historical 
, Sketch of the District comprised 
between the Dart and Teign," was 
published in 1832, and was so well 
; received by the public and the press, 
that one of the leading medical 
journals described it as "the first 
attempt which had been made to 
combine science with topography." 
His other works include : — " Treatise 
on the Happiness arising from the 
exercise of the Christian Faith ; " 
the preface to Glynn's " Autograph 
Portfolio ; " " Handbook for Central 
Italy and Rome," 1843, 2nd edit. 
1845, being one of Murray's guide- 
books ; and the " Handbook for 
Southern Italy and Naples," 1853, 
another volume of the same series. 
For 29 years he edited the newspaper 
portion of the Gardeners* Chronicle, 
and he has contributed articles to the 
Quarterly Review, Fraser's Magazine, 
tie St. Paul's Magazine, and other 
periodicals. In 1846 he married the 
widow of Lieutenant Howard, B.N., 
second daughter of Mr. David E. 
Williams, third son of Mr. Justice 
Williams, the last Royalist judge of 
South Carolina, and grandson of Sir 
John Williams, Bart., of Edwins- 
ford, Carmarthenshire. Mrs. Blewitt 
is herself an author, her first work 
having been a small collection of 
poems, privately printed ; and her 
second a fairy tale, entitled " The 
I Rose and the Lily, and how they 
became the Emblems of England 
and France." 

BLIND, Karl, was born at Mann- 
heim, Sept. 4, 1826. He studied 
jurisprudence at Heidelberg and 
Bonn ; as well as philosophy, politi- 
cal economy, history, archaeology, 
and ancient Germanic literature. 
At both universities he was active 

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for German freedom and union. 
He was tried under the Press-law at 
Mannheim, in 1846, but acquitted 
by the High Court of Justice. He 
established associations among the 
students, the artisans, the Gym- 
nastic Unions, and the Army, pre- 
paratory to the Revolution. In 
18 ±7 he was imprisoned in Rhenish 
Bavaria for high treason against 
King Ludwig. The trial was 
stopped, however, owing to the ex- 
pected difficulty of obtaining a ver- 
dict of guilty from a jury of the 
Palatinate. Another impending 
trial was quashed by the movement 
of 1848. At the beginning of the 
German revolution, he took a lead- 
ing part in the preparations for the 
rising at Karlsruhe, when the de- 
mands for the liberty of the Press, 
the universal introduction of the 
jury system, the establishment of a 
National Guard and of a German 
Parliament were carried. Again he 
was arrested for high treason, as 
endeavouring to expand the move- 
ment into one for a German Com- 
monwealth, but was freed by the 
popular successes at Offenburg. 
During the Frankfort " Vor-Parlia- 
mont," as a speaker at mass-meet- 
ings, he insisted on the abolition of 
the princely Diet and the election 
of a Provisional Executive. He was 
wounded during street -riots at 
Frankfort, and proscribed after his 
participation in the rising led by 
Hecker. From Alsace, where he 
stood at the head of the Strasburg 
Committee, he agitated for a new 
levy. Falsely accused of being im- 
plicated in the Paris Insurrection 
of June, he was imprisoned at Stras- 
burg, and transported in chains to 
Switzerland, the mayor of St. Louis 
generously preventing his surrender 
to the Baden authorities, which had 
been planned by the French police. 
During the first Schleswig-Holstein 
war, after the armistice of Malmoe, 
which offended the national senti- 
ment, he, with Gustav von Struve, 
led, in Sept. 1&48, the second Re- 
publican Revolution in the Black 

Forest. At the storming of Staufen 
he fought on the barricade, being 
among the last who left the town. 
He was made a prisoner through 
the treachery of some militiamen, 
and court-niartialled. His life, how- 
ever, was saved, owing to a defect 
in the proclamation of martial law, 
and the sympathies of two of the 
soldiers composing the Court. He 
was kept in the casemates at Ras- 
tatt, at first in chains, and con- 
demned, seven months afterwards, 
at a State trial, lasting ten days, by 
a half-sympathising jury, to eight 
years' imprisonment; the Crown 
Prosecutor having asked for the 
penalty of death by the " sword." 
In the spring of 1849, when being 
secretly transported to the fortress 
of Mainz, he was liberated by the 
people and the soldiers breaking 
open the prison at Bruchsal. Head- 
ing the same day a hastily formed 
number of free corps, he first en- 
deavoured, with Struve, to take 
Rastatt, and then entered the capi- 
tal of Baden. He was a firm op- 
ponent of Brentano, the chief of the 
new Government, whom he accused 
of being in occult connection with 
the ejected dynasty — a fact after- 
wards proved, when Brentano was 
declared a " traitor" by the Con- 
stituent Assembly. Being sent on 
a diplomatic mission, with Frederick 
Schiltz, to Paris, accredited to Louis 
Napoleon, the then President of the 
Republic, Karl Blind was arrested, 
contrary to the law of nations, on a 
charge of being implicated in Ledru 
Rollin's rising for the protection of 
the Roman Republic. The Left of 
the French Assembly demanded 
his deliverance. Threatened, after 
several months of imprisonment, 
with being handed over, if he con- 
tinued to maintain his diplomatic 
quality, to the Prussian courts- 
martial, which in the meanwhile 
had carried out numerous execu- 
tions of military and political lead- 
ers, he refused to yield. Finally, 
he was banished from France. 
After this he lived in Belgium, with 

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his wife, who has made many sacri- 
fices f ox the popular cause and also 
undergone imprisonment. New per- 
secutions induced him to come with 
his family to England : Louis Na- 
poleon refusing to let him pass' 
through France into Italy. He has 
carried on, from here, a Democratic 
and National German Propaganda. 
After an amnesty, in 1862, the 
House of Deputies at Stuttgart gave 
him a banquet . He was the speaker 
of the London Germans at Gari- 
baldi's entry. He promoted the 
Schleswig-Holstein movement in 
connection with leaders of the 
Sehleswig Diet, whose confidential 
communications he transmitted to 
the English Foreign Office, and was 
at the head of the London Com- 
mittee during the war of 1863-64. 
He likewise exerted himself to in- 
fluence public opinion in favour of 
German freedom and union, of 
Italian and Polish independence, 
and of the American Union, by 
speeches and pamphlets in England 
and Scotland. At Berlin, his step- 
son met with a tragic death in the 
attempt of May 7, 1866. During 
the war of 1870-71, Karl Blind 
supported his country's cause. 
Many political writings, and essays 
on history, mythology, and Ger- 
manic literature, published in Ger- 
many, England, America, and Spain, 
have proceeded from his pen. He 
has exerted himself to bring about 
the National Testimonial for the 
philosopher Feu er bach, and has 
worked abroad for a proper com- 
memoration of the great master- 
singer Hans Sachs. In 1875, an 
assault, well-nigh endangering his 
life, was made upon mm in the 
streets ot London by an over-excited 
political adversary, who, found 
guilty and fined before a police- 
court, was expelled from the " Ger- 
man Athenaeum." Among Karl 
Blind's recent writings are :— Bio- 
mphies of Ledru Rollin, Francis 
&«*, and Freiligrath ; "Fire- 
Burial among our Germanic Fore- 
fathers ; a Becord of the Poetry and 

History of Teutonic Cremation ; " 
" Yggarasil ; or, the Teutonic Tree 
of Existence ; " "An Old German 
Poem and a Vedic Hymn ; " " Scot- 
tish, Shetlandic, and Germanic 
Water-Tales;" "New Finds in 
Shetlandic and Welsh Folk-lore ; " 
" The Siegfried Tale ; " disquisitions 
on Khazar and Russian history, 
urging resistance to the further ex- 
tension of the power of the Czar ; 
and "The New Conflict in Ger- 

(See Webb.) 

BLOMFIELD, Thb Right Rev. 
Alfred, D.D., Bishop of Colches- 
ter, is the youngest son of the late 
Dr. Charles James Blomfield, Bishop 
of London, and was born at Ful- 
ham, Aug. 31, 1833. From Harrow 
school he proceeded to Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he obtained a 
first-class in classical moderations 
in 1853, and in Litercs Humaniora 
in 1854. In the latter year he 
gained the Chancellor's Prize for 
Latin verse. He was elected to a 
Fellowship at All Souls' College, 
and took the degree of BA. in 
1855 and M.A. in 1857. He was 
ordained priest in 1858 ; was curate 
of Kidderminster 1857-60 ; perpetual 
curate of St. Philip's, Stepney, 
1862-65; vicar of St. Matthew's, 
City Road, 1865-71 ; and vicar of 
Barking, Essex, 1871-82. In 1869 
he was chosen as a Select Preacher 
at Oxford. He was appointed 
Archdeacon of Essex in 1878, and 
Archdeacon of Colchester in 1882. 
In the latter year he was also ap- 
pointed Bishop of Colchester, as 
suffragan to the Bishop of St. 
Alban's, and he was consecrated in 
St. Alban's Cathedral by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (June 24). A 
few days before he had been created 
D.D., honoris causd, by the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. He is the author 
of Memoirs of his father, Bishop 
Blomfield, 2 vols., 1863 ; and " Ser- 
mons in Town and Country," 1871. 

BLUMENTHAL, Lieutenant- 
General Leonard von, Chief of 

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the General Staff of the Army of 
the Crown Prince of Prussia, was 
born on July 30, 1810, at Schweldt, 
on the Oder. He was, like the 
majority of the leaders of the Prus- 
sian army, a soldier from childhood. 
Educated from 1820 to 1827 in the 
military academies of Culm and 
Berlin, he was entered on July 27, 
1827, as Second Lieutenant in the 
Guard Landwehr regiment (the 
present Fusilier Guards), attended 
from 1830-1833 the general military 
schools in Berlin, was from 1837- 
1845 Adjutant to the Coblenz Land- 
wehr battalion, and became for the 
first time in 1846 Premier Lieuten- 
ant in the topographical division 
of the General Staff. In order to 
make himself thoroughly acquainted 
with technical military science, 
Blumenthal had been ordered for 
service during the following years 
to the Artillery Guards and the 
division of the Pioneer Guards, and 
had already, in March, 1848, taken 
part as Lieutenant in the Fusilier 
battalions of the 31st Infantry 
Regiment in the street-fights in 
Berlin. Some months later, Blu- 
menthal was transferred as Captain 
(Jan. 1, 1849) to the General Staff, 
to which he has, with slight inter- 
ruptions, belonged for some twenty- 
two years. In 1849 he took, as a 
member of the staff of General von 
Bonin, part in the Schleswig-Hol- 
stein campaign, and fought in the 
skirmishes at Auenbull and Beu- 
schau, in the battle of Colding, and 
in the affairs at Alminde, Gudsoe, 
and Tauloo-Church, and took, in 
the siege and battle of Fredericia, 
so active and conspicuous a part, 
that he was on May 14, 1849, pro- 
moted as Chief of the General 
Staff of the Schleswig-Holstein 
Army. His capabilities were re- 
garded as being so brilliant, that 
in the following year (1850) he was 
named as General Staff's officer of 
the Mobile Division under General 
von Tietzen in the electorate of 
Hesse. He was next sent, intrusted 
with special military propositions, 

to England, and was rewarded with 
the Order of the Bed Eagle (fourth 
class, with swords). On the 18th 
of June, 1853, advanced to the rank 
of Major in the Grand General 
Staff, Blumenthal was, as military 
companion and as General Staff's 
officer of the 8th Division, ap- 
pointed to take part in the spring 
exercises of that year (1853) in 
Thuringia and at Berlin. His lin- 
guistic and departmental knowledge 
led to his being intrusted with fur- 
ther commissions to England. In 
1859 he was named the personal 
Adjutant of Prince Frederic 
Charles. On July 1, 1860, he be- 
came Colonel and Commander of 
the 31st, later of the 71st Infantry 
Regiment. In 1861 he accompanied 
General von Bonin to the British 
Court, and became then the con- 
ductor of the foreign officers at the 
autumn manoeuvres on the Rhine, 
and military companion of the 
Crown Prince of Saxony at the 
coronation in Konigsberg. Colonel 
von Blumenthal had been for some 
time Chief of the Staff of the 
Third Army Corps, when, on Dec. 
15, 1863, he was nominated the 
Chief of the General Staff of the 
combined Mobile Army Corps 
against Denmark, and now had the 
first opportunity of discovering his 
splendid abilities. The part which 
he took in this war, especially at 
Missunde, in the storming of the 
trenches at Duppel, and the passage 
on to the island of Alsen, was so 
extremely important, that on June 
25, 1864, he was promoted to be 
Major-General, and received the 
Order pour le Me'rite. After the 
peace, General von Blumenthal 
commanded first the 7th and next 
the 30th Infantry Brigade. In 
the Austrian war of 1866 he was 
Chief of the General Staff of 
the Second Army of the Crown 
Prince, and for his distinguished 
services received the Oak-leaf of 
the Order pour le Mdrite (one of the 
rarest distinctions in the army) and 
the Star of Knight Commander of 

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the Order of the House of Hohen- I 
soUem. On Oct. 30, 1866, he was I 
designated Commander of the 14th 
Division in Dusseldorf , and accom- 
panied the Crown Prince in the 
autumn of I860 to St. Petersburg. < 
When, on the outbreak of the war 
with France, the Crown Prince was 
intrusted with the supreme com- 
mand of the Third Army, General 
Ton Blumenthal was requested to 
accept the important post of Chief 
of the General Staff ; and his Impe- 
rial Highness, when presented by 
the Emperor of Germany with the 
Iron Cross, declared that the same 
distinction was equally due to 
General Ton Blumenthal. In 1871 
he was sent to England to represent 
the German Empire at the autumn 
mancBuvres at Cobham. It is un- 
necessary to add more than that 
Lieutenant-General Ton Blumen- 
thal is recognised as one of the 
most distinguished strategists of 
modern times. 

BLUNT, John Hbnrt, M.A., 
D.IX, F.S JL.,born in 1823,in Cheyne 
'Walk, Chelsea, was educated at 
University College, Durham ; and, 
after t Afc-fng orders, and filling 
several curacies in the dioceses of 
Durham, Oxford, Exeter, and Ely, 
was appointed Vicar of Eennington, 
a. small hamlet of labouring people, 
near Oxford, and in the patronage 
of All Souls' College. He was pre- 
sented by the Crown to the rectory 
of BeTerston, Gloucestershire, Jan. 
20, 1873, Mr. Gladstone being then 
Prime Minister. In earlier years 
Mr. Blunt was a constant contribu- 
tor to Church reviews and maga- 
zines, and the author of lectures on 
the Creed, entitled, "The Atone- 
ment and the At-one-maker," pub- 
lished in 1855, and also of many 
pamphlets. Since 1864 he has pub- 
lished the following works : — " Di- 
rectorium Pastorale/* a volume on 
the principles and practice of pas- 
toral work in the Church of Eng- 
land, which has gone through many 
editions; "Household Theology," 
a handbook of religious information 

about the Bible, Prayer-book, &c, 
which has also gone through many 
editions ; " The Annotated Book of 
Common Prayer," a large volume 
forming an historical, ritual, and 
theological commentary on the de- 
votional system of the Church of 
England, of which eight or nine 
editions have been printed, and 
which is now the standard work on 
its subject; a "History of the 
Reformation of the Church of Eng- 
land," in two octavo volumes, em- 
bracing the period from 1514 to 
1662 ; " The Doctrine of the Church 
of England as stated in Ecclesiasti- 
cal Documents set forth by autho- 
rity of Church and State, from 1536 
to 1662;" "The Book of Church 
Law ; " " The Sacraments and 
Sacramental Ordinances of the 
Church;" "A Christian View of 
Christian History ; " several smaller 
volumes, entitled, "Keys to the 
Knowledge and use of the Prayer- 
book, Bible, Church Catechism," 
&c. ; " A Plain Account of the Eng- 
lish Bible, from the earliest times 
of its Translation to the present 
day ; " two large volumes, entitled, 
" A Dictionary of Doctrinal and 
Historical Theology;" and "A Dic- 
tionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesi- 
astical Parties, and Schools of Re- 
ligious Thought," 1874 ; " Tewkes- 
bury Abbey and its Associations," 
1874 ; " Dursley, Beverston, and 
some neighbouring Parishes," 1877 ; 
and an " Annotated Bible," in three 
quarto volumes. 

BODICHON, Madame, whose 
name was Barbara Leigh Smith, 
the eldest daughter of the late Mr. 
Benjamin Smith, many years M.P. 
for Norwich, was born April 8, 1827, 
at Watlington, Sussex, and at an 
early age took a deep interest in 
social questions. In 1855-56 she 
commenced, in conjunction with 
some personal friends, a movement 
having for its object to secure to 
married women their own property 
and earnings; and although their 
efforts did not prove successful in 

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obtaining directly from Parliament 
the measure they desired, they led 
to a change in the law of marriage 
and divorce. Miss Smith established 
at Padding-ton a school for the edu- 
cation of the daughters of artisans of 
the middle class. In July, 1857, she 
married M.Eugene Bodichon, M.D., 
and has since resided in Algeria, 
on which country she has, in con- 
junction with her husband, pub- 
lished an interesting and valuable 
work. Madame Bodichon, by her 
efforts and munificent donation of 
JB1000, was mainly instrumental, 
with Miss Emily Davies, in found- 
ing the now nourishing and well- 
known College for Women at Girton, 
near Cambridge, where precisely 
the same course of academical in- 
struction afforded to men in the 
universities is given to female stu- 
dents. It is, however, as a charm- 
ing and original water-colour artist 
that Madame Bodichon is best 
known to the public, her collection 
of water-colour drawings having 
been exhibited several times in 
London with great success, also at 
the Royal Academy, Dudley Gal- 
lery, Paris, and elsewhere. Poetic 
treatment, boldness of execution, 
and a keen eye for the subtler 
aspects of Nature, characterise all 
Madame Bodichon's works, which 
have ever found appreciative criti- 
cism and a large public. 

BODICHON, Etjqenb, M.D., 
husband of the lady mentioned 
above, was born at Nantes in 1810, 
of an ancient Breton family on the 
maternal side, and on the paternal 
side of a family ennobled two cen- 
turies before. He took his degree as 
physician of the faculty of Paris in 
1835, and soon after settled in 
Algeria, at once actively partici- 
pating in the political and social 
questions then agitating the colony. 
At that time Dr. Bodichon was one 
of three Republicans only, but 
mainly owing to their combined 
efforts a true democratic spirit was 
infused into all sections of society, 
and now Algeria is so entirely Re- 

publican that on the occasion of 
general elections Conservative can- 
didates do not even offer themselves. 
Dr. Bodichon contributed for many 
I years to the first Republican jour- 
tnal printed in Algiers, advancing- 
I upon every occasion those theories 
which have since been put into prac- 
tice by the Government, namely, a 
civil instead of military regime 
throughout the colony ; tribal, in- 
stead of individual responsibility, 
in the case of Arab insurrection ; 
and the ribois ement or replanting of 
forests, as the only means calculated 
to modify the climate, rendering it 
habitable for Europeans. On the 
proclamation of the Republic in 
1848, Dr. Bodichon was named cor- 
responding member of the Provi- 
sional Government, and he imme- 
j diately suggested the liberation of 
the slaves in Algeria — a measure at 
once carried out. Since that time 
Dr. Bodichon has occupied himself 
with scientific and political writings, 
and the introduction into the colony 
of the anti-febrile Australian blue 
gum tree, or Eucalyptus globulus. 
In 1866 he published his most im- 
portant work, " De rHumanite," at 
Brussels, the types having been 
broken in Algiers by order of the 
Imperial Government on account of 
a powerful analysis of the character 
of the First Napoleon. This mono- 
graph has been translated into Eng- 
lish. Dr. Bodichon's "Considera- 
tion 8ur l'Algene," and " Hygiene 
a suivre en Algerie," may be 
ranked among the classics of Al- 
gerian literature ; whilst the value 
of his ethnographical investigations 
has been acknowledged by M. 
Henri Martin and other eminent 

BOE, Francis Didibb, a painter, 
born at Bergen, in Norway, May 28, 
1820, studied art in the Academy of 
Copenhagen and the studio of M. 
Groenland, and in 1849 took up his 
residence in Paris. The flower-paint- 
ings which he sent to the galleries of 
Christiania and to the French exhibi- 
tions were remarkable for freshness 

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of oofouring and effective arrange- 
ment. His"Bunchof Grapes," 1850, 
»w secured for the Museum of the 
Louvre ; and his " Camellias on a 
Toilet-table ** was honourably men- 
tioned at the TJniveral Exposition 
of 1855. He exhibited " The Half- 
opened Orange " and " Pheasant 
and Partrid^" in 1857; "Eagle 
Devouring a young Norwegian 
Fox/* a Polar Landscape with the 
Midnight Son -, and " A Couple of 
Norway Fowls in their Spring 
Plumage," in 1863 ; " Sea Birds in 
the Light of the Midnight Son : An 
Eagle holding a small Fox," in 
1867 ; and " Yue des Montagues 
de Yestenaalen" at the Universal 
Exposition of 1878. 

BOEHM, Josxph Edgab, B.A., 
sculptor, was born in Vienna, July 6, 
1834, of Hungarian parents. His 
father was Director of the Mint in 
the Austrian Empire, and possessor 
of a celebrated private collection of 
works of art. He was educated at 
Vienna, and from 1848 to 1851 in 
England. He studied also in Italy, 
and for three years in Paris, but has 
been settled in England since 1862. 
He received the first Imperial Prize, 
and exemption from military con- 
scription in Vienna in 1856. He was 
elected a member of the Academy of 
Florence in 1875, and an Associate of 
the Royal Academy of London, Jan. 
16, 1878. Mr. Boehm executed a 
colossal statue in marble of the 
Queen for Windsor Castle, in 1869; 
also a monument of the Duke of 
Kent in St. George's Chapel, and 
bronze statuettes of the Prince of 
Wales and all the Eoyal Family (for 
the Queen) ; also a colossal statue at 
Bedford of John Bunyan, 1872 ; and 
another of the Duchess of Bedford 
for the Park, Woburn Abbey, in 
gilded bronze, 1874 ; a statue of Sir 
John Burgoyne in Waterloo Place ; 
a colossal equestrian statue of the 
Prince of Wales for Bombay, 1877 ; 
a statue of Thomas Carlyle ; a monu- 
ment at Deene to Lord Cardigan ; a 
monument at Aldershot church to 
Sir York Scarlett ; andahorse group 

I in bronze for Eaton. He is at present 
engaged on a colossal equestrian 
| statue of Lord Napier of Magdala ; 
i a colossal statue of Lord North- 
j brook, both for Calcutta ; a marble 
j statue of the late King Leopold of 
Belgium, for St. George's Chapel at 
Windsor; and a colossal statue of 
Sir William Gregory for Ceylon. 
He has also executed busts of Mr. 
Millais, the late Lord Lansdowne 
(now in Westminster Abbey), Mr. 
Whistler, Lord Shaftesbury, and 
Sir Henry Cole; a marble statue 
of Lord John Russell for the Houses 
of Parliament ; and was commis- 
sioned by the Queen to execute a 
recumbent statue of the late Princess 
Alice and her daughter, Princess 
Maud, for the Eoyal Mausoleum at 
Progmore, and a replica of it for 
Darmstadt. After the death of the 
Prince Imperial he was commis- 
sioned to execute a recumbent statue 
of him for Westminster Abbey ; 
but public opinion being strongly 
against its being placed there, it 
was transferred to St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. Mr. Boehm was 
elected a member of the Academy 
in Rome in 1880, and a full 
Academician by the Eoyal Academy 
here in Jan., 1882. A colossal statue 
of Lord Lawrence in bronze he 
lately executed for Waterloo Place, 
and a statue, twelve feet high, of 
William Tyndall (the first trans- 
lator of the Bible into English) is 
being completed for the Thames 
Embankment, where also his statue 
of Thomas Carlyle is placed. Mr. 
Boehm is also executing a colossal 
statue of Sir Francis Drake for 
Tavistock. The Government gave 
him the order to execute the statue 
of Lord Beaconsfield for West- 
minster Abbey, and he has also a 
marble statue of Lord Stratford de 
Eedcliffe and the late Dean Stanley 
in hand, both for Westminster 
Abbey. A recumbent effigy of 
Dean Duncombe for York was exe- 
cuted by Mr. Boehm from one of 
Mr. Street's last designs ; also one 
of the late Duchess of Westminster. 

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Mr. Boehm has made busts of Mr. 
Gladstone, Mr. John Bright, and 
Mr. Ruskin from life, and also a 
medallion of the Queen, which will 
serve as a model' for the new coin- 
age. He was nominated in 1881 
Sculptor in Ordinary to the 
Queen, and he has delivered 
lectures on sculpture in the Royal 
Academy. In Aug., 1882, the gold 
medal given by Austria-Hungary 
at the Vienna Art Exhibition was 
awarded to Mr. Boehm. 

SHEVO, Nicolas Casimir, Baron 
(Freiherr), of the Holy Roman Em- 
pire, is the descendant of an ancient 
and noble family of Poland, one of 
whose ancestors accompanied King 
John Sobieski in his expedition for 
the deliverance of Vienna from the 
Turks, as commander of the King's 
Body Guard ; and during the battle 
near Grau defended for a long time 
the bridge of Arigou against an entire 
army, received the honour of knight- 
hood on the battle-field, and was 
created by letters patent, signed 
by the Roman (German) Emperor 
Leopold, a Free Baron (Freiherr) of 
the Empire. His father, Casimir 
de Bogoushefsky, emigrated, when 
twelve years old, to Russia, and 
married there, in 1848, a Russian 
lady of very ancient family (of 
Byzantine descent), Miss Nathalie 
Al. de Nazimoff. Of this marriage 
Nicolas de Bogoushefsky was born 
at the estate of Doljitza, in the 
district of Louga, Governmentof St. 
Petersburg, on the 6 (18) May, 1851. 
He was carefully educated, first 
at home, then at Geneva, in a pen- 
sionnat, where he remained till the 
autumn of 1863 j then he was brought 
to England, where his education 
continued for some time. After this 
he visited several universities, prin- 
cipally foreign, English and Ger- 
man, returning to Russia in 1870, 
when he began to form a collection 
of autographs and historical docu- 
ments, illustrated with rare por- 
traits, which form now the most 
extensive collection in Russia. He 

has written a great number of 
smaller works, contributed articles 
to several learned journals, English 
and Russian, and corresponds with 
almost all the principal celebrities 
of the time. He is a member of 
more than twenty different learned 
societies, Russian and foreign ; such 
as the Royal Historical Society of 
Great Britain, the Grampian Club, 
the Imperial Russian Archaeological 
Society, the Moscow Archaeological 
Society, the Learned Esthonian 
Society (Dorpat), the Statistical 
Committee of Pskof , and the Arch- 
seological Commission of Pskof (of 
which he is one of the founders) . His 
publications include a general de- 
scription of the great barrows of 
Kokotovo (Government Pskof) in the 
Anthropological Journal, 1872, "On 
English Poor Laws " (in Russian), 
1872; "On the application of the 
English Poor Laws to Russia " (in 
Russian), 1872 ; " Coins of the Prin- 
cipality of Pskof," 1873 (in Russian); 
" Historical Notes on the Castle of 
Neuhausen in Livonia" (in Rus- 
sian), 1874; "Russia in Prehistoric 
Times," in the Reliquary, 1874 ; 
" Historical Notes Relating to Czar 
John, 'The Terrible/ of Russia, and 
Queen Elizabeth," in the Reliquary, 
1875 ; " Historical and Archaeolo- 
gical Description of the Church and 
Parish of Melyotovo in the Govern- 
ment of Pskof " (in Russian), 1876; 
" Notes on Vibouty, the Birthplace 
of St. Olga of Russia " (in Russian) ; 
" Proceedings of the 3rd Archaeolo- 
gical Congress at Kiof in 1874," vol. 
ii., Kiof, 1877 ; " Archaeological Map 
of Pskof Government " (in Russian 
and German) with text, 1878; 
" Autographic Gems, selected from 
the Collections formed by N. C. 
Baron de Bogoushefsky," Parts I. 
and II., 1877 ; Parts III. and IV., 
1878 ; "The English in Muscovy in 
the Sixteenth Century" (Transac- 
tions of the Royal Historical Society 
of Great Britain, vol. vii.). 

BOHN, Henry George, the son 
of a London bookseller of German 
extraction, was born Jan. 4, 179C, 

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and at the usual age entered his 
father's business. He married the 
only daughter of the late Mr. 
Simpkm, and in 1831 commenced 
business on his own account. In 
1&*1 he pnbliahed his "Guinea 
Catalogue," exhibiting the largest 
stock ever collected by a bookseller. 
He is known as one of the earliest 
projectors of the movement in 
favour of cheap and good litera- 
ture ; and with this object in view 
he established his Historical, Scien- 
tific, Illustrated, Classical, Eccle- 
siastical, and Antiquarian Libra- 
ries, amounting in all to between 
six and seven hundred volumes. For 
these series he translated several of 
Schiller's, Goethe's, and Humboldt's 
works ; has edited the " Bibliotheca 
Parriana," "Addison's Works," 
and a new and enlarged edi- 
tion of "Lowndes' Bibliographer's 
Manual," and compiled a " Poly- 
glot of Foreign Proverbs," a 
" Handbook of Proverbs," an 
" Illustrated Handbook of Geo- 
graphy/' "Handbook of Pottery 
and Porcelain," and assisted in 
several of the classical translations. 
Mr. Bohn, who is well known as an 
antiquary, is Fellow of many of the 
learned and scientific societies, espe- 
cially of the Philobiblon Society, to 
wndch he has contributed a " Life 
of Shakspere," and an extensive 
** Oictionary of English Poetical 
Quotations," volumes which being 
privately printed have sold by auc- 
tion for large sums. In 1860 he 
gained some notoriety as being 
almost the only literary opponent 
of the repeal of the duty on paper, 
insisting, in a series of letters to the 
Time* and Standard, that it would 
not be of any real advantage to the 
public, while it would entail a loss 
of two milliona per annum to the 

BOKEE, George Henry, born 
in Philadelphia in 1824. He gra- 
duated at Princeton College in 
1842, and studied law, but never 
practised. His principal works are 
the tragedies "Calaynos" " *««* 

' Anne 

Boleyn," "Leonor de Guzman," 
and "Francesca da Rimini." He 
has also published "Lessons of 
Life, and other Poems" (1847); two 
volumes of "Plays and Poems" 
(1856); a collection of "Poems of 
the War" (1864); "Kdnigsmark 
and other Poems," 1869; and 
"Book of the Dead," 1882. In 
1871 he was appointed Minister to 
Constantinople, but returned to 
America in 1879, and is now residing 
at Philadelphia. 

BOMBAY, Bishop of. (See 

BOMPAS, The Right Rev. Wil- 
liam Carpenter, D.D., Bishop of 
Athabasca, son of Charles Carpenter 
Bompas, Esq., serjeant-at-law, was 
born in London in 1835. He held 
successively curacies at Sutton-le- 
Marsh, Lincolnshire (1859-62); New 
Radford, near Nottingham (1862-3); 
and Holy Trinity, Louth (1863-5). 
For some years he was a Church 
Missionary Society chaplain at Fort 
Youcon, and afterwards at the Mac- 
kenzie River District, till his con- 
secration in May, 1874, as Bishop 
of Athabasca, and suffragan to the 
Bishop of Rupert's Land. The 
diocese is a district cut off from 
the Rupert's Land bishopric, in the 
dominion of Canada, being within 
the original limits of that diocese. 

BONAPARTE . (See Mathilde • 
Princess, and Napoleon, Prince.) 

BONAPARTE, Prince Lotjis- 
Lucien, born in Worcestershire, 
Jan. 4, 1813, is the second son of 
Lucien, brother of Napoleon I 
Having entered France after the 
Revolution of Feb. 1848, he was 
returned to the Constituent Assem- 
bly by the inhabitants of Corsica 
Nov. 28, 1848. The election was an- 
nulled Jan. 9, 1849. Some months 
after, he was one of the candidates 
chosen by the Electoral Union, and 
was returned for the department of 
the Seine. When the Empire was 
re-established in Dec. 1852, he was 
appointed senator, with the titles 
of Prince and Highness. Prince 
Lucien has been for many years 

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engaged in superintending the 
translations of portions of the En- 
glish version of the Scriptures into 
the various dialects spoken in Eng- 
land and Scotland, and has had the 
" Parable of the Sower" translated 
into seventy-two of the languages 
and dialects of Europe. Of these 
works the prince prints only a very 
limited number of copies. He is 
said to be greatly interested in 
chemical researches, has written on 
chemical science, and is the author 
of several minor works in the Basque 
language. Prince Lucien was pro- 
moted Grand Officer of the Legion 
of Honour, Jan. 3, 1860. 

BOND, Edward Augustus, son 
of the Rev. Dr. Bond, of Hanwell, 
Middlesex, was born Dec. 31, 1815. 
He was educated in his father's 
house, and at Merchant Taylors' 
School, London. In 1832 he received 
an appointment under the Commis- 
sioners of Public Records. In 1838 
he entered the British Museum as 
an assistant in the Department of 
Manuscripts. He was appointed 
Librarian of the Egerton MSS. in 
1852, Assistant-Keeper of the MSS. 
in 1854, and Keeper of the Depart- 
ment in 1866. In Aug. 1878, he 
was appointed Principal Librarian 
of the British Museum, in succes- 
sion to Mr. Winter Jones, resigned. 
As Keeper of the MSS., Mr. Bond 
designed and, with the help of his 
staff, completed, in 1870, a Class- 
Catalogue of the several collections 
of manuscripts in the British Mu- 
seum, and subsequently he pub- 
lished a Catalogue of all the Manu- 
scripts, Papyri, and Charters ac- 
quired during the years 1854-1875, 
in two 8vo volumes ; also a series 
of Facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon and 
other Ancient Charters in the Mu- 
seum, with exact Readings, in four 
parts. He has contributed papers 
to the Archseologia of the Society 
of Antiquaries, including an " Ac- 
count of Money-lending Transac- 
tions of Italian Merchants in Eng- 
land, in the thirteenth and four- 
teenth Centuries/' 1839. He passed 

through the press, for the Oxford 
Commissioners, the "Statutes of 
the University," in 3 vols. 8vo, 
1853 ; edited for the Hakluyt So- 
ciety, in 1856, Dr. Giles Fletcher's 
" Russe Common Wealth," and Sir 
Jerome Horsey* s " Travels in Rus- 
sia ; " edited for Government, *' The 
Speeches in the Trial of Warren 
Hastings," 4 vols. 8vo, 1859-1861; 
and for the Rolls Series of Chro- 
nicles, the " Chronicon Abbatise de 
Melsa," in 3 vols. In 1870, con- 
jointly with his colleague, Mr. E. 
M. Thompson, he founded the 
Palfflographical Society, and, in 
collaboration with that gentleman, 
he has edited the series of " Fac- 
similes of Ancient Manuscripts 
and Inscriptions," produced by the 
Society. The University of Cam- 
bridge conferred on Mr. Bond the 
honorary degree of LL.D. in 1879. 

BOND, The Rioht Rev. Wil- 
liam Bennett, M. A., LL.D., Bishop 
of Montreal, was born at Truro, in 
Cornwall, England, in 1815. He 
received his education in various 
public and private schools in 
Cornwall and in London, and at 
an early age emigrated to New- 
foundland, where he studied for the 
ministry, and at Montreal, to which 
he had meantime repaired, was in 
1841 ordained a priest. For several 
years, under the direction of the 
late Bishop Mountain, of Quebec, 
he organised many mission stations 
in the Eastern Townships of the 
French Province, and finally took 
charge of the parish of St. George's, 
Montreal. He maintained his con- 
nection with this parish for the 
long period of thirty years, suc- 
cessively becoming archdeacon of 
Hochelaga and Dean of Montreal. 
On the resignation of Bishop Oxen- 
den, he was in 1879 elected by the 
synod of the diocese to the bishopric 
of Montreal. Bishop Bond is Presi- 
dent of the Theological College of 
the Diocese of Montreal, and is an 
LL.D. of the University of McGiH 
Colleg e. 

BONHEUR, Mademoiselle Bo- 

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siLix, called Eosa, an artist mi- 1 
rivalled amongst "her own sex for 
the minute and spirited delineation 
of the various forms of animal life, 
waB born at Bordeaux., March 22, 
1822. The daughter of a French 
artist of some distinction, she pro- 
fited by the instructions of her 
father, who was her sole adviser 
in the mechanism of painting. As 
the avocations of her family com- 
pelled them to reside in Paris, the 
indulgence of her own particular 
tastes in the choice of subjects for 
study was somewhat difficult of 
attainment, and she derived her 
early instruction from a study of 
such *"riJT¥i»l life as could be seen 
by her in the streets and abattoir* 
of Paris. In 1841 she entered upon 
her career by exhibiting two pic- 
tures " Che vres et Moutons" and 
" Les Deux Lapins," which estab- 
lished her reputation. These were 
followed by a succession of highly 
finished compositions, amongst 
which may be cited the celebrated 
" Labourage Nivernais," which was 
completed in 1849, and has been 
added to the collection in the 
Luxembourg. She attends the 
horse-markets both in France and 
abroad, adopting the masculine 
jrarb, which is not ill-suited to the 
decided character of her face, and 
enables her to inspect and to pur- 
chase her subject with less inter- 
ruption and remark. She has fitted 
up an antechamber divided only by 
a partition from her studio, as a 
stable for the convenience of the 
various animals domesticated there- 
in, and has established a small fold 
in its immediate vicinity for the 
accommodation of sheep and goats. 
It is owing, in a measure, to this 
conscientious examination of the 
developments of animal life that 
she has produced such masterpieces 
of representation as the "Horse 
{ Fair/' a picture which formed the 

' chief attraction at the French Ex- 

hibition of pictures in London 
daring the season of 1855, and 
which almost monopolized for a 

time the attention of artists and 
connoisseurs. In 1855 she sent to 
the Universal Exhibition in Paris 
a new landscape of large dimen- 
sions, " The Haymaking Season in 
Auvergne." Rosa Bonheur has 
evinced in her works a wonderful 
power of representing spirited ac- 
tion, which distinguishes her from 
other eminent animal painters of 
the day, and which endows her 
pictures as compositions with ex- 
traordinary interest. Several of 
this lady's productions have been 
engraved for the English public. 
Since 1849 she has directed the 
gratuitous School of Design for 
Young Girls of Paris. She ob- 
tained a first-class medal in 18A8, 
and another in 1855. She was 
decorated with the Legion of 
Honour, June 10, 1865, and in 
1868 she was appointed a member 
of the Institute of Antwerp. During 
the siege of Paris in 1870-71, her 
studio and residence in Fontaine- 
bleau were spared and respected by 
special order of the Crown Prince 
of Prussia. Two important pic- 
tures by this artist, " A Foraging 
Party," and " On the Alert," were 
exhibited at the Antwerp Academy 
in 1879, and in London in 1881. 
" The Lion at Home," exhibited in 
London, 1882, was a result of the 
painter's study of a fine couple of 
Nubian lions which were presented 
to her by a friend. In Jan. 1880, 
the King of the Belgians conferred 
the Leopold Cross on Mdlle. Rosa 
Bonheur, who was the first lady to 
receive this distinction ; and in the 
following month she received from 
the King of Spain the Commander's 
Cross of the royal Order of Isabella 
the Catholic, this being the first 
instance of such a distinction being 
conferred upon a woman in Spain. 

BONNECHOSE (Comte de), 
Henri Marie Gaston Boisnor- 
mand, a French archbishop, and a 
cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, 
born at Paris, May 30, 1800. He was 
educated for the law, and obtained 
some lucrative public appointments, 
L 2 

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but at the age of thirty he resolved 
to devote his life to the cause of 
religion. Accordingly, after going 
through a course of ecclesiastical 
studies, he was ordained priest at 
Strasburg in 1834. In 1847 he was 
consecrated Bishop of Carcasonne, 
and in 1854 translated to the see of 
Evreux, and in 1858 made Arch- 
bishop of Rouen. He was created 
and proclaimed a Cardinal in 1863. 
His Eminence, who sat in the Senate 
by virtue of his title of Cardinal, has 
always been an ardent supporter of 
the Pope's temporal power, and of 
the independence of the Church. He 
is renowned for his eloquence in the 
pulpit. He edited the religious cor- 
respondence of the Abbe" Bautain, 
under the title of " Philosophic du 
Christianisme," 2 vols. 1835. 

BOOTH. (See Sclater-Booth.) 
BOOTH, Edwin, born near Bal- 
timore, Maryland, November 15, 
1833 . He is a son of the actor Junius 
Brutus Booth, and was trained for 
the dramatic profession. Having 
filled many minor parts, he made 
his first regular appearance on the 
stage as Tressel, in "Richard III.," 
in 1849, and in 1851 performed the 
character of Richard III., in place 
of his father, who had been suddenly 
taken ill. After a tour through 
California, Australia, many of the 
Pacific Islands, and the Sandwich 
Islands, he re-appeared at New York 
in 1857, visited England and the 
Continent in 1861, and returning to 
New York commenced a series of 
Shaksperean revivals at the Winter 
Garden Theatre in 1863. After a 
series of successful engagements in 
Boston, Philadelphia, and other 
large cities, he commenced, in 1868, 
the erection of a new theatre in 
New York, which was opened Feb. 
3, 1869 ; but the cost of the build- 
ing, in which Mr. Booth had in- 
vested all his means, prevented 
ultimate pecuniary success, and the 
theatre, although it still bears his 
name, passed from his hands. For 
several years he virtually retired 
from the stage, but near the close 

of 1877 he began in New York a 
series of brilliant performances. He 
rarely undertakes any except the 
leading characters of Shakspere: 
Hamlet, Othello, Iago, Shylock, and 
Richard III., Hamlet being his most 
admired personation. The last two 
years he has chiefly spent in Eng- 
land, where he has met with marked 
success. In the early part of 1883 
he played Shaksperean parts at 
Berlin and Hamburg with great 

BOOTH, The Rev. William, 
General of the Salvation Army, was 
born at Nottingham, April 10, 1829. 
and educated at a private school in 
that town. He studied theology 
with the Rev. Wm. Cooke, D.D., be- 
came a minister of the Methodist 
New Connexion in 1850, and was 
appointed mostly to hold special 
evangelistic services, to which he 
felt so strongly drawn that when 
the Conference of 1861 required him 
to settle in the ordinary circuit 
work, he resigned and began his 
labours as an evangelist amongst 
the churches wherever he had an 
opportunity. Coming in this capa- 
city to the East End of London he 
observed that the vast majority of 
the people attended no place of 
worship, and he commenced "The 
Christian Mission" in July, 1865. 
To this mission, when it had become 
a large organisation, formed upon 
military lines, he gave in 1878 the 
name of "The Salvation Army/* 
under which it soon became widely 
known and grew rapidly until it 
has now (Dec. 1882) 450 corps at 
stations established in the United 
Kingdom, France, the United States, 
Australia, India, the Cape of Good 
Hope, Canada, and Sweden. 1,019 
officers or evangelists are entirely 
employed in and supported by this 
Army under the General's absolute 
direction, and they hold upwards of 
7,500 services in the open air and 
in theatres, music halls, and other 
buildings every week. The General 
has published several hymn and 
music books, a volume entitled 

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"Salvation Soldiery," describing 
his views as to religions life and 
work. " Holy lAving ,* • and " Orders 
uid Regulations for the Salvation 
\nny," are some of tne smaller 
publications issued "by Him for the 
direction of the Army as to teaching 
and services. He also contributed 
an article on "The Salvation 
Army" to the Contemporary Review, 
for Aug. 1882 . Mrs . Booth , who has 
shared largely in all the General's 
efforts, has further explained their 
views in " Practical Religion/' 
" Aggressive Christianity," and 
"Godliness." The General's eldest 
son is his Chief of Staff, managing 
all the business, his eldest daughter 
directs the work in France, the 
second son is at the head of the 
Clapton Institution for the training 
of men officers, the second daughter 
at tne head of that for women, the 
third, son and daughter specially 
directing the uniform and musical 
departments, and the younger chil- 
dren being all in training for some 
l>rajnch of the service. The General 
established The War Cry as a weekly 
gazette of the Army in 1880. It is 
now published twice weekly to the 
number jointly of 400,000 per week. 
Editions are also published in 
America, Australia, and India — En 
Aidant in Paris, and the Jangi Pokar 
(Mlarathi) edition in Bombay. 

BORDEAUX, Duke de. (See 
Chambobd, Count db.) 

BOREL, Jean Louis, a French 
general, born at Faujeaux (Ande), 
April 3, 1819, was selected by 
General MacMahon as his aide-de- 
camp soon after quitting the Staff 
College in 1810, and served for 
several years in the African wars, 
under the future Duke of Magenta. 
At the latter end of 1854 he went 
with his general to the camp of 
Boulogne, where MacMahon took 
the command of a division of in- 
fantry. In Aug. 1855, they both 
left for the Crimea, and M. Borel, 
then only a Staff captain, marched 
by the aide of his general to the 
aiaulton the Malakhoff. Promoted 

to the rank of major after the bril- 
liant engagement of the 8th of 
Sept., he made, in the capacity of 
aide-de-camp to MacMahon, the 
campaign against the Eabyles of 
Algeria in 1856, and that of Italy 
in 1859. In 1867 Colonel Borel 
parted company with the Duke of 
Magenta, to whom he had rendered 
great service on many occasions, 
and, going to Paris, was appointed 
Chief of Staff of the National Guards 
of the Seine under General Aute- 
marre d'Erville. After the declara- 
tion of war against Germany he did 
not take apart in the earlier engage- 
ments between the German troops 
and the Army of the Rhine, but on 
the delegation of the Government 
of the National Defence leaving 
Paris for Tours, Colonel Borel was 
summoned to that city, and ap- 
pointed Chief of Staff of the 15th 
Corps d'Armee, and promoted to 
the rank of Brigadier-General. 
When the Army of the Loire was 
definitely organised, he became 
General Chief of Staff, and to his 
exertions was, in a great measure, 
due the temporary success gained 
by the French near Orleans in Nov. 
1870. A few weeks later he was 
created a General of Division. In 
Dec. 1877 he succeeded General 
Berthaut as Minister of War. In 
Sept. 1878, he was sent by the 
Government to inspect the new for- 
tifications in the Vosges. His re- 
signation of the Ministry of War 
was accepted Jan. 13, 1879, when 
he took the command of the Rouen 
Army Corps. 

BORTON, General Sir Arthur, 
K.C.B., G.C.M.G., is the youngest 
son of the late Rev. John Drew 
Borton, rector of Blofield, Norfolk, 
by Louisa, daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Carthew, of Woodbridge, 
Suffolk. He was born at Blofield in 
1814, and educated at Eton and at 
the Royal Military College at Sand- 
hurst. He entered the army in 
1832, became captain in 1841, and 
served with the 9th Regiment in 
the Afghanistan campaign of 1812 

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and the Sutlej campaign of 1845-6. 
He became lieutenant-colonel in 
1853, was promoted to colonel in 
1851, and served in the Crimea in 
command of the above regiment. 
His subsequent promotions were : — 
major-general 1868, lieutenant- 
general 1875, colonel of the 1st 
West Indian Regiment 1876, and 
general 1878. He was nominated a 
Companion of the Order of the Bath 
(Military Division) in 1854, and 
was promoted to a Knight Com- 
mandership of the same Order in 
1877. He was appointed Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of the 
island of Malta in 1878. Sir Arthur 
Borton married, in 1850, Caroline, 
daughter of the Rev. John Forbes 
Close, rector of Morne, County 

BOSWELL, John Thomas Ir- 
vine BoswELL (formerly Syme), 
LL.D., F.L.S., born at Edinburgh, 
in Dec. 1822, and educated at the 
Dollar Institution and Edinburgh 
University ; was Curator of the Bo- 
tanical Society of London, 1851-56 ; 
Lecturer on Botany at the Charing 
Cross Hospital, 1856-63 ; and Lec- 
turer on Botany at the Westminster 
Hospital, 1856-67. He is the author 
of the scientific portion of the third 
edition of " English Botany," which 
comprises a new British Flora, 
1863-71. In 1875 he took the sur- 
name of Boswell instead of Syme 
on succeeding to the estate of Bal- 
inuto in Fifeshire. 

BOTTALLA, The Rev. Paul, 
S.J., born Aug. 15, 1823, in Palermo, 
the capital of Sicily, and educated 
at the Jesuit Colleges of Palermo 
and Rome. After being admitted 
to holy orders he was successively 
appointed Sunday preacher in the 
Gesu of Naples ; Professor of Uni- 
versal History in the Collegio Mas- 
simo of Palermo ; of Ecclesiastical 
History in the Roman College ; of 
Dogmatic Theology in St. Beuno's 
College, North Wales ; and of The- 
ology at Poitiers. Father Bottalla 
is one of the writers of the Civilta 
Cattolica of Rome. He has pub- 

lished at Palermo and Oenoa a 
course of History of the Middle 
Ages, in two volumes (" Corso di 
Storia e di Geografia universale — 
Medio Evo "), which has been trans- 
lated into French j " Studii storici 
sulla Chiesa e Flmperio" (in the 
Civilta Cattolica) ; at Brussels, 
" Histoire de la Revolution de 1860 
en Sicile : de ses Causes et de ses 
Effete dans la Revolution gene*rale 
de ritalie" (2 vols. 1861) ; in Lon- 
don, "The Pope and the Church 
considered in their Mutual Rela- 
tions with reference to the Errors of 
the High Church Party in Eng- 
land" (vols. i. and ii. 1868 and 
1870), — the third volume has not 
yet appeared ; " Pope Honorius be- 
fore the Tribunal of Reason and 
History," 1868, being a reply to the 
pamphlet of P. Le Page Renouf , en- 
titled " The Condemnation of Pope 
Honorius ; " " The Papacy and 
Schism : Strictures on Ffoulkes's 
Letter to Archbishop Manning," 
1869 ; a reply in the Dublin Review, 
1871-73, to Mr. Renouf's second 
pamphlet on Pope Honorius ; •' De 
la Souveraine et Inf aillible Autorite 
du Pape dans l'Eglise, et dans les 
rapports avec l'£tat " (2 vols. 
Poitiers et Paris, 1877). The two 
last-named volumes sum up what 
Father Bottalla wrote while resident 
in England, and also furnish a 
further and more perfect execution 
of his plan. 

BOUCHARD AT, Apollinaibe, 
pharmaceutist, member of the Aca- 
demy of Medicine, was born at 
risle-8ur-le-Serein (Yonne) about 
1810, studied medicine in Paris 
whilst very young, and was named 
a Fellow of that faculty in 1832. 
He was pharmaceutist-in-chief at 
the hospital of Saint-Antoine, and 
in 1834 was appointed to the same 
functions at the Hotel Dieu, which 
he fulfilled until 1855, when he re- 
signed, in order to devote himself 
to scientific works. In 1838 he dis- 
puted with much talent the chair of 
pharmacy and organic chemistry in 
the faculty of Medicine with M. 

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Dumas. In 1345 lie was appointed 
a member of the Council of Health, 
and created a Chevalier~of the Le- 
gion of Honour. "He "became a 
member of the Academy of Medi- 
cine in 1850, and, after competition, 
obtained the chair of Hygiene in 
1852. In addition to numerous 
botanical and medical " memoirs," 
which have been published collec- 
tively under the titles of "Re- 
cherches sur la Vegetation," M. 
Bouchardat has written a "Cours 
de Chimie "Elementaire, avec sea 
principalea Applications a. la Mede- 
cine et aux Arts," published in 
1834-5 ; " Cours des Sciences Phy- 
siqiies," in 1841-4 ; " Elements de 
Matiere Medicale et de Pharmacie," 
in 1838 ; " I/Annuaire de The*ra- 
pentique," since 1841 ; " Nouveau 
Formulaire Magistral," in 1840 ; 
** Formulaire Veterinaire," in 1849 ; 
" Opuscules d'Economie Rurale," in 
1851; "Archives de Physiologic" 
in 1854 ; and " Repertoire de Phar- 
macie," published monthly since 
1847. He has written a series of 
interesting works upon vines and 
-wines, " Llnfluence des Eaux Pot- 
ables sur la Production du Goitre 
et du Cretinisme ; " in his " Opus- 
cules d'£conomie Rurale ; " a work 
upon " Diabetes," and numerous 
•* Memoirs," presented to the Aca- 
demy of Medicine. 

BOUCICAULT, Dion, born in 
Dublin, Dec. 26, 1822. He was 
educated under his guardian, Dr. 
Lardner, at the London Univer- 
sity, and commenced his career 
as dramatic author and actor with 
the production, in March, 1841, of 
" London Assurance," at Covent 
Garden Theatre. He went to the 
United States in 1853, and did not 
return to London till 1860, when he 
produced the "Colleen Bawn" at 
the Adelphi Theatre. This was fol- 
lowed by the "Octoroon" in 1861. 
Having been associated with Mr. 
Webster in the management of the 
Adelphi Theatre, Mr. Boucicault 
became lessee of Astley's Theatre, 
the name of which he altered to that 

of the Westminster ; but the specu- 
lation proved a failure. He is the 
author of more than fifty original 
pieces, besides adaptations from the 
French ; the best known, in addition 
to the above-mentioned, being " Old 
Heads and Young Hearts," " Love 
in a Maze," " Used Up," " The Wil- 
low Copse," " Janet Pride," " Louis 
XI.," "The Corsican Brothers," 
" Faust and Marguerite," " The 
Long Strike," and " Flying Scud," 
produced at the Holborn Theatre 
in 1866. Among his more recent 
pieces are " How She Loves Him " 
(1867) ; " After Dark " (186S) ; 
"Paul Lafarge" (1870) ; "A Dark 
Night's Work " (1870) ; " The Rap- 
paree ; or, the Treaty of Limerick " 
(1870); and "The Dead Secret" 
(1878). With occasional visits to 
England, he has, since 1876. resided 
in New York, where he has brought 
out a number of new pieces, in which 
he plays the leading parts. 

BOUGHTON, George Henry, 
A.R.A., born in Norfolk, England, 
in 1833. His family went to 
America about 1836, and he passed 
his youth in Albany, New York, 
where he early developed an artistic 
taste. In 1853 he came to London, 
and (passed several months in the 
study of art. Returning to America, 
he settled in New York, and soon 
became known as a landscape 
painter. In 1859 he went to Paris, 
where he devoted two years to study, 
and in 1861 he opened a studio in 
London, where he has since mostly 
resided. He was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Academy, June 
19, 1879. Among his best works are : 
" Winter Twilight," " The Lake of 
the Dismal Swamp," " Passing into 
the Shade," " Coming into Church," 
"Morning Prayer," "The Scarlet 
Letter," " The Idyl of the Birds," 
and "The Return of the May- 
flower." Mr. Boughton has fre- 
quently exhibited at the National 
Academy of New York, and was 
made a member of that Academy in 

BOUILLAUD, Jean - Baptists, 

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physician, member of the Academy 
of Medicine, was born at Angou- 
leme, Sept. 16, 1796, studied under 
his uncle, Jean BouiUaud, a sur- 
geon-major in the army, and took 
his degree as doctor at Paris, Aug. 
23, 1823. M. Bouillaud became 
favourably known to the profession 
by publishing, in 1824, in conjunc- 
tion with M. E. J. Bertin, a trea- 
tise on "Diseases of the Heart." 
He was elected professor of clinical 
medicine at the H6pital de la 
Charite in 1831 ; was Deputy for 
Angouleme from 1842 to 1846, 
voting generally with the " Left ; " 
became a member of the Superior 
Council of the University, was 
created an Officer of the Legion 
of Honour, April 27, 1847, was 
chosen to succeed M. Orfila as 
Dean of the Faculty of Medi- 
cine of Paris in 1848, was created 
a Commander of the Legion of 
Honour in 1864, and was elected 
a member of the Academy of 
Sciences in 1868. In addition to the 
above-mentioned works, M. Bouil- 
laud has published numerous medi- 
cal treatises, amongst which may 
be named "Traite" de rEncepha- 
lite," 1825; "Traite" Clinique et 
Experimental des Fievres dites 
Essentielles," 1826 ; " Traite* Clini- 
que et Statistique du Cholrra," 
1832; "Traite Clinique des Mala- 
dies du Coeur," 1835; "Clinique 
Medicale de THopital de la Cha- 
rity" 1837; "Traite Clinique du 
Rheumatisme Articulaire," 1840 ; 
" Sur le Si£ge du Sens du Langage 
articuleV' in 1839-48; "Trait? de 
Nosographie Medicale," 184(5; his 
most important work, "Lecons 
Cliniques sur les Maladies du Coeur 
et des gros Vaisseaux," 1853 ; " Du 
Diagnostic et de la Curability du 
Cancer/' 1854 ; " De l'Influence des 
Doctrines ou des Systemes Patho- 
logiques de laTh^rapeutique," 1859 ; 
" Discours sur le Vitalisme et FOr- 
ganisme," 1860 ; " De la Conges- 
tion cerebrale apoplectiforme dans 
ses rapports avec rEpilepsie," 1861 ; 
and " L'Aphasie," a report laid be- 

fore the Academy of Sciences, 1876. 
M. Bouillaud was elected a member 
of the Academy of Sciences in 1868. 
He is vice-president of the French 
Temperance Society, which was 
established in 1874. 

BOULEY, Henri, a French vete- 
rinary surgeon, born in Paris in 
1814, professor of clinical medicine 
and surgery at the school of Alf ort, 
and since 1855 a member of the 
Academy of Medicine (veterinary 
section), was appointed Inspector- 
General of Veterinary Schools, Jan. 
6, 1866. He is the author of the 
following works: — "Causes Gene- 
rales de la Morve dans nos Regi- 
ments de Cavalerie," 1840; "Traite 
de reorganisation du Pied du 
Cheval," 1851; "De la Peripneu- 
monie Epizootique du gros Betail," 
1854 ; " Nouveau Dictionnaire Pra- 
tique de Medecine, de Chirurgie, et 
d'Hygiene Ve^rinaires," 1855-72, 
vols. i. to x., in conjunction with 
M. Raynal; "Dictionnaire lexico- 
graphique et descriptif des Sciences 
medicale et vetcrinaire," 1863, con- 
jointly with Messieurs Raigc-De- 
lorme, Charles Daremberg, J. 
Mignon,and Charles Lamy ; " Peste 
bovine," a report presented to the 
Minister of Agriculture, 1867 ; and 
" La Rage, moyens d'en 6viter les 
dangers, et de prevenir sa propa- 
gation," 1870. He has likewise 
published several notices, and me- 
moirs; and edited, since 1844, the 
Reports, "Bulletin de la Soci&6 
Centrale de Medecine Vetcrinaire." 
M. Bouley was made a Knight of 
the Legion of Honour, Dec. 25, 
1844, and promoted to the rank of 
Officer, Dec. 9, 1865. He was 
elected a member of the Academy 
of Sciences in 1868, and was nomi- 
nated a member of the commission 
appointed to organise the Institut 
Agronomique, Aug. 11, 1876. 

BOURBAKI, Charles Denis 
Satjter, a French general, of Greek 
extraction, born at Paris, April 22, 
1816, was a sub-lieutenant in the 
Zouaves, from 1836 to 1838, when 
he was appointed a Lieutenant in 

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tae 1st regiment of the Foreign 
Legion. He was appointed Captain 
in the Zouaves in June, 1842 ; Major 
of the Native Skirmishers in Aug. 
1S46; Lieutenant-Colonel in Jan. 
1850, first of the 7th regiment of 
the line and afterwards of the 
Zouaves ; Colonel in Dec. 1851 ; 
Brigadier-General, Oct. 14, 1854; 
and General of Division, Aug. 12, 
1657. During the Crimean war in 
1855 he greatly distinguished him- 
self at the battles of the Alma and 
Inkermann and in the assault on 
Sevastopol. He also took part in 
the Italian expedition of 1859. In 
May, 1869, he was appointed to the 
command of the second camp at 
Chalons, and in the following July 
nominated aide-de-camp to the 
Emperor. General BourbaJri played 
a conspicuous part in the Franco- 
German war. In Dec. 1870, he was 
appointed by the Delegate Govern- 
ment at Tours to the chief command 
of the first Army of the North, with 
General Borel as his Chief of Staff. 
After a series of engagements with 
the German forces, General Bour- 
bektri. was compelled to retreat in 
th.e direction of; Switzerland, and 
at "the close of the month of Jan. 
1871, he was driven over the Swiss 
frontier with the remains of the 
army, consisting of about 80,000 
men. The General attempted to 
commit suicide by shooting himself 
with a pistol, but the wound did 
not prove fatal. Subsequently he 
returned to Prance, ana, in July, 
1871, he was appointed to a military 
command at Lyons, where he sup- 
pressed several attempts at insur- 
rection. Placed in command of the 
14th Army Corps he held that post 
till Feb. 11, 1879, when he was re- 
placed by General Farre. 

BOURKE, Tax Bight Hon. 
Robert, M.P., third son of the 5th 
Ear] of Mayo, was born at Hayes, 
co. Afeath. June 11, 1827, and edu- 
cated at Ennislrillen School, at Hall 
Place, Kent, and at Trinity College, 
Dnblin. Called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple in 1S52, he went the 

South Wales Circuit, and attended 
the Knutsford sessions for twelve 
years. Mr. Bourke also had a large 
business at the Parliamentary bar. 
He was elected M.P. for Lynn Regis, 
in the Conservative interest, at the 
general election of Dec. 1868, and 
he still represents that borough in 
the House of Commons. When Mr. 
Disraeli came into power in Feb. 
1874, Mr. Bourke was appointed 
Under-Secretary of State for Fo- 
reign Affairs, and he held that 
office till April, 1880, when he was 
added to the Privy Council. He 
has travelled in America, India, 
and the Holy Land, and contri- 
buted his views upon these coun- 
tries to various magazines. Mr. 
Bourke is also the author of " Par- 
liamentary Precedents." He mar- 
ried in 1863 Lady Susan Georgiana, 
eldest daughter of the first Marquis 
of Dalhousie. 

BOUSFIELD, The Right Rev. 
Hbnrt Brougham, D.D., Bishop of 
Pretoria, was educated at Caius Col- 
lege, Cambridge (B.A. 1855; M.A. 
1858; D.D.,juredignitatis,187$). He 
was curate of All Saints, Braishfield, 
Hampshire, 1855-56 ; perpetual 
curate of the same parish, 1856-61 ; 
rector of St. Maurice, with St. Mary- 
Kalendre, and St. Peter-Colebrook, 
Winchester, 1861-70; and vicar of 
Andover, from 1870 till 1878, when 
he was appointed Bishop of Pretoria 
(Transvaal). He is the author of 
" Notes for Catechizing/' 1872. 



member of the Institute, born in 
Paris, Feb. 2, 1802, was educated in 
the Mining School of St. Stienne, and 
on leaving it accepted the offer made 
to him by an English company of 
proceeding to America to recover and 
work certain ancient mines which 
had been neglected for many years. 
All went well at first ; but when the 
colonies of Spain declared their in- 
dependence, an end was put to the 
enterprise. It was at this time he 
made the acquaintance of Humboldt, 
who was exploring the New World. 

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M. Boussingault, having nothing 
better to do, entered the ranks of 
the insurrectionary army, and was 
attached to Gen. Bolivar's staff, 
more, however, as a savant than a 
soldier, and passed through Bolivia, 
Venezuela, and the countries 
situated between Carthagena and 
the mouth of the Orinoco. Soon 
after his return to France, he was 
appointed to a professorship of 
chemistry at Lyons. In 1839 he 
was elected into the Academy of 
Sciences, and going to Paris, ob- 
tained a chair of Agriculture in the 
Conservatory of Arts and Trades. 
Chemistry, applied to agriculture 
and the rearing of cattle, owes much 
to the labours of M. Boussingault, 
especially his indications as to the 
quality of manures, and on the 
nutritive properties of the aliments 
destined for herbivorous animals. 
He has contributed several valu- 
able articles on such subjects to the 
French scientific journals, and some 
of these have been collected and 
published under the title, " Mcmoires 
de Chimie Agricole et de Physio- 
logic " (Paris, 1854). He is also 
the author of an excellent " Traite 
d'Economie Rurale" (2 vols. 1844), 
re-published under the title of 
"Agronomic, Chimie Agricole et 
Physiologie " (5 vols. 1800-74) ; and 
of " Etudes sur la Transformation 
du Fer en Acier " (1875). M. Bous- 
singault, who was returned to the 
Constituent Assembly, and was a 
member of the Council of State 
until the 2nd of Dec. 1851, with- 
drew from politics, and devoted 
himself to his favourite studies. 
He was made Commander of the 
Legion of Honour, March 14, 1857, 
and promoted to the rank of Grand 
Officer of that Order, Aug. 23, 1876. 
BOUVERIE, The Bight Hon. 
Edward Plbydkll, second son of 
the 3rd Earl of Radnor, born in 1818, 
and educated at Harrow and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated M.A. in 1838, entered Parlia- 
ment in 1844 as M.P. for Kilmar- 
nock, which he continued to repre- 

sent, in the Liberal interest, till the 
general election of Feb. 1874, when 
he was defeated by "a thorough 
Liberal," Mr. J. F. Harrison. He 
was Under-Secretary of State for the 
Home Department from July, 1850, 
till March, 1852, and was Chairman 
of Committees of the House of Com- 
mons from April, 1853, to March, 
1855, when he was made Vice-Pre- 
sident of the Board of Trade, Pay- 
master-General in August of that 
year, and President of the Poor-Law 
Board, which post he held till the 
retirement of the Palmerston Ad- 
ministration in March, 1858. Lord 
Palmerston nominated him the 
second Church Estates Commis- 
sioner in Aug. 1859, and he dis- 
charged the duties of this office tUl 
Nov. 1865. In 1862 he introduced, 
though unsuccessfully, a measure 
for the relief of certain disabilities 
which affected such of the clergy as, 
owing to a change in their opinions, 
desired to withdraw from the service 
of the Established Church. Mr. 
Bouverie was appointed a member 
of the Ecclesiastical Commission in 

BOWEN, The Right Hon. Sib 
Chables Stnqe Christopher, one 
of the Lords Justices in the Court 
of Appeal, is a son of the Rev. 
Christopher Bowen, of Freshwater, 
in the Isle of Wight, formerly 
rector of St. Thomas's, Winchester, 
by Catharine Emily, daughter of 
Sir Richard Steele, Bart. He was 
born at Wollaston, Gloucestershire, 
in 1835, and educated at Rugby and 
at Balliol College, Oxford. He car- 
ried off three of the great Univer- 
sity prizes, including the Hertford 
and Ireland scholarships, and, to- 
gether with several distinguished 
contemporaries, he was placed, in 
1858, in the first class in classical 
honours. Called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in 1861, he joined 
the Western circuit. He was senior 
member of the "Truck Commis- 
sion " in 1870, was appointed Junior 
Standing Counsel to the Treasury, 
in 1872, and Recorder of Pen- 

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zan.ce in the same year. Though 
he rarer " took silk/' he acquired 
a leading poaition in his profes- 
son, and in June, 1870, he was 
appointed a judge of the Queen's 
Bench division of the High Court 
of Justice on Mr. Justice Mellor's 
retirement from the bench . He was 
knighted by the Queen at Windsor, 
June 26. In May, 1882, he was ap- 
pointed a Lord Justice in the Court 
of Appeal in the room of the late 
Sir John Holker, and sworn of the 
Privy Council. He is the author 
of an historical essay entitled 
" Delphi," and of a pamphlet " On 
the Alabama question." He mar- 
ried, in 1862, Emily Frances, daugh- 
ter of the late Mr. James Medows 
Rendel, F.R.S. 

BO WEN, Sib George Feboubon, 
G.C.M.O.,the eldest son of theEev. 
Edward Bowen, a beneficed clergy- 
man in the north of Ireland, born in 
tha.t country in 1821, was educated 
at the Charterhouse and Trinity 
College, Oxford, where he obtained 
a scholarship in 1840, and graduated 
B. A. as first-class in classics in 1844. 
In the same year he was elected to 
& fellowship of Brasenose College, 
and became a member of Lincoln's 
Inn. From 1847 to 1851 he held 
the post of President of the Univer- 
sity of Corfu, and was Chief Secre- 
tary to the Government of the 
Ionian Islands from 1854 to 1859. 
Sir George Bowen, who married, 
in 1856, the Countess Koma, only 
surviving daughter of Count Roma, 
G.C.M.G., then President of the 
8enate of the Ionian Islands, was 
appointed, in 1859, Captain-Gene- 
ral and Governor-in-Chief of the 
new colony of Queensland, in 
Australia, comprising the north- 
eastern portion of the Australian 
continent. After a successful ad- 
ministration in Queensland, he was 
appointed, in Nov. 1867, to suc- 
ceed Sir George Grey as Gover- 
nor of New Zealand; and in May, 
1S73, he was gazetted Governor of 
Victoria in succession to Lord Can- 
terbury, whose term of office had 

expired. He held that post till 
1878, when he was appointed Gover- 
nor of Mauritius. Sir George is the 
author of " A Handbook for Travel- 
lers in Greece," — one of Murray's 
Handbooks; "Mount Athos, Thes- 
saly, and Epirus: a Diary of a 
Journey from Constantinople to 
Corfu," 1852 ; and « 4 Ithaca in 1850," 
2nd edit., 1851, 3rd edit., 1854, 
translated into Greek, Athens, 1859. 
BOWMAN, William, F.R.S., 
consulting-surgeon to the Royal Lon- 
don Ophthalmic Hospital, Moor- 
fields, some time surgeon to King's 
College Hospital and Professor 
of Physiology and General and 
Morbid Anatomy at King's College, 
London, is a son of the late John 
Eddowes Bowman, F.L.S., F.G.8., 
and was born at Nantwich, July 20, 
1816. Having received his medical 
education partly at King's College, 
London, he commenced his profes- 
sion as a surgeon in the West-end 
of London, and has long been largely 
engaged in practice, chiefly in the 
ophthalmic branch. The Royal Me- 
dal in Physiology was awarded to him 
by the Royal Society in 1842. He 
has been a Vice-President of that so- 
ciety, and three times on its council. 
He is a corresponding member of 
the Royal Academy of Science of 
Turin and of Stockholm, of the 
Royal Academy of Medicine of 
Sweden and of Belgium, of the 
Soei£te Philoniathique, of the So- 
ciety de Chirurgie, and of the Society 
de Biologie at Paris, of the Royal 
Medical Society, and the Medico- 
Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, 
of the Philosophical Society of Cam- 
bridge, and of the Medical Societies 
of Geneva, Dresden, Athens, Kieff, 
Pesth, and Massachusetts. He re- 
ceived the honorary degree of M.D. 
Dublin, in 1867, and that of LL.D. 
Cambridge, in 1880. He is Presi- 
dent of the Ophthalmologic Society 
of the United Kingdom, Vice-Chair- 
man of the Clerical, Medical, and 
General Life Assurance Society, a 
member of the council of King's 
College, London, of the Council of 

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BOWBitfG— BOm 

St. John's House Training Institu- 
tion for Nurses, and of the Council 
of the Nightingale Fund. He is 
also (1882) Hon. Secretary of the 
Royal Institution of Great Britain. 
He is the author of some important 
surgical works on the eye, "Lec- 
tures on the Parts concerned in the 
Operations of the Eye," " Observa- 
tions on Artificial Pupil," and of 
"The Physiological Anatomy and 
Physiology of Man" (the latter in 
conjunction with the late Dr. Todd), 
as well as of papers in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, and "The 
Cyclopaedia of Anatomy." 

a younger son of the late Sir John 
Bowring, born in 1826, and educated 
at University College, London ; en- 
tered the civil service in the Board 
of Trade in 1841, and filled in suc- 
cession the post of private secretary 
to the Earl of Clarendon, to Earl 
Granville, and to Lord Stanley of 
Alderley. He was appointed Pr6cis 
Writer and Librarian to that de- 
partment in 1840, and Registrar in 
1853, but retired from the service 
on the abolition of his office at the 
end of 1863. He acted as Secretary 
to the Royal Commission for the 
Great Exhibition of 1851, and held 
that appointment until his election 
as M.P. for Exeter at the general 
flection of 1868. His services were 
so highly appreciated by the late 
Prince Consort, the President of 
the Commission, that, immediately 
after H.R.H/s decease, her Majesty 
was pleased to nominate Mr. Bow- 
ring a Companion of the Order of 
the Bath, civil division. Mr. Bow- 
ring lost his seat for Exeter at the 
general election of Feb. 1874. 
He is the author of an English 
poetical version of "The Book of 
Psalms," English versions of the 
poetical works of Schiller, Goethe, 
and Heine, and (jointly with 
Lord Hobart) of a reply to the 
" Sophisms of Free Trade," by Mr. 
Justice Byles. Besides having been 
a frequent contributor to periodical 
literature, he is understood to have 

translated two small volumes of 
German hymns, selected by the 
Queen, and privately printed for her 
Majesty's use, one volume on the 
death of the Duchess of Kent, and 
the other on that of Prince Albert. 

BOYD, The Rev. Andrew Ken- 
nedy Hutchison, D.D., born at 
Auchinleck, in Ayrshire, of which 
parish his father was incumbent, 
Nov., 1825, was educated at King^s 
College, London, and at the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, where he obtained 
the highest academic honours in 
philosophy and theology, and was 
author of several prize essays. He 
was ordained in 1851, and was in- 
cumbent successively of the parishes 
of Newton-on-Ayr, Kirkpatrick- 
Irongray, in Galloway, St. Ber- 
nard's, Edinburgh, and of the Uni- 
versity city of St. Andrew's, which 
he still holds. He first became 
known as a writer, by papers which 
appeared in Eraser's Magazine, under 
the signature of A.K.H.B. Of these, 
the most important have been re- 
printed in a substantive shape, 
under the titles of "The Recrea- 
tions of a Country Parson" (first 
and second series) ; " Leisure Hours 
in Town, being Essays, Consolatory, 
JSsthetical, Moral, Social, and 
Domestic ; " " The Commonplace 
Philosopher in Town and Country," 
and "The 'Autumn Holidays of a 
Country Parson." Dr. Boyd, who 
is also the author of several volumes 
of sermons, under the title of "The 
Graver Thoughts of a Country 
Parson," and "Counsel and Com- 
fort spoken from a City Pulpit," 
" Present-day Thoughts : Memorials 
of St. Andrew's Sundays," 1870; 
" Landscapes, Churches, and Morali- 
ties," 1874"; received the degree of 
D.D. from the University of Edin- 
burgh in 1864. 

BOYD, The Very Rev. Abcht- 
bald, D.D., born at Londonderry in 
1803, was educated at the Diocesan 
College in that city, and at Trinity 
College, Dublin (B.A. 1823 ; M.A. 
1834; B.D.andD.D. 1808). He was 
curate of the cathedral of Derry 

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(1827) -, perpetual curate of Christ 
Church, Cheltenham (1842-59); 
honorary canon of Gloucester Cathe- 
dral (1857-67) ; and vicar of Pad- 
dingtou from 1859 till 1867, when he 
was appointed Dean of Exeter. He 
ia the author of " Sermons on the 
Church/* 1837, 2nd edit. 184*; 
"Letters on Episcopacy," 1839; 
" Episcopacy and Presbytery," 
1841 ; " Some and Oxford," 1843 ; 
" The Nature of and Necessity for 
the Reformation/* 1850; "Progress 
and Results of Missions," 1804; 
" Intuition or Revelation ? " 1864 ; 
" Baptism and Baptismal Regenera- 
tion/' 1865 ; " The Place of Miracles 
in the Evidences of Christianity," 
1866 ; " Confession, Absolution, and 
the Real Presence," 1867 ; " Letters 
on Church Extension ; " " Modern 
Phases of Unbelief ;" and "The 
Church of England, and what some 
people thought about her," 1877. 

BOYLE, The Vest Rev. Geoboe 
I>avtd, Dean of Salisbury, is the 
eldest son of the late Right Hon. 
David Boyle, Lord Justice-General 
and President of the Court of 
Session in Scotland, by his second 
marriage with Camilla Catherine, 
eldest daughter of the late Mr. 
David Smythe, of Methven, Perth- 
shire, and was born in 1828. He 
was educated at the Charterhouse 
and at Exeter College, Oxford 
(B.A. 1851 ; M.A. 1853). Between 
1S53 and 1860, he held in succession 
the curacies of Kidderminster and 
Hagley. He was incumbent of St. 
Michael's Handsworth, from 1861 
to 1867, and rural dean of Hands- 
worth in 1866-67. He was appointed 
vicar of Kidderminster in 1867, and 
rural dean in the following year. 
He was honorary canon of Worcester 
from 1872 till 1880, when he was 
appointed Dean of Salisbury. The 
dean, who is the author of " Con- 
fession, according to the Rule of the 
Church of England," and "Lessons 
from a C&urchvard/' is free from 
party tendencies by a clergyman 
of moderate opinions. He mamed, 
in 1861, Mary Christina, eldest 

daughter of the late Mr. William 
Robins, of Hagley, Worcestershire. 
BRABOURNE (Lobd), The 
Right Hon. Edwabd Huoessen 
Knatchbtjll-Hugessen, is a son of 
the late Right Hon. Sir Edward 
Knatchbull, Bart., of Mersham 
Hatch, Kent, many years M.P. for 
East Kent, and at one time Pay- 
master of the Forces under Sir 
Robert Peel, by his second mar- 
riage with Fanny Catharine, daugh- 
ter of Mr. Edward Knight, of 
Godmersham Park, Kent, and of 
Chawton House, Hampshire. He 
was born at Mersham Hatch April 
29, 1829, and educated at Eton and 
at Magdalen College, Oxford, where 
he graduated in 1850. He entered 
the House of Commons as M.P. for 
Sandwich in April, 1857, and repre- 
sented that constituency in the 
Liberal interest until his elevation 
to the peerage. He was a Lord of 
the Treasury from June, 1859, till 
May, 1866; Under-Secretary of 
State for the Home Department 
from Dec., 1868, to Jan., 1871 ; and 
Under-Secretary for the Colonies 
from the last-named date to Feb., 
1874. He was Chairman of the 
Treasury Commission which sat in 
Dublin in 1866 (the other members 
being Sir Richard Mayne, Sir 
Donald Macgregor, Col. Ward, and 
Mr. Law), to inquire into the con- 
dition of the Irish Constabulary, 
which at that time had no fewer 
than 1500 vacancies. The result 
of the investigation was an increase 
of their pay, and improvement of 
their condition, the force being 
thus restored to its former popu- 
larity. Mr. Knatchbull-Huge88en 
was sworn of the Privy Council 
March 24, 1873 ; and in May, 1880, 
he was created Lord Brabourne, of 
Brabourae, in the county of Kent. 
His lordship is a magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant for Kent, and he 
assumed the name of Hugessen by 
Royal licence. He married, in 1852, 
Anna Maria Elizabeth, younger 
daughter of the Rev. M. R. South- 
well, vicar of St. Stephen's, St. 

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Albans, by whom he has two sons 
and as many daughters. His pub- 
lications are : — " Stories for my 
Children," 1869; "Crackers for 
Christmas," 1870; "Moonshine" 
1871 ; " Tales at Tea-time," 1872 ; 
"Queer Folk," 1873; "Whispers 
from Fairyland," 1874 ; " River Le- 
gends, or River Thames and Father 
Rhine," 1874 ; " Higgledy - Pig- 
gledy ; or, Stories for Everybody 
and Everybody's Children," 1875 ; 
"Uncle Joe's Stories," 1878; and 
" Ferdinand's Adventure," 1883. 

Booth, born at Bayswater, Nov. 7, 
1831, and educated at the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, was 
appointed Second Lieutenant Royal 
Artillery ,19th Dec.,1850 ; First Lieu- 
tenant 27th Sept. 1852 ; Second Cap- 
tain 17th Nov. 1857 ; First Captain 
9th Feb. 1855. He has been an 
Assistant Instructor in Artillery at 
the Royal Military Academy, and 
Assistant Director of Artillery 
Studies, and is now in the Depot 
Brigade, R. A., at Sheerness. Captain 
Brackenbury was present at the 
siege of Sebastopol, and went 
through the Bohemian campaign 
of 1866, and the campaign of Le 
Mans with the army of Prince 
Frederick Charles in 1871. He is 
the author of "European Arma- 
ments in 1867;" "The Constitu- 
tional Forces of Great Britain ; " 
"Foreign Armies and Home Re- 
serves," 1871, being a collection of 
letters to the Times on the campaigns 
of 1866 and 1870-71 ; "The Winter 
Campaign of Prince Frederick 
Charles in 1870-71 ; " and " Re- 
forms in the French Army," trans- 
lated in the Intelligence Depart- 
ment, Horse Guards, War Office, 

Henry, C.B., R.A., born at Boling- 
broke, Lincolnshire, Sept. 1, 1837, 
was educated at Tonbridge, Eton, 
and Woolwich. He was appointed 
to the Royal Artillery in April, 
1856 ; and served in the suppres- 
sion of the Indian Mutiny in 1857-58. 

Subsequently he was appointed to 
the staff of the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, first as 
officer for discipline, then as In- 
structor in Artillery, finally as Pro- 
fessor of Military History. He 
served throughout the Franco-Ger- 
man war as chief representative of 
the British National Society for aid 
to sick and wounded in war ; re- 
ceived the Iron Cross from the Em- 
peror of Germany ; and was made 
Officer of the Legion of Honour by 
the French Government, and Knight 
of the First Class of the Bavarian 
Order of St. Michael. Being ap- 
pointed Military Secretary to Sir 
Garnet Wolseley, he served with 
him throughout the Ashanti Cam- 
paign, 1873-4. He served as a mem- 
ber of a special mission to Natal 
in 1875; was Assistant Adjutant- 
General to the Cyprus Expedition- 
ary Force in 1878 ; and raised and 
organised the Cyprus Military 
Police. In 1879 he accompanied 
Sir G. Wolseley to South Africa as 
Military Secretary, and later suc- 
ceeded Sir G. Colley as Chief of the 
Staff, in which capacity he served 
throughout the closing operations 
of the Zulu war and the campaign 
against Sekukuni. In 1880 he 
was appointed Private Secretary 
to the Viceroy of India, and re- 
turned to England with the Earl of 
Lytton, on his resignation. He was 
Military Attache to the British 
Embassy at Paris from Jan., 1881, 
to May, 1882, when he was appointed 
Assistant Under-Secretary for Ire- 
land, to deal with all matters 
relating to police and crime in that 
country. He resigned the latter 
post, however, on July 19, 1882. He 
is the author of " Fanti and 
Ashanti," 1873 ; " Narrative of the 
Ashanti War;" and of several 
military pamphlets. 

BRADDON, Miss Mart Eliza- 
beth, popular novelist, daughter of 
Mr. Henry Braddon, solicitor, who 
contributed to the old Sporting 
Magazine under the noms de guerre 
of "Gilbert Forrester" and "A 

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Member of the Burton Hunt," was 
born in Soho Square, London, in 
1837, and became at an early age a 
contributor to periodical literature ; 
and wrote sentimental verses, poli- 
tical squibs, and parodies, for the 
Poet's Corner of provincial news- 
papers. Miss Braddon has written 
" Lores of Arcadia," a comedietta 
produced at the Royal Strand 
Theatre in I860; "Garibaldi, and 
other Poems/' published in 18<>1 ; 
" Lady Lisle," "Captain of the Vul- 
ture," "Trail of the Serpent," 
"Ralph the Bailiff," and other 
sketches reprinted from Temple Bar, 
St. James's Magazine, &c ; " X*a»dy 
Audley*a Secret," " Aurora Floyd, * 
"Eleanor's Victory," " John March- 
montf a Legacy," " Henry Dunbar," 
"The Doctor's Wife," "Only a 
Clod,"" Sir Jasper's Tenant," " The 
Lady's Mile," "Rupert Godwin," 
and " Run to Earth." Miss Braddon 
conducts Belgravia, a London maga- 
zine, to which she has contributed 
the following novels : — " Birds of 
Prey," "Charlotte's Inheritance," 
" Dead Sea Fruit," " Fenton's 
Quest," and a variety of short tales 
and novelettes. Her more recent 
works are, "To the Bitter End," 
1872; "Lucius Davoring," 1873; 
" Strangers and Pilgrims," 1873 ; 
" Griselda," a drama in four acts, 
brought out at the Princess's 
Theatre in Nov. 1873 ; •• Lost for 
Love," 1874; "Taken at the Flood," 
1874 ; " Hostages to Fortune," 1875 ; 
"Dead Men's Shoes," 1876; 
"Joshua Haggard's Daughter," 
1876; "An Open Verdict," 1878; 
"The Cloven Foot," 1879 ; " Vixen," 
1879 ; "Just as I am," 1880 ; "The 
Story of Barbara," 18SO ; " Aspho- 
del," 1881 ; and " Mount Boyal," 

BRADFORD (Eam. of), The 
Right Hon. Oblando Geobqe 
Ckablbs Bbidoemaw, "was born 
April 24, 1819, succeeded his father 
as third earl, March 22, 1865, and 
married, April 30, 1844, Selina 
Louisa, youngest daughter of the 
first Lord Forrester. Ilis lordship 

is Captain of the South Salopian 
Yeomanry Cavalry, has been Vice- 
Chamberlain to the Queen 's House- 
hold, and held the office of Lord 
Chamberlain of the Household 
under Lord Derby's third Adminis- 
tration, from July, 1S66, to 1868. He 
held the office of Master of the 
Horse to the Queen from Feb., 1874, 
to May, 1880. 

BRADLEY, The Rev. Edwaed, 
better known under the pseudonym 
" Cuthbert Bede," a son of Thomas 
Bradley, Esq., of Kidderminster, 
was born in 1827, and educated at 
Durham University, where he was 
Thorp Scholar and Foundation 
Scholar at the University College. 
Having graduated at Durham, he 
was ordained in 1850, appointed in- 
cumbent of Bobbington, Stafford- 
shire, in 1857, and rector of Denton, 
Huntingdonshire, in 1859. The 
latter incumbency he held till 1871, 
when he was appointed rector of 
Stretton, near Oakham, co. Rut- 
land. His first publication was 
" Verdant Green," a novel, portray- 
ing Oxford life in a humorous as- 
pect, followed by " Medley," " Mot- 
ley," "Photographic Pleasures," 
"Love's Provocations," "Tales of 
College Life," "Fairy Fables," 
" Nearer and Dearer," and " Happy 
Hours at Wyndford Grange." He 
published, in 1861,"Glencreggan," 
an illustrated work on Cantire, in 
the West Highlands, descriptive of 
the scenery, history, antiquities, 
and legends of that peninsula, the 
original seat of the ancient Scottish 
monarchy ; in 1862, " The Curate 
of Cranston," with other prose and 
verse ; in 1863, " A Tour in Tartan 
Land;" in 1864, "The Visitor's 
Handbook to Rosslyn and Haw- 
thornden ; " and " The White Wife," 
another illustrated work on the le- 
gends and popular stories of the 
Land's-end of Scotland; in 1865, 
"The Rook's Garden: Essays and 
Sketches ; " and in 1866, " Mattins 
and Muttons; or, the Beauty of 
Brighton," a novel. He has con- 
tributed to Pwnch, the Illu$trated 

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London News, the Gentleman's, Bent- 
ley's, Sharpe's, and the St. James's 
Magazines, to the London Review, 
Once a Week, and other periodicals 
and journals. 

BRADLEY, The Veby Rev. 
George Granville, D.D., Dean of 
Westminster, is one of the sons of 
the Rev. Charles Bradley, who was 
for many years vicar of Glasbury, 
in the county of Brecon, and some 
time incumbent of St. James's Epis- 
copal Chapel at Clapham, Surrey. 
He was born in 1821, and educated 
under Dr. Arnold at Rugby, from 
which school he was elected to an 
open scholarship at University Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he was a fa- 
vourite pupil of Dean Stanley, who 
at that time was tutor. He took his 
bachelor's degree in Easter Term, 
1844, as a First Class in Classical 
honours, and in 1845 obtained the 
Chancellor's prize for a Latin essay, 
his subject being " The Equestrian 
Order in the Roman Republic." 
Having been elected to a Fellow- 
ship in 1844J, he proceeded M.A. in 
1847. Mr. Bradley was one of the 
assistant masters of Rugby School 
for some years, under Dr. Tait and 
his successor, Dr. Goulburn, and 
was elected in 1858 to the Head- 
mastership of Marlborough College, 
on the preferment of his predecessor, 
Dr. Cotton, to the bishopric of Cal- 
cutta. Mr. Bradley was ordained 
deacon in 1858 by the Bishop of 
London, and priest in the same year 
by the Bishop of Salisbury. At 
Marlborough he was remarkable for 
his successful administration, his 
sound scholarship, and his constant 
effort to make the education of a 
great public school wide, large, and 
many-sided, so as to meet the in- 
creasing wants of the age. He gave 
the best possible scope at Marl- 
borough to the study of modern 
languages and science, and his ex- 
amination before the Public School 
Commissioners was suggestive of 
many important reforms and im- 
provements, which are in the course 
of being carried into effect. In 

Dec. 1870, he was elected to the 
mastership of University College, 
Oxford, in the place of the late Dr- 
Plumptre. The honorary degree of 
LL.D. was conferred upon him by 
the University of St. Andrew's, Feb. 
25, 1873. He was appointed ex- 
amining chaplain to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury in 1874 ; was Select 
Preacher at Oxford, 1874r75;.and 
held the post of honorary chaplain 
to the Queen, 1874-76. In Oct. 1880, 
he was nominated a member of the 
Oxford University Commission, in 
the place of Lord Selborne resigned. 
He obtained a canonry in Worcester 
Cathedral in Feb. 1881; and in 
August the same year he was ap- 
pointed by the Crown to the Deanery 
of Westminster, in succession to the 
late Dean Stanley. The degree of 
D.D. was conferred upon him at 
Oxford, Oct. 28, 1881. In 1882 he 
delivered at Edinburgh a series of 
lectures, afterwards published under 
the title of " Recollections of Arthur 
Penrhyn Stanley" (London, 1883). 
Dr. Bradley married, in 1849, 
Marian Jane, fifth daughter of the 
Rev. Benjamin Philpot, formerly 
rector of Great Cressingham, Nor- 
folk, by whom he has a family. 

BRADY, William Mazieke, 
D.D., youngest Bon of the late Sir 
N. W. Brady, and nephew to Sir 
Maziere Brady, Baronet, late Lord 
High Chancellor of Ireland, was 
born at Dublin in 1825, and edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he was a prizeman in classics. 
He was appointed Chaplain to Earl 
Clarendon, Lord-Lieutenant of Ire- 
land, in 1851 ; was subsequently 
Chaplain to Earl St. Germans and 
to the Earl of Carlisle, during their 
respective vice-royalties, and was 
re-appointed to the same office by 
Earl Spencer. He became rector of 
Farrahy, co. Cork, in 1851 ; held 
afterwards the vicarage of New- 
market, in the same county, and 
became rector of Kilberry and vicar 
of Donoughpatrick, in the diocese 
and county of Meath. Dr. Maziere 
Brady has written much upon 

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various historical, antiquarian, and. 
political subjects in many of the 
newspapers and magazines of the 
day, and notably in Eraser and the 
Contemporary Review. His sermon 
preached in the Chapel Royal, 
Dublin, towards the end of Lord 
Carlisle's vice-royalty, in which he 
openly denounced the wickedness 
of the State Church in Ireland, 
which applied the whole of the 
ancient ecclesiastical revenues for 
the benefit of a mere fraction of the 
people, excited astonishment, and 
was strongly censured by the organs 
o! the Conservative party, and led 
to Dr. Brady^B omission from the 
list of chaplains under Liord Kim- 
berley's lieutenancy. The works 
published by Dr. Brady are " Cleri- 
cal and Parochial Records of Cork, 
Cloyne, and Ross," 3 vols. ; ** Re- 
marks on Irish Church Temporali- 
ties i" " Facts or Fictions ; " r * The 
McGillicuddy Papers ;" " The Irish 
Reformation ; or, the Alleged Con- 
version of the Irish Bishops at the 
Accession of Queen Elizaheth ; and 
the assumed descent of the present 
Established Hierarchy in Ireland 
from the ancient Irish Church IKs- 
proved ; " " State Papers concerning 
the Irish Church in the Time of 
Queen Elisabeth ; '* and " Essays on 
the English State Church in Ire- 
land," 1869. Dr. Brady's writings 
undoubtedly facilitated the progress 
of Mr. Gladstone's Irish Church 
Abolition Bill, and were copiously 
quoted in and out of Parliament. 
His work on the Irish Kef ormation 
went through five editions, and 
provoked innumerable replies. 
Upon the passing of the Irish 
Church Act, Dr. Brady, whose health 
Bad been seriously affected by an 
attack of bronchitis, went to Borne, 
and from the archives there ex- 
tracted many particulars concerning 
the ecclesiastical affairs of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. He after- 
wards resigned his rectory of Do- 
aoughpatrick, and was received into 
the Catholic Church by Mgr. Kirby, 
of the Irish College at Borne, in May, 

1873. He has since written a learned 
work on " The Episcopal Succession 
in England, Scotland, and Ireland," 
the third volume of which was pub- 
blished at Borne in 1877. 

BRAHMS, Johannes, musical 
composer, was born May 7, 1833, at 
Hamburg, where his father played 
the double-bass in the orchestra. 
He received his first instructions in 
music from his father, and then 
studied under Eduard Marxsen. 
Schumann's warm recommendation 
in the Neuen Zeitschrift fur Murik 
(Oct. 28, 1853) called the attention 
of musicians, of the public, and of 
the publishers to the young man, 
who subsequently made slow but 
constant progress on the road to 
permanent artistic fame. After 
several years of activity as director * 
of music at the court of Lippe- 
Detmold he devoted a considerable 
period of time to assiduous study 
and composition in his native town. 
Thence he proceeded, in 1802, to 
Vienna, which city became his 
second home, for although he quitted 
it after holding for one year the post 
of director of the Singing Academy 
(1864), he never felt comfortable 
in the other towns which he visited 
—Hamburg, Zurich, Baden-Baden 
—and accordingly, in 1869, he re- 
turned to the Austrian capital. He 
conducted from 1872 to 1874 the 
concerts of the Society of Amateur 
Musicians, until Herbeck, who had 
in the meantime resigned his post 
of Court Director of Music, resumed 
the functions of that office. Brahms 
then resided for some time away 
from Vienna, namely, at Heidel- 
berg, but returned in 1878. Un- 
doubtedly Brahms is entitled to 
rank among the greatest composers 
now living. At first he followed 
the "new German" school which 
had been inaugurated by Schumann 
in the journal already mentioned, 
but when the heat of youth had 
been replaced by calmer reflection, 
he inclined more to the classical 
school, so that now he is criticised 
by the Baireuther Blatter, and re- 


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cognised by Conservative Institutes 
as a classical composer. In fact he 
combines in himself the different 
styles, and may be claimed both by 
musical progressists and by classi- 
cists as belonging to them. Although 
Brahms attracted public notice in 
consequence of Schumann's recom- 
mendation, the recognition of his 
genius in wider circles dates only 
from the year 1868, when his 
" Deutschen Requiem " (Op. 45) 
was produced. His later works are 
" Rinaldo," a cantata ; the " Schick- 
salslied " of Halderlin ; " Triumph- 
lied ; " " Rhapsodic " from Goethe's 
" Hartzreise ; " three string-quar- 
tets; two symphonies; a great 
number of songs, duets, choruses, 
concertos, motets, &c. 

BRAMSTON, The Very Rev. 
John, B.D., some time Dean of 
Winchester, is the younger son of 
the late Mr. Thomas Gardiner 
Brainstem, of Skreens, Essex. He 
was born in 1802, and educated at 
Winchester and Oriel College, Ox- 
ford, where he took his bachelor's 
degree in Michaelmas Term, 1823, 
obtaining a second-class in the 
School of Liter® Humaniores. He 
was shortly afterwards elected to a 
Fellowship at Exeter College ; but 
this he vacated by his appointment 
in 1831 to the vicarage of Great 
Baddow, Essex, a living in private 
patronage, from which he was trans- 
ferred by Bishop Blomfield, in 1840, 
to the vicarage of Witham, which he 
held until his appointment to the 
Deanery of Winchester in Oct., 1872. 
Mr. Bramston was formerly an 
honorary Canon of Rochester Cathe- 
dral, and for some time he sat in the 
Lower House of Convocation as one 
of the Proctors for the Diocese of 
Rochester. He resigned the Dean- 
ery of Winchester in 1883. 

BRAMWELL (Lord), The 
Right Hon. Sir George William 
Wil8HEre, son of the late Mr. 
George Bramwell, banker, was born 
in London, in 1808. In early youth 
he was placed in his father's count- 
ing-house, where he acquired a 

practical knowledge of the business 
of banking, which in after years 
proved of great value to him. 
Having resolved to try the legal 
profession, he practised for some 
time as a pleader, and was, in 1838, 
called to the bar, and went the 
Home circuit. He gradually ob- 
tained a large business as a lawyer 
and pleader; in 1851 became a 
Queen's Counsel, and in 1852 was a 
member, with Sir J. Jervis, Sir 
A. Cockburn, Mr. Willes, and Mr. 
Baron Martin, of the Common 
Law Procedure Commission, which 
resulted in the Common Law Pro- 
cedure Act of 1852. This gave 
great satisfaction, and Mr. Brain- 
well was, in 1856, made a Baron of 
the Exchequer, and received the 
honour of knighthood. In- Oct., 
1876, he was made a Judge of the 
intermediate Court of Appeal, and 
sworn of the Privy Council. He re- 
tired from the bench at the close of 
the year 1881, when a complimen- 
tary banquet, attended by the 
judges and the principal members 
of the legal profession, was held in 
his honour. In Feb., 1882, he was 
raised to the peerage by the title of 
Baron Bramwell, of Hever, in the 
county of Kent. 

BRANCH, The Right Rev. 
Charles James, D.D., Bishop Co- 
adjutor of Antigua, was born at 
Barbados in 1834 ; educated at 
Codrington College, Barbados. He 
was appointed Curate of St. Si- 
mon's, Barbados, in 1857 ; Rector of 
St. Andrew's, Grenada, in 1864; 
Rector of St. John's, St. Croix, in 
1866 ; and Archdeacon of Antigua, 
in 1879. He was consecrated Bishop 
Coadjutor of Antigua, in the chapel 
of Lambeth Palace, July 25, 1882. 

BRAND, The Right Hon. Sir 
Henry Bouverie William, G.C.B., 
M.P., Speaker of the House of 
Commons, is the second son of the 
21st Baron Dacre, by the second 
daughter of the late Hon. and 
Very Rev. Maurice Crosbie, Dean 
of Limerick, and brother and heir 
presumptive to the present Baron. 

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He was born in Dec., 1814. For 
some time he was private secretary 
to 8ir George Grey. In July, 1852, 
he obtained a seat in the House of 
Commons as one of the members 
for Lewes, which borough lie con- 
tinued to represent till December, 
1S6S, and since then he has sat for 
tin; county of Cambridge. In Feb . , 
ISoS, Mr. Brand was appointed. 
Keeper of the Privy Seal to the 
Prince of Wales, bnt he only Held 
the office for a few weeks. He held 
the office of Parliamentary Secre- 
tary to the Treasury from June, 
1859, to July, 1866. In 1859 Mr. 
Brand succeeded Sir W. Hayter, 
senior " whip " of the Liberal party, 
and he discharged the duties of 
that important and laborious office 
with unflagging energy an d z eal 
for a period of nine years. "When 
Mr. Denison, afterwards Viscount 
Osaington, vacated the Speaker's 
chair, Mr. Brand was nominated 
by the Government to succeed, him, 
and he was elected Speaker of the 
House of Commons without oppo- 
sition in Feb., 1872. At first some 
hon. members entertained, mis- 
givings as to whether a gentleman 
who had been so peculiarly identi- 
fied for many years with the in- 
terests of one political party in the 
State would preside with due im- 
partiality over the discussions of 
the House of Commons ; but all 
such doubts were soon set at rest 
by the conduct of the right hon. 
gentleman, who has discharged the 
duties of his high office to the 
satisfaction alike of Liberals and 
Conservatives. The most conclusive 
proof of this iB, that when a new 
Parliament was elected, and the 
Conservatives were placed in power, 
Mr. Brand was again elected 
Speaker without opposition in 
March, 1874. He was elected 
Speaker for the third time April 29, 
1880. At the close of the Session 
of 1881 the Queen conferred on him 
the dignity of the Civil Grand 
Cross of the Order of the Bath. 
The Speaker of the House of Com- 

J mons is the first commoner of the 

realm, and ranks next after barons. 

I His emolument consists of a fur- 

nished house in the New Palace of 

"Westminster, and a salary of £5000 

a year. Sir Henry Brand's name 

' for some years came frequently 

! before the public in connexion with 

I a scheme for the amelioration of 

, the condition of the agricultural 

j labourers on his estate at Glynde, 

I in Sussex. Sir Henry Brand is a 

magistrate and Deputy-Lieutenant 

for Sussex, and married, in 1838, 

Eliza, daughter of General Robert 

Ellice, by whom he has had a large 

family. His eldest son is one of 

the members for Stroud, and was 

formerly M.P. for Hertfordshire. 

BRAND, His Honour Sib Johan- 
nes Henricus, G.C.M.G., Presi- 
dent of the Orange Free State, was 
born at Cape Town, Dec. 6, 1823, 
being a son of Sir C. Brand, Speaker 
of the House of Assembly, Cape of 
Good Hope (who died in 1875). He 
received his education at the South 
African College under Dr. N. E. 
Changucon and Dr. J. R. Juner. 
He continued his studies at the 
University of Leyden, where he 
proceeded to the degree of D.C.L. 
in 1845. He was called to the 
English bar from the Inner Temple 
in 1840, and practised as an advo- 
cate in the Supreme Court at the 
Cape of Good Hope from that year 
till 1863. In 1858 he was appointed 
Professor of Law in the South 
African College. He was elected 
President of the Orange Free State 
in 1863, and subsequently re-elected 
for periods of five years in 1869, 
1874, and 1879. In March, 1882, he 
was created a Knight Grand Cross 
of the Order of SS. Michael and 

BRANDES, George Maurice 
Cohen, a Danish author, born at 
Copenhagen, of a Jewish family, 
Feb. 4, 1842. He studied in the 
University of his native city (1859- 
64), applying himself in the first 
instance to jurisprudence, and then 
to philosophy and aesthetics. In 
M 2 

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1862 he gained the gold medal of 
the University by an essay on 
"Fatalism among the Ancients/' 
and afterwards he passed the ex- 
amination for his degree with the 
highest distinction. As soon as he 
had graduated he left Denmark 
and spent several years in different 
countries on the Continent. He 
was at Stockholm in 1805 ; passed 
the winter of 1866-67 at Paris; 
was in Germany in 1868 ; and in 
France and Germany in 1870-71. 
He published " Dualismeni von 
nyeste Filosofi " (" The Dualism of 
the Philosophy of the Present 
Time ") in 1866, with reference to 
the relations between science and 
faith — a work which exposed him 
to violent attacks from the ortho- 
dox party; "iEsthetic Studies," 
18(58 ; " Criticisms and Portraits," 
1870 ; and " French ^Esthetics at 
the Present Day/' 1870. On return- 
ing from his travels he became a 
private tutor in the University of 
Copenhagen, and delivered the 
series of lectures which were pub- 
lished at Copenhagen in 4 vols., 
1872-75, under the title of " Hoved- 
stromninger i det 19 Aarhundredes 
Literatur" ("The Great Literary 
Currents of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury ") , and subsequently translated 
into German by Strodtmann. His 
other works are a Danish transla- 
tion of John Stuart Mill's essay on 
the " Subjection of Women," 1869; 
" Soren Kjerkegaard," 1877, and 
" Danske Digtere " (Danish Poems), 
1877. In Oct., 1877, Brandes left 
Denmark and settled in Berlin, 
where he diligently studied and 
made himself master of the German 
language, which he now writes 
fluently and correctly. At Berlin 
he composed the biographies 
"Esajas Tegne>" and "Benjamin 
d'Israeli/' both published in 1878. 
At the close of the year 1882 he 
returned to Denmark, his fellow- 
countrymen having guaranteed him 
an income of 4,000 crowns for ten 
years, with the single stipulation 
that he should deliver public lec- 

tures on literature at Copen- 

BBAZIL, Emperor of. (8ee 
Pedro II.) 

BRECHIN, Bishop op. (8ee 

BBEE, The Bioht Bev. Her- 
bert, D.D., Bishop of Barbados, 
was born at Keswick, Cumberland, 
in Jan., 1828. He was educated at 
Bury School, and at Caius College, 
Cambridge (BJL 1850; M.A. 1853); 
after servingthe curacies of Drink- 
stone and Wolverstone, was col- 
lated to the rectory of Harkstead 
in 1858. He was curate of Long 
Melford from 1865 till 1870, when 
he obtained the rectory of Bramp- 
ton, Huntingdonshire. Being ap- 
pointed Bishop of Barbados, he was 
consecrated by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury (Dr.Tait), in the chapel 
of Lambeth Palace, May 1, 1882. 

BBEEN, Henry Heoart, F.S.A., 
born in Kerry, Ireland, in 1805, is 
paternally descended from the an- 
cient Irish chiefs of Tyrone, and 
represents the principal of the 
Septs, which, as adherents of Hugh 
O'Neil, were dispossessed of their 
lands in Ulster, in 1607, by the 
Government of James I., and ban- 
ished to Kerry, as the remotest part 
of Ireland from the place of their 
birth. On the mother's side he is 
a near relative of Thomas Moore, 
the poet, whose father, the son of 
a Kerry farmer, settled in Dublin 
in 1775. Mr. Breen was educated 
at the Grammar Schools of his 
native county till the age of 
eighteen, when he was sent to the 
College of St. Esprit, in Paris, 
where, during a residence of five 
years, he studied philosophy, theo- 
logy, and French literature. In 
1829 he settled in the West Indies, 
and in 1838 was appointed Secre- 
tary of .the Courts of Justice in the 
island of St. Lucia, the French lan- 
guage being at that time and for 
many years after the language of 
the Courts. In April, 1867, he 
received the appointment of Ad- 
ministrator of the orovernment of 

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St. Lucia, which post he held till 
Oct., 1861. In that capacity lie was 
present in Martinique in August* 
1859, at the inauguration of a statue 
to the Empress Josephine, when 
he delivered an address in French, 
for which he received the special 
thanks of the Emperor Napoleon 
III. ; but the chief incident in his 
administration was the visit to St. 
Lucia, in March, 1861, of Prince 
Alfred, now Duke of Edinburgh. 
He has written, " St. Lucia, His- 
torical, Statistical, and Descrip- 
tive/' 1844; "The Diamond Bock 
and other Poem8, ,, 1849 ; " Modern 
English Literature: its Blemishes 
and Defects," 1857 ; " Warrawarra, 
the Carib Chief, a Tale of 1770," 
2 vols., 1876 ; and some other works 
which appeared anonymously. He 
has also contributed to periodical 

BRETT, The Rioht Hon. Sxb 
William Baliol, Master of the 
Bolls, eldest s urv i ving son of the 
Bev. Joseph George Brett, of Bane- 
lagh, Chelsea, by Dora, daughter 
of George Best, Esq., late of Chri- 
sten Park, Kent, was born in 1817. 
From Westminster School he was 
sent to Cains College, Cambridge 
(B.A. 1810; MA. 1845). At this 
period he was famous for his skill 
in rowing, and he was in three 
University crews. In 1846 he was 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. 
He chose the Northern circuit, and 
soon acquired a large practice. He 
possessed a peculiar knowledge of 
ships and nautical matters, and 
also of many mercantile pursuits ; 
and he displayed rare skill in 
selecting the topics most pleasing 
to juries, and in presenting busi- 
ness matters clearly to business 
men. In March, I860, he obtained 
his silk gown, and at the same 
time he was made a bencher of 
his Inn. His political career com- 
menced in 1866, when, in view of 
a general election, he went down 
to Rochdale to oppose Mr- Cobden, 
and in this advanced Liberal 
borough declared himself to he, not 

merely a Conservative, but a Tory. 
Nevertheless he made so much pro- 
gress among the constituents, that 
Mr. Cobden deemed it prudent to 
visit Eochdale personally, in order 
to defend his seat. Mr. Brett did 
not succeed in his bold attempt, 
and he failed in the contest against 
Mr. T. B. Potter. In July, I860, 
he stood for Helston in Cornwall. 
This election became fatuous from 
the circumstance of there being a 
tie, and the Mayor assuming to 
give after four o'clock a casting 
vote. For doing this the Mayor 
was summoned before the House 
of Commons, and Mr. Brett was 
seated on petition. Mr. Brett re- 
presented Helston till 1868, being 
in Feb. of that year appointed Soli- 
citor-General, on which occasion he 
received the honour of knighthood. 
During the short period he re- 
mained in office he took a promi- 
nent part in passing, in 1868, the 
Registration Act, which enabled 
the general election to be taken 
in that year, and the Corrupt 
Practices Act, which is now in 
force. In Aug., 1868, when it was 
known that the Conservative party 
had failed to gain the support of 
the country, he was appointed a 
Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas, and by the operation of the 
Judicature Act, he became a Judge 
of the High Court of Justice in 
1875. He tried the gas-stokers, 
and passed on them a sentence, 
which, by some persons, was 
deemed unduly harsh, and by 
others a necessary sentence, con- 
sidering the great danger caused 
to the metropolis by the strike. 
His sentence on Col. Valentine 
Baker was also much criticised. 
In Oct., 1876, he was made a Judge 
of the intermediate Court of Ap- 
peal, and added to the Privy Coun- 
cil. In April, 1883, he was appoin- 
ted Master of the Rolls, on the 
recommendation of Mr. Gladstone, 
in the place of the late Sir George 
Jessel. He married, in 1850, Eu- 
genie, daughter of Louis Mayer 

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Esq., and stepdaughter of the late 
Capt. Gurwood, C.B. (editor of the 
Duke of Wellington's Despatches). 

BREWER, The Rev. E. Cobham, 
LL.D., second son of John Sherren 
Brewer, Esq., "a man of Kent/' 
was born May 2, 1810, in Russell 
Square, London, and educated by 
private tutors. He proceeded to 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in 1832, 
obtained the Freshmen's Prizes for 
Latin and English Essays, was first 
prizeman the next two years, and 
though strongly advised to go out 
in mathematics, took his degree in 
the Civil Law, First Class, in 1835. 
He was ordained deacon in 1834, 
priest in 1836, proceeded to the 
degree of LL.D. in 1840, and de- 
voted himself to literature. In 1850 
was published his "Guide to 
Science," of which 1000 copies per 
month were sold for many years. 
He resided for sir years, from 1852, 
in Paris, where he brought out, at 
the Emperor's request, a French 
version of his "Guide to Science," 
and where, in 1856, he married 
Ellen Mary, eldest daughter of the 
Rev. Francis Tebbutt of Hove. On 
his return to England he resided 
for a time in Bernard Street, Rus- 
sell Square, and then moved to St. 
Luke's Villas, Westbourne Park. 
Failing health compelled him to 
retire into the country, and he lived 
for many years at Lavant, next 
Goodwood, where, in 1868, he 
brought out his "Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable" (14th edition, 
1881), and in 1881 his "Reader's 
Handbook" (3rd edition, 1882). 
Besides these books, Dr. Brewer 
published in 1859 "Theology in 
Science," to show the marks of 
wisdom and design brought to light 
by scientific discoveries; "History 
(political and literary) of France," 
1863; "History (political and lite- 
rary) of Germany," 1881 ; about 
thirty educational books, and a 
number of pamphlets under various 

BRIALMONT, Alexis Henri, a 
Belgian writer on military subjects, 

son of General Laurent Mathieu 
Brialmont, was born at Venloo, in 
the province of Limburg, May 25, 
1821. He quitted the military school 
at Brussels with the rank of sub- 
lieutenant in 1843. Being con- 
nected, as an engineer officer, with 
the management of the fortifica- 
tions, he was appointed to carry out 
the works at the fortress of Diest. 
From 1847 to 1850 he was private 
secretary to General Chazal, then 
Minister of War. In 1855 he left 
the corps of engineers and became 
a member of the staff, attaining to 
the rank of Captain in 1857. In 
due course he became Major-Ge- 
neral, and in 1877 Lieutenant- 
General. He was appointed In- 
spector-General of Fortifications 
and of the Sappers and Miners in 
Belgium in 1875. Lieut.-General 
Brialmont has written many works 
on military history and tactics. 
Among them are "Precis d'Art 
Militaire," 1^4, in the "Biblio- 
theque Populaire" of the "Soci&e" 
pour l'fonancipation Intellectu- 
elle;" "6loge de la Guerre, ou re- 
futation des doctrines des Amis de 
la Paix," 1819, a pamphlet written 
on the occasion of the Congress, and 
dedicated to the army; "De la 
Guerre, de rArme*e, et de la Garde 
Civique," 1840 ; a remarkable article 
on the construction of Powder 
Magazines, in the "Annales des 
Travaux Publics," 1849; "Consi- 
derations politiques et militaires 
sur la Belgique," 3 vols., 1851-52; 
"Histoire du Due de Wellington," 
3 vols., 185(5-57, translated into 
English with emendations and ad- 
ditions by the Rev. G. R. Gleig, 
1858, et seq.; "A French Officer's 
Ideas upon the Defence of Eng- 
land," edited by A. Kinloch, 1860; 
"Etudes sur la Defense des Etats 
et sur la Fortification," 3 vols., with 
atlas, 1863; "Le Corps Beige du 
Mexique," 1864; "Reflexions d'un 
Soldat sur les Dangers qui mena- 
cent la Belgique," 1865; "Consi- 
derations sur la Reorganisation de 
l'Annee/' 1866; "Traite* de Fortifi- 

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cation Polygonale," 2 vols., 1869, 
with atlas; "La Fortification Im- 
prorisee" 1870, translated into 
English by C. A. Empson, under the 
title of "Hasty Entrenchments/* 
1872; "La Fortification a Fosses 
sees," 2 vols., 1872, with atlas ; and 
"Ce que rant la Garde Civique. 
ttude snr la situation militaire de 
la Belgique," 1872. He started in 
1850 the Journal de VArmde Beige. 

BRIDGE, John Frederick:, -was 
born Dec. 5, 18 14, at Oldbury, Wor- 
cestershire, and educated at Bocnes- 
ter Cathedral School, under John 
Hopkins, and afterwards became 
a pupil of Sir John Goss. He 
was appointed Organist of Holy 
Trinity Church, Windsor, in 1865 ; 
of Manchester Cathedral in 1869 ; 
Professor of Harmony at Owens 
College, Manchester, in 1871 ; Per- 
manent Deputy Organist of "West- 
minster Abbey in 1875; and suc- 
ceeded to the full offices of Master 
of the Choristers and Organist in 
1S82. Dr. Bridge has composed the 
oratorio "Mount Moriah ; " a can- 
tata " Boadicea;" church music and 
part songs. He is the author of 
theoretical works on Counterpoint, 
Double Counterpoint, and Canon. 

BBIDGMAN, Fbedbbic A., 
figure painter, born at Tuskegee, 
Alabama, Nov., 1847. His father 
died when he was three years old, 
and at the age of ten his mother took 
him to the Northern States, where 
he resided for a few years in Massa- 
chusetts. He then entered the 
American Bank Note Company (New 
York) to learn engpraving, residing 
at Brooklyn, where he studied 
painting in evening art-schools. 
Although he made rapid progress 
as an engraver, he preferred to 
adopt painting as his art, and so 
resigned his position in the Bank 
Note Company ; and in 1866, assisted 
by friend3, went to Paris, where he 
studied under G6r6me in the Ecole 
des Beaux- Arts for three years. In 
1869, and again in 1870, he spent 
some time in Brittany. In 1871 
he passed six months in London, 

and the next two years in the 
Pyrenees, on the Spanish border. 
The winter of 1872-73 was passed in 
Algiers, and that of 1873-74 in 
Egypt, Nubia, and on the Nile. In 
1875 he received a medal in the 
Paris Salon, and also one at the 
International Exhibition of 1878. 
Soon after he was made a member 
of the Legion of Honour. He still 
resides at Paris. Among his pic- 
tures are "Up Early," "Girls in 
the Way," "Apollo bearing off 
Cyrene," "Interior of a Harem," 
"The Funeral of the Mummy," 
" Illusions of High Life," " Bring- 
ing in the Corn," " The American 
Circus in Paris," " In the Pyrenees," 
"The Nubian Story-Teller," "Don- 
key-Boy of Cairo," " Kybelian Wo- 
man," and "Planting Rape in 

BRIGHT, Sir Chables Tilston, 
F.R.A.S., F.B.G.S., civil engineer, 
the son of Brailsford Bright, Esq., 
born in 1832, commenced the active 
business of his profession in 1850, 
and in 1853, as engineer to the 
English and Irish Magnetic Tele- 
graph Company, was immediately 
concerned in the union of Great 
Britain with Ireland by submarine 
telegraph. In 1856 he was one of 
four original projectors of a line of 
telegraph between the west coast of 
Ireland and America, which work, 
as engineer to the Atlantic Tele- 
graph Company, he accomplished 
in Aug., 1858, when he received 
the honour of knighthood from 
the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. 
Several messages were transmitted 
between London and New York and 
other places ; amongst them con- 
gratulatory addresses between Her 
Majesty and the President of the 
United States, and orders counter- 
manding the despatch of two regi- 
ments from Canada to India, by 
which the country saved upwards 
of £50,000. The line, however, - 
ceased to work a few weeks after- 
wards. Sir C. Bright was re- 
turned for Greenwich at the general 
election of 1865, and continued to 

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represent that constituency till Dec., 

BRIGHT, The Right Hon. 
John, M.P., is the son of Jacob 
Bright, of Greenbank, near Roch- 
dale, where he was born Nov. 16, 
1811. Having received the rudi- 
ments of a substantial English 
education, he entered his father's 
business, and became a member of 
the firm of John Bright and Bro- 
thers, cotton-spinners and manu- 
facturers, of Rochdale. At a com- 
paratively early age he began to 
address local audiences on Bocial 
and politico-economical topics, and 
he delivered, at a literary institu- 
tion in his native town, a series of 
lectures embodying his reminis- 
cences of a Tour to the Holy Land 
in 1835. Though he had taken 
part in the Reform agitation of 
1831-2, Mr. Bright first distin- 
guished himself in political life by 
becoming in 1839 one of the earli- 
est members of the Anti-Corn-Law 
League, which grew out of an asso- 
ciation formed in 1838 to obtain the 
repeal of the Corn Laws. In April, 
1843, at a bye-election, he stood as 
a candidate for the representation 
of the city of Durham, but was 
defeated by Lord Dungannon, a 
Conservative and Protectionist. 
His Lordship was, however, un- 
seated on petition, and at the elec- 
tion which thereupon ensued in 
July of the same year, Mr. Bright 
was returned by a majority of 78. 
He continued to sit for Durham till 
1847, when he was returned for 
Manchester. He made his maiden 
speech in Parliament on Mr. E wart's 
motion for extending the principles 
of free trade, Aug. 7, 1843. During j 
the interval between his election I 
for Manchester and the accession of ' 
the first Derby Ministry to power, 
Mr. Bright's activity in Parliament 
and on the platform was varied and 
continuous. In the House of Com- 
mons he proposed to apply the 
remedy of free trade in land to the 
state of things which produced the 
Irish famine. He appealed, unsuc- 

cessfully, for the despatch of a 
royal commission to investigate the 
condition of India ; and in 1849 he 
was appointed one of the members 
of the celebrated select committee 
of the House of Commons on official 
salaries. In the legislature and in 
the provinces, especially at Man- 
chester, he co-operated with Mr. 
Cobden in the movement which the 
latter sought to create in favour of 
financial reform, mainly with a 
view to the reduction of our naval 
and military establishments. In 

1851 he voted with those who at- 
tempted to censure Lord Palmer- 
ston in the Pacifico affair ; and in 

1852 he took a prominent part in 
the welcome given to Kossuth by 
the advanced Liberals of Lanca- 
shire. On the formation of the 
first Derby Ministry, Mr. Bright 
aided in that temporary reorganiza- 
tion of the Anti-Corn-Law League 
which the acceptance of free trade 
by the new government afterwards 
rendered unnecessary. He was re- 
elected for Manchester, after a 
contest, at the general election of 
1852. With the accession of Lord 
Aberdeen's ministry to power began 
the discussion of the Eastern ques- 
tion, his share in which alienated 
from Mr. Bright many of his former 
supporters. Mr. Bright denounced 
the policy of the Russian war with 
energy ; but his protests against it 
were stopped by an attack of severe 
illness, and just as the war had 
been brought to a close, Mr. Bright 
was compelled to forego all public 
action. The news of the defeat of 
Lord Palmerston on the Canton 
question reached him while in Italy, 
in March, 1857. Although he had 
necessarily taken no personal part 
in the debate or division which pro- 
duced Lord Palmerston's appeal to 
the country, yet he expressed his 
entire approval of the vote of cen- 
sure which had been proposed by 
Mr. Cobden, and seconded by Mr. 
Milner Gibson. At the general 
election that ensued, Manchester 
rejected both Mr. Bright and Mr, 

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MUner Gibson by large majorities. 
A few months afterwards, the death 
of Mr. Muntz caused a vacancy in 
the representation of Birroingham ; 
the constituency invited Mr. Bright 
to become a candidate ; he was 
elected in Aug., 1857, and has con- 
tinned to represent that borough 
down to the present time. After 
1S57 his name was mainly identified 
with a scheme for the reform of the 
electoral representation, by a wide 
extension of the suffrage and a 
more equal distribution of the seats 
with reference to population, and 
alterations in the law of entail. 
He was an uncompromising advo- 
cate of the North during the civil 
war in America, and after the close 
of the struggle he renewed the agi- 
tation for reform. He visited Ire- 
land, and he was entertained at a 
banquet in Dublin, Oct. 30, 1866 ; 
but his reception in the sister 
ialand was not so enthusiastic as its 
promoters anticipated. On Nov. 
3, 1868, he was presented with the 
freedom of the city of Edinburgh, 
and in the following month he 
accepted office under Mr. Gladstone, 
as Resident of the Board of Trade. 
After being absent from the House 
of Commons for some time in con- 
sequence of severe illness, he was 
compelled to retire from office in 
Dec., 1870. .His health having been 
partially restored, he was, in Aug., 
1 873, appointed to the Chancellor- 
ship of the Duchy of Lancaster in 
succession to Mr. Childers, and he 
held that post until the Liberals 
went out of office in Feb., 1874. 
When the Liberals returned to 
power in May, 1880, Mr. Bright was 
re-appointed Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster. On July 17, 
1882, he announced in the House of 
Commons that he had resigned his 
office and retired from the Cabinet 
because he differed from -his col- 
leagues on their policv in Egypt 
vhjch led to the bombardment of 
Alexandria. Mr. Bright was elected 
tU Rector of the University of 
^oTnov. 15, 1880. Acollec- 

tion of his " Speeches on Questions 
of Public Policy " was published in 
2 vols., 1868. 

BRIGHT, The R*v. William, 
D.D., was born at Doncaster, Dec. 
14, 1824. From Rugby School he 
was elected scholar of University 
College, Oxford, where he graduated 
in the first class in classics in 1846. 
The next year he was elected a 
fellow of his college, and gained 
the Johnson Theological Scholar- 
ship and the EUerton Theological 
Prize, and in 1819 he proceeded 
M.A. Applying himself to the 
study of divinity, he was ordained 
deacon in 1848, and priest in 1850, 
and in the succeeding year became 
theological tutor in Trinity College, 
GlenaSnond. He returned to Ox- 
ford in 1859, and was afterwards 
appointed tutor of University Col- 
lege. He was promoted in 1808 to 
the Regius Professorship of Eccle- 
siastical History, and to the canonry 
of Christ Church, which is attached 
to that chair. The University con- 
ferred upon him the degree of D.D. 
in 1869. Dr. Bright's works are, 
"Ancient Collects selected from 
various Rituals," 1857 ; " Athana- 
sius and other Poems," 1858 ; " A 
History of the Church from the 
Edict of Milan to the Council of 
Chalcedon," 1860 ; " Eighteen Ser- 
mons of St. Leo, translated with 
notes," 1862 j "Faith and Life: 
Readings from Ancient Writers," 
1864 ; " Hymns and other Verses," 
1866 and 1874 ; reprints of " Euse- 
bius's Ecclesiastical History," " St. 
Athanasius's Orations against the 
Arians," " Socrates' Ecclesiastical 
History," " Select Anti-Pelagian 
Treatises of St. Augustine," and 
" St. Athanasius's Historical Writ- 
ings," with introductions, in 1872, 
1873, 1878, 1880, and 1881 ; "Chap- 
ters of Early English Church His- 
tory," 1878; "Later Treatises of 
St. Athanasius, translated, with 
notes and appendix," in the 
" Library of the Fathers," 1881 ; 
and " Notes on the Canons of the 
First Four General Councils," 1882, 

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In collaboration with the Rev. P. G. 
Medd, M.A., he published, in 1865, 
a Latin version of the Book of 
Common Prayer. 

BRISBANE, Bishop op. (See 

BRISTOW, Henry William, 
F.R.S., F.G.S., only son of Major- 
Gen. Henry Bristow, born in 1817, 
was educated at Twickenham and at 
King's College, London, where in 
1810-41 he obtained certificates of 
honour of the second and third years 
in the department of civil engineer- 
ing and science applied to the arts 
and manufactures. He was appointed 
Assistant Geologist on the Ordnance 
Geological Survey in 1842 ; elected a 
Fellow of the Geological Society in 
1843 ; promoted to the rank of Geo- 
logist on the Geological Survey of 
Great Britain, under the department 
of "Woods, &c. j transferred to the 
department of Science and Art in 
1847 ; elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1862, and an Honorary 
Fellow of King's College, London, in 
1863 ; appointed Examiner in Geo- 
logy and Mineralogy under the 
Council of Military Education, Oct., 
1865 ; promoted to the rank of Dis- 
trict Surveyor on the Geological 
Survey of England and Wales, 
April, 1867 ; presented with the 
diploma of the Imperial Geological 
Institute of Vienna, 1870 ; and pro- 
moted to the rank of Senior Di- 
rector (Director for England and 
Wales), on the Geological Survey 
of the United Kingdom in Oct., 
1872. He is the author of a " Glos- 
sary of Mineralogy," 1861 ; and of 
the articles on Mineralogy in 
Brande's "Dictionary of Science, 
Literature, and Art," 4th edition, 
1867 ; Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Minerals in the Museum of King's 
College, London ; of a portion of a 
Descriptive Catalogue of the Rock 
Specimens in the Museum of Prac- 
tical Geology, London ; of articles 
on Minerals and Rocks in " Ure's 
Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, 
and Mines," 3rd edition ; of " Me- 
moirs on the Geology of the Isle of 

Wight ; " of " A Memoir on the 
Geology of parts of Hants and 
Berks," comprised in Map 12 of 
the Geological Survey ; of a paper 
on the Lower Lias of Glamorgan- 
shire, 1867 ; and joint-author (with 
Mr. W. Whitaker) of a paper on 
the Chesil Bank of Dorset, 1869 ; of 
various maps, sections, and of other 
publications of the Geological Sur- 
vey. In Feb., 1880, Mr. Bristow 
was presented by the King of Italy 
with the diploma and insignia of 
Officer of the Order of Saints Mau- 
rice and Lazarus. Mr. Bristow also 
edited and revised the translation 
of Figuier's "World before the 
Deluge," 6th edition, 1869 ; and is 
the translator and editor of L. 
Simonin's "La Vie Souterraine " 
(" Underground Life") adapted to 
the present state of British mining, 
1869. In conjunction with Mr. R. 
Etheridge, he published " British 
Sedimentary and Fossiliferous 
Strata," 1872; and he has also 
compiled a "Table of British 
Strata," showing their order of 
superposition and relative thickness. 
BROCK, Thos., A.R.A., sculptor, 
was born in 1847, at Worcester, 
where his father was a decorator. 
He was educated first at the Go- 
vernment School of Design in that 
city, then came to London and 
studied at the Royal Academy, 
where he obtained both silver and 
gold Medals. He became a pupil 
and afterwards an assistant of the 
late J. H. Foley, the sculptor. 
After Mr. Foley's death he com- 
pleted the numerous works left un- 
finished by him, the chief of these 
being the O'Connell Monument in 
Dublin. Among Mr. Brock's ideal 
works may be mentioned "Sal- 
macis," " Hercules Strangling An- 
taeus," statuettes of Paris and 
(Enone, and a large equestrian 
group, " A Moment of Peril," pur- 
chased for the nation by the Royal 
Academy. Among portrait statues 
may be named Richard Baxter, 
Robert Raikes, and Sir Rowland 
Hill. Mr. Brock is now engaged 

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on statues of Sir Richard Temple, 
Sir Erasmus Wilson, and tnepoet 
Longfellow (the latter for the West- 
minster Abbey Memorial) . He was 
elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy Jan. 16, 1883. 

BRODRICK, Tub Hon. George 
Charles, Warden of Merton Col- 
lege, Oxford, is the second son of 
the late Viscount Midleton, formerly 
Dean of Exeter, and was born at 
Castle Rising, Norfolk, May 5, 1831. 
He was educated at Eton school, 
and at Balliol College, Oxford, 
taking his degree in 1854, and 
being elected a Fellow of Merton 
College in 1855. He obtained a 
double first-class at Oxford, as well 
as the English Essay Prize and the 
Arnold Historical Prize. He also 
carried off, in 1858, the Law Scholar- 
ship at the University of London, 
where he took the degree of LL.B. 
lie was called to the bar from Lin- 
coln's Inn in 1859, and for some 
years practised as a barrister on 
the Western circuit. In conjunc- 
tion with Mr. Fremantle, he edited 
** The Ecclesiastical Judgments of 
the Privy Council." Mr. Brodrick 
was unanimously elected by the 
School Board for London to fill a 
death vacancy, being the first mem- 
ber so elected; and he has from 
the first been on the Council of the 
London Society for the Extension 
of University Teaching. He took 
an active part in promoting the 
University Tests Act, and other 
measures of academical, and gene- 
rally of educational, interest. Mr. 
Brodrick made several unsuccessful 
attempts to enter the House of 
Commons. He contested Wood- 
stock in the Liberal interest in 
1868, and again in 1874; and he 
stood for Monmouthshire at the 
genera] election of 1880. In Feb., 
1881, he was elected Warden of 
Merton College in the place of the 
late Dr. Bullock-Marsham. Mr. 
Brodrick is known to have contri- 
buted largely, but for the most part 
Icmjmously, to the diuly Press and 
^fperiodicalB. A selection of 

articles published under his own 
name, together with two more ela- 
borate Treatises on " Primogeni- 
ture" and " Local Government," 
and other occasional essays, were 
re-published in a volume entitled 
"Political Studies" in 1880. In 
the following year he published a 
work entitled " English Land and 
English Landlords, being an in- 
quiry into the origin, structure, and 
proposed reform of the English 
Land-system ; and he afterwards 
discussed the Irish Land-question, 
and the claim of Tenant-right for 
British Farmers, in three articles, 
which appeared in Fraser's Maga- 
zine for 1881-2. 

BROGLIE, Chables Jacques 
Victob Albert, Due de, eldest son 
of the eminent French statesman 
Achille Charles Leonce Victor, Due 
de Broglie (who died Jan. 25, 1870), 
was born in Paris, June 13, 1821. 
He was educated in the University 
of Paris, where, at an early age, he 
gained a high reputation as a pub- 
licist, and became one of the prin- 
cipal editors of the Correspondant , 
in which journal he defended Ca- 
tholic interests and the doctrines of 
moderate constitutional liberalism. 
He was Secretary of the French 
embassies at Madrid and Rome, 
prior to the revolution of 1848, at 
which period he retired altogether 
from public life, in consequence of 
his political opinions, until Feb., 
1871, when he was elected Deputy 
for the department of the Eure, and 
nominated by M. Thiers's govern- 
ment French Ambassador in Lon- 
don. While holding this appoint- 
ment he made frequent journeys to 
Paris, and took an active part in 
the debates in the National As- 
sembly. In March, 1872, he was in- 
structed to communicate to the 
English government the denuncia- 
tion of the Treaty of Commerce. 
At this period the Duke, who, it 
may be remarked, entertains en- 
lightened views on commercial 
questions, was accused by the Re- 
publican party in the Chamber with 

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not having shown sufficient respect 
for the form of government which 
he had undertaken to represent at 
a foreign court. Accordingly the 
Duke, who had accepted a diplo- 
matic appointment with reluctance, 
asked to be recalled from the Court 
of St. James's, and his request was 
acceded to. As the acknowledged 
leader of the Conservative party in 
the National Assembly, he moved 
the order of the day which led to 
the resignation of M. Thiers and 
the acceptance by Marshal Mac- 
Mahon of the Presidency of the Re- 
public, April 24, 1873. The Due de 
Broglie now became Minister of Fo- 
reign Affairs and President of the 
Council ; and for more than a year 
he directed the policy of the new 
government, but having undertaken 
a project of a new Constitution, in- 
cluding the establishment of a Grand 
Council or Second Chamber, which 
was to be invested with the power of 
dissolving the Assembly, he was de- 
feated on a question of procedure, 
and resigned with his ministry, May 
16,1874. At the elections of Jan. 30, 
1876, M. de Broglie was elected a 
Senator by the department of the 
Eure ; his term of office expires in 
1885. On May 17, 1877, he succeeded 
M. Jules Simon as President of the 
Council of Ministers, Keeper of the 
Seals and Minister of Justice, which 
posts he resigned in December of the 
same year after the elections had 
given a large majority to the Repub- 
lican party. As a writer, the Due 
de Broglie is well known by a trans- 
lation of Leibnitz's " Religious 
System," 1846; his " Etudes Mo- 
rales et Litt^raires," 1853; "L'E- 
glise et l'Empire Roinain au Qua- 
trteme Steele/' 6 vols., 1856, a work 
which passed through five editions ; 
" Une Reforme Administrative en 
Algerie," 1860 ; " Questions de Re- 
ligion et d'Histoire," 1860; "La 
Souverainet6 Pontificale et la Li- 
berte," 1861 ; " La Liberte Divine 
et la Liberte" Humaine," 1865 ; " Le 
Secret du Roi : Correspondence 
Secrete 4e Louis XV. avec sea 

Agents Diplomatiques," 2 vols., 
1878 ; and " Fr&lenc II. et Marie 
TheVese," 1882. He was elected a 
member of the French Academy in 
1862, on a vacancy being occasioned 
by the decease of Father Lacor- 
daire. The Sultan conferred upon 
the Due de Broglie the Grand 
Cordon of the Order of the OsmaniS 
in Oct., 1873. 

B ROM BY, The Right Rev. 
Chable8 Henry, D.D., son of the 
late Rev. J. H. Bromby, Vicar of 
Trinitv Church, Hull, born in 1814, 
was educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge (B.A. 1837, M.A. 1840, 
D.D. 1864). He resided for some 
years at Clifton, taking private 
pupils ; was Incumbent of St. 
Paul's, Cheltenham, from 1843, and 
Principal of the Normal College for 
Schoolmasters there from 1847 till 
his appointment to the bishopric of 
Tasmania in 1864. In 1882 he re- 
signed his see, and was appointed 
rector of Shrawardine with Mont- 
ford, Shropshire. He has written 
" Sorrows of Bethany, and other 
Sermons," published in 1846 ; 
" Notes on the Liturgy and Church 
History/' in 1852 ; "A Sketch of the 
Book of Common Prayer," in 1861 ; 
" The Antiquity and Independence 
of the British Church ; " " Early 
Church History to the Sixth Cen- 
tury ;" " Church Student's Manual," 
and " Teacher's English Grammar 
and Etymology," in 1862. 

BROOKE, The Rev. Augustus 
Stopford, born at Dublin in 1832, 
was educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he gained the Downe 
prize and the Vice -Chancellor's 
prize for English verse. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1856 and M.A. in 
1858. He was curate of St. Matthew, 
Marylebone (1857-59) j curate of 
Kensington (1860-63); minister of 
St. James's Chapel, York Street, 
St. James's Sauare (1866-75) ; and 
minister of Bedford Chapel, Blooms- 
bury (June, 1876). He was ap- 
pointed a chaplain in ordinary to 
the Queen in 1872. Mr. Brooke is 
the author of " Life and Letters of 





the late Frederick W. Robertson," 
1865; "Theology in the English 
Poets," 1374 ; " Primer of English 
Literature ; *• and four vols, of 
"Sermons," 186S-77. In 1880 he 
seceded from the Church of Eng- 
land, his reason for this step being 
that he had ceased to believe that 
miracles were credible, and that, 
since the Established Church 
founded its whole scheme of doc- 
trine on the miracle of the Incarna- 
tion, disbelief in that miracle put 
him outside the doctrines of the 

BROOME, Frkdbrick Napier, 
C.M.G., son of the late Rev. F. 
Broome, rector of Adderly, Shrop- 
shire, was born in Canada in 1842, 
and emigrated to Canterbury, New- 
Zealand, in 1857. Visiting Eng- 
land in 1864, he married Lady 
Barker, returned to his "sheep 
station" in New Zealand the fol- 
lowing year, but in 1869 came back 
to England. Almost immediately 
on his arrival in London, Mr. 
Napier Broome was employed by 
the Times, and was for five years 
one of the special correspondents of 
that journal, which he represented 
in Russia at the marriage of the 
Ouke of Edinburgh. He has held 
tne posts of Secretary to the Com- 
mittee for the completion of St. 
Paul' 8 Cathedral, also to the Royal 
Commission on Unseaworthy Ships. 
He has contributed prose and verse 
to the CornhUl, Macmillan, and 
other magazines, and has published 
two volumes of poetry, " Poems from 
New Zealand/' 1868, and "The 
Stranger of Scriphos," 1869. In 
February, 1875, Inr. Napier Broome 
was appointed Colonial Secretary of 
Natal, and in February, 1878, Co- 
lonial Secretary of the Island of 
Mauritius. He was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the latter colony 
in August, 1880 ; and Governor of 
Western Australia in December, 
1882. He was nominated a Com- 
panion of the Order of SS. Michael 
and George in 1877. 
BROVGH, Lioj**i» comedian, 

J was born at Pontypool, Monmouth- 
shire, March 10, 1836, being the 
fourth son of Mr. Barnabas Brough, 
and a younger brother of the 
well-known comic authors, "The 
Brothers Brough." He was edu- 
cated in the Grammar School, Man- 
chester, and under Mr. W. Wil- 
liams, of the Priory School, London. 
His first employment was in the 
humble capacity of office-boy to Mr. 
J. Timbs, in the Illustrated London 
News office, in Douglas Jen-old's 
time. Subsequently he published 
the first number of the Daily Tele- 
graph, and for five years he was 
connected with the Morning Star. 
Going to Liverpool with other mem- 
bers of the Savage Club to give* 
amateur theatrical performances in 
aid of the Lancashire Relief Fund, 
he achieved so decided a histrionic 
success that he was offered a regular 
engagement by Mr. A. Henderson, 
and accordingly made his first pro- 
fessional appearance at the Prince 
of Wales's Theatre at Liverpool in 
1864. Since that date he has played 
the principal low-comedy characters 
in London and all through the 
provinces. He represented Tony 
Lumpkin, in "She Stoops to Con- 
quer," for upwards of 200 nights. 
Mr. Brough was manager of Coven t 
Garden Theatre for Mr. Dion Bou- 
cicault during the season in which 
" Babil and Bijou " was produced. 

BROUGHTON, Miss Rhoda, a 
popular English novelist, born in 
or about 1837. Her principal works 
are: — "Cometh Up as a Flower," 
1867 ; " Not Wisely, but Too Well," 
1867 ; " Red as a Rose is She," 1870 ; 
" Goodbye, Sweetheart, Goodbye," 
1872 ; " Nancy," 1873 ; " Tales for 
Christmas Eve," 1873, republished 
in 1879 under the title of " Twi- 
light Stories ; " " Joan," 1876 ; and 
" Second Thoughts," 1880. 

BROWN, Ford Madox, a 
painter, by some considered to be- 
long to the Pre-Raphaelite school, 
was born at Calais, of English pa- 
rents, in 1821. He is grandson of 
Dr. John Brown, of Edinburgh, 

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founder of the Brunonian theory of 
medicine. Educated on the conti- 
nent, his earlier works bear the im- 
press of its art. It was not till 
1844 that he took a decided step as 
an exhibitor in England by sending 
two cartoons to Westminster Hall. 
In the competition in 1845 he was 
unsuccessful, though Hay don, in his 
Diary, speaks of his fresco as " the 
finest specimen of that difficult 
method in the Hall." Shortly after 
this he visited Italy. In 1848 he 
sent his " Wicliff reading his Trans- 
lation of the Scriptures" to the 
Free Exhibition, near Hyde Park, 
where, in 1849, he exhibited " King 
Lear," one of his most characteristic 
•works. At the Royal Academy, in 
1851, he produced his large picture 
of " Chaucer at the Court of Edward 
the Third," which had been several 
years in progress. This picture, 
among those selected by Govern- 
ment for the Paris Exhibition of 
1855, received the Liverpool prize 
of .£50 in 1858. At the Royal Aca- 
demy, in 1852, was first seen his 
picture of ''Christ washing Peter's 
Feet," which received the Liver- 
pool prize in 1856, and was among 
the Art Treasures at Manchester in 
1857. After 1852, this artist, though 
exhibiting at times at Liverpool, 
Edinburgh, and other places, did 
not again come before the London 
public till 1865, when he opened an 
exhibition in Piccadilly of 50 pic- 
tures, and as many cartoons and 
sketches. Here for the first time 
were seen in the metropolis his pic- 
tures of " The Last of England," 
" The Autumn Afternoon," " Wil- 
helmus Conquistator," and " Work." 
The last-mentioned was longer in 
hand than any of his other produc- 
tions, and was considered by the 
painter and his admirers his chief 
work at that time. Since then he 
has produced " The Coat of Many 
Colours," " Cordelia's Portion," 
"Elijah and the Widow's Son," 
"Romeo and Juliet," "The En- 
tombment," " Don Juan," and 
" Jacopo Foscari," at present in dif- 

ferent private collections. He com- 
pleted in 1878 a picture of " Crom- 
well," representing the great Pro- 
tector dictating the famous protest 
to the Duke of Savoy against the 
cruelties that sovereign inflicted on 
the Vaudois Protestants. He has 
since been engaged on a series of 
illustrations of the history of Man- 
chester, which he was commissioned 
to execute in the Town Hall of that 

BROWN, Henry Kibke, born at 
Leyden, Massachusetts, in 1814. 
He is the son of a farmer, and at 
eighteen went to Boston, and studied 
portrait-painting. He afterwards 
spent three years at Cincinnati, 
where in 1837 his first marble bust 
was executed. By the aid of friends 
he was enabled to visit Italy, and 
after studying there for some time, 
he returned to the United States, 
and settled at Brooklyn, where, 
having many commissions for monu- 
mental art, he perfected the cast- 
ing of bronze, as a material better 
adapted to exposure than marble. 
He was made an Academician in 
1851. Among his principal works 
in marble are the statue of " Hope," 
the bas-reliefs of the " Hyades " 
and "Pleiades," and "The Four 
Seasons ; " besides several busts. 
In bronze he has executed a colossal 
statue of De Witt Clinton, "The 
Angel of Retribution," the colossal 
equestrian statue of " Washington," 
in New York, statues of Abraham 
Lincoln, in New York and Brooklyn, 
and an equestrian statue of General 
Scott in Washington. He now re- 
sides at Newburg, New York. 

BROWN, The Rev. Hugh 
Stowell, born in Douglas, Isle of 
Man, in 1823, is the son of a clergy- 
man of the Established Church and 
cousin of the Rev. Hugh Stowell, of 
Manchester. He was educated 
partly at home and partly at the 
Douglas Grammar School, until he 
reached the age of fifteen, when he 
came to England to learn land- 
surveying. After spending about 
two years in mastering that busi- 

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nasa,his views underwent a change, 
and he repaired to Wolverton, for 
the purpose of learning the pro- 
fession of an engineer. This occu- 
pation he followed until he came of 
age, and he drove a locomotive en- 
gme on the London and North- 
western Railway for six months. 
It was his custom, after his day's 
work at Wolverton was done, to 
spend four or five hours in hard 
reading ; and his first Greek exer- 
cises were written with a piece of 
chalk inside the fire-box of a loco- 
motive engine. Resolving to be- 
come a clergyman of the Church of 
England, he entered as a student at 
King's College, Castletown, in his 
native island, and studied there for 
three years. Doubts, however, came 
over his mind respecting the truth 
of the doctrines in the Liturgy and 
Occasional Services and Catechism 
of the Church of England. These 
doubts ultimately produced in his 
mind the conviction that the bap- 
tismal doctrines of the Establish- 
ment were at variance with Holy 
Scripture, and he became a member 
of the Baptist denomination. He 
was appointed minister of Myrtle 
Street Chapel, Liverpool, in Jan., 
18-18, and soon became one of the 
recognised leaders of the Baptist 
"body there and throughout the 
country. As a lecturer to the work- 
ing classes he is so successful that 
he collects an audience of between 
2,000 and 3,000 artisans on Sunday 
afternoons, and from 15,000 to 
25,000 copies of his lectures are 
sold. He has lectured frequently 
on various topics in most of the 
large towns in Great Britain and 
Ireland, and in not a few in the 
United States and in the Dominion 
of Canada. 

BROWNE, The Bev. James Bald- 
win, born in the Inner Temple, 
London, Aug. 19, 1820, was educated 
at University College, London, 
stadied for the bar at the Inner 
Temple; subsequently studied for 
the ministry at Highbury College ; 
becam^minister of Ix>ndon Road In- 

dependent Chapel, Derby, in 1843 ; 
minister of Clayland's Independent 
Chapel, Clapham Road, London, in 
1846. In 1870 he removed to a new 
church built by his congregation at 
Brixton. He is the author of 
" Studies of First Principles," 
"The Divine Life in Man," "The 
Soul's Exodus and Pilgrimage," 
"The Divine Treatment of Sin," 
"The Divine Mystery of Peace," 
" The Christian Policy of Life " 
(1869), "The Home Life in the 
Light of its Divine Idea," which 
has passed through five editions ; 
" Household Sermons," " The 
Higher Life : its Reality, Ex- 
perience, and Destiny," 1874 ; be- 
sides pamphlets and small publica- 
tions on the passing topics of the 

BROWN, John G., figure painter, 
born in the north of England, Nov. 
11, 1831. He commenced his art 
studies at the age of eighteen, at 
first at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 
afterwards spent a year at the 
I Edinburgh Royal Academy. Re- 
moving to America in 1853 he en- 
tered the schools of the National 
] Academy of Design in New York, 
I and in 1856 opened a studio in 
' Brooklyn, where he remained 
| until 1860, when he transferred his 
I studio to New York City. He was 
made an Academician in 1863, and 
I was one of the founders of the 
I Water-Colour Society, of which for 
i some years he has been Vice-Presi- 
dent. His principal pictures are 
"Curling in Central Park," "The 
Longshoreman's Noon," " Tough 
Customers," "The Thrilling Mo- 
ment," "The Passing Show," "The 
DTess Parade," " The Three (Scape) 
Graces," and " Left his Money on 
the Piano."- 

BROWN, Robert, Jun., F.S.A., 
born at Barton-upon-Humber, July 
6, 1844, is a son of Mr. Robert 
Brown of that town. He was edu- 
cated at Cheltenham College, and 
is known as a writer on archaic 
religion, mythology, and astronomy. 
His works are " Poseidon : a Link 

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between Semite, Hamite, and 
Aryan," 1872 ; " The Great Drony- 
siak Myth/' 2 vols., 1877-8; 
"The Religion of Zoroaster, con- 
sidered in connection with Archaic 
Monotheism," 1879 ; " The Religion 
and Mythology of the Aryans of 
Northern Europe," 1880; "Lan- 
guage, and Theories of its Origin," 
1881; "The Unicorn," 1881; "The 
Law of Kosmic Order," 1882; 
"Eridanus: River and Constella- 
tion," 1883. Mr. Brown is a mem- 
ber of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology, a Fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and has contributed 
to Archasologia, the Academy, and 
other publications. He is a Solici- 
tor and Registrar of the County 
Court at Barton, 

BROWN, The Rev. William 
Haig, LL.D., son of Thomas Brown, 
Esq., born at Bromley, Middlesex, 
in 1823, was educated at Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated in high honours in 1846, 
proceeded M.A. in 1849, and LL.D. 
in 1864. Having held for some time 
a fellowship and tutorship in his 
college and an assistant-mastership 
at Harrow, he became in 1857 Head 
Master of the Grammar School at 
Kensington, in connection with 
King's College,' London, and was 
elected Head Master of Charter- 
house School in 1863, on the retire- 
ment of the Rev. R. Elwyn. In 
1869 Dr. Brown published "Sertum 
Carthusian urn floribus trium seculo- 
rum contextum. Cura Gulielmi 
Haig Brown, Scholae Carthusian® 

physician and physiologist, born in 
the island of Mauritius, 1818. He 
was educated in his native island, 
and in 1838 went to Paris to com- 
plete his medical studies. In 1840 
he received the degree of M.D. from 
the faculty of the Academy of Medi- 
cine. He has devoted his time since 
his graduation almost exclusively to 
an extended series of experimental 
investigations on important physio- 
logical topics, such as the condition 

and functions of the different consti- 
tuents of the blood, animal heat, the 
spinal column and its relations to 
diseases of the subject, the muscular 
system, the sympathetic nerves and 
ganglions, and the effect of the re- 
moval of the supra-renal capsules. 
He has visited England and the 
United States many times, deliver- 
ing in both countries short courses 
of lectures, and instructing private 
classes of physicians in his dis- 
coveries. He went to the United 
States to reside in 1864, and was 
appointed Professor of the Physio- 
logy and Pathology of the Nervous 
System at Harvard University, 
where he remained four years. Re- 
turning to France in 1869,, he was 
appointed Professor in the Ecole de 
Medecine at Paris. He went back 
to the United States in 1873, began 
practice in New York, and with Dr. 
Seguin commenced the publication 
of Archives of Scientific arid Practical 
Medicine, but eventually returned 
to Paris, where he now lives. He 
has published many essays and 
papers giving the details of his dis- 
coveries, and also "Lectures on 
Paralysis of the Lower Extremi- 
ties," 1872 j and " Lectures on 
Functional Affections," 1873. He 
has received several prizes from 
the French Academy of Sciences, 
and in 1878 was elected to the chair 
of medicine in that body. 

BROWNE, The Right Rev. Ed- 
wabd Harold, D.D., Bishop of 
Winchester, youngest son of the 
late Col. Robert Browne of Morton 
House, Bucks, born in 1811, was 
educated at Eton and at Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated as wrangler in 1832, ob- 
tained the Crosse Theological 
Scholarship in 1833, the first 
Hebrew Scholarship in 1834, and 
the Norrisian Prize for a theological 
essay in 1835. He became fellow and 
tutor of his college ; incumbent of 
St. James's, and of St. SidwelTs, 
Exeter, in 1841 ; was Vice-Princi- 
pal and Professor of Hebrew at St. 
David's College, Lampeter, from 

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l&tt tol84Q, when he was appointed 
Tiear of Kenwyn, Cornwall, and 
Prebendary of Exeter. The vicar- 
age of Kenwyn he resigned for that 
of Heavitree, Devonshire, in 1857. 
In 1854 he was elected Norrisian 
Professor of IHvinity in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge, and in 1857 
Canon Residentiary of Exeter 
Cathedral, when he resigned the 
living of Heavitree. He was con- 
secrated Bishop of Ely in March, 
1864. After the death of Dr. 
Wilberforce he was, in August, 
1873, translated to the see of Win- 
chester, and appointed prelate of 
the Order of the Garter. Dr. 
Browne has taken a warm interest 
in the " Old Catholic " movement in 
Germany, and attended the Con- 
gress of "Old Catholics" held at 
Cologne, in Sept., 1872. He pub- 
lished in 1850-53 an "Exposition 
of the Thirty-nine Articles," in two 
volumes, since reprinted in one 
voL 8vo. (9th edition, 1871}, and 
re-edited for the use of the Ameri- 
can Church by Bishop William, 
of Middletown, Connecticut; two 
volumes of sermons preached before 
"the University of Cambridge, one 
" On the Atonement and other Sub- 
jects/' in 1859 ; the other on " Mes- 
siah as Foretold and Expected/' in 
1862 ; and a volume on the " Penta- 
teuch and Elohistic Psalms, in reply 
to l>r. Colenso," in 1863. Bishop 
Browne is the author of articles in 
" Aids to Faith/' in " Smith's Dic- 
tionary of the Bible," and in the 
«* Speaker's Commentary ; " and of 
various sermons, pamphlets, and 

BROWNE, Frances, was born 
Jan. 16, 1816, at Stranolar, county 
I>onegal, where her father was the 
village post-master. She lost her 
sight in infancy, but learned many 
of the lessons of her brothers and 
sisters, and ultimately mastered a 
considersbie portion of Hume's 
"England," the "Universal His- 
tory, some of Sir Walter Scott's 
novels, "Pope'a Homer," and 
"Child© Harold." In 1840 she 

published " Songs of our Land " 
(first printed in the Irish Penny 
Journal), followed by contributions 
to the Athcnceum, Hood's Magatine, 
the Keepsake, Ac, and obtained from 
Sir Robert Peel a pension of j£20 a 
year. In 1847 she removed from 
Ireland to Edinburgh. Whilst 
there she contributed to Chambers* $ 
Journal and published a volume of 
poems (which she dedicated to Sir 
B. Peel), as well as " Legends of 
Ulster," and a tale entitled " The 
Ericksons." In 1852 she removed 
to London, and has since contri- 
buted to the light literature of the 
day. In 1861 she published a kind 
of autobiography, under the title 
of " My Share of the World," and 
in 1865 a novel called "The Hidden 

BROWNE, The Venerable 
Bobebt William, M.A., Ph.D., 
F.G.S., the eldest son of William 
Browne, Esq., of Kennington, Sur- 
rey, born Nov. 12, 1809 ; was edu- 
cated at Merchant Taylors' School, 
whence he was elected Scholar and 
Fellow of St. John's College, Ox- 
ford, and graduated B.A. in 1831, 
taking double first-class honours. 
Having been tutor of his college, 
curate of St. Michael's, and select 
preacher in the University, he was 
appointed, in 1835, to the Profes- 
sorship of Classical Literature in 
King's College, London ; and in 
1836 to the Assistant Preachership 
of Lincoln's Inn. In 1843 he was 
made Chaplain to the Bishop of 
Lichfield ; in 1844, Senior Chaplain 
to the Forces in London ; in 1845 
a Prebendary of St. Paul's ; in 
1854, Examining Chaplain to the 
Bishop of Bath and We/ls ; in 1800, 
Archdeacon of Bath, and Rector of 
Weston-super-Mare ; and in 1863, 
Canon of Wells. He resigned the 
rectory of Weston-super-Mare in 
1876, in which year he was elected 
an honorary Fellow of King's Col- 
lege, London. Archdeacon Browne 
is the author of "Histories of 
Greece and Rome" in Gleig's 
School Series, and of two elaborate 


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" Histories of Greek and Roman 
Literature/' for which the degree 
of Ph.D. was conferred upon him 
by the University of Heidelberg. 
He translated the Ethics of Aris- 
totle, with an introductory essay 
and notes, for Bonn's Classical 
Series, and is the author of several 
smaller works and sermons. He is 
married to the eldest daughter of 
the late Rev. Sir Charles Hardinge, 
Bart., niece of the late Viscount 
Hardinge, G.C.B. 

BROWNE, Sib Thomas Gore, 
K.C.M.G., son of Robert Browne, 
Esq., of Morton House, Bucks, and 
brother of the Bishop of Win- 
chester, was born in 1807. Enter- 
ing the army at sixteen, he served 
for many years with the 28th regi- 
ment, acted as aide-de-camp to Lord 
Nugent, Lord High Commissioner 
of the Ionian Islands, and was for 
some time Colonial Secretary. In 
1836 Major Gore Browne exchanged 
into the 41st regiment, and served 
during the occupation of Afghanis- 
tan. After the massacre of our 
troops at the Khyber pass, the 41st 
joined Gen. England, and advanced 
to the rescue of Gen. Nott and his 
troops. During that war, Major 
Browne held the command of the 
41st, and also commanded the re- 
serve at the disastrous battle of 
Hykulzie, and, by forming a square 
when the van of the army had been 
broken, was enabled to repulse the 
enemy, and cover the retreat. He 
held the command of his regiment 
at the battles of Candahar, Ghuz- 
nee, Cabul, and during the march 
through the Khyber pass, where he 
commanded the rear, and under 
Gen. M'Gaskell at the storming of 
the hill fort at Istaliff, the most 
daring action during the war. 
Major Gore Browne's gallantry and 
humanity were praised in the gene- 
ral's despatches, which were quoted 
in both Houses of Parliament, and 
for his services he obtained a lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy, and was made a 
C.B. On his return with his regi- 
ment from India he exchanged 

into the 21st, which he commanded 
until made Governor of St. Helena, 
in 1851. From St. Helena he went, 
in 1854, to New Zealand. On the 
breaking out of the Maori war, in 
the last year of his government, 
Colonel Gore Browne showed a 
vigour which was denounced by 
some persons, but which was essen- 
tial in resisting the land league, 
and the Maori king movement. In 
1861 Colonel Browne, having com- 
pleted his term of office, was suc- 
ceeded in the government of New 
Zealand by Sir George Grey, and 
he himself succeeded Sir Henry- 
Young as Governor of Tasmania. 
He resigned the last-mentioned 
office in Jan., 1869, when he was 
created a Knight Commander of 
the Order of SS. Michael and 
George . Sir Thomas was appointed 
Governor of the Bermudas in July, 
1870, and resigned that post in 

BROWNE, William Alex- 
ander Francis, LL.D., formerly 
Fellow of the Royal Society, Edin- 
burgh, and various other societies, 
was born near Stirling, in 1805, and 
studied medicine, with special refer- 
ence to mental diseases, in Edin- 
burgh, France, and Germany. In 
1834 he was appointed physician to 
the Montrose Lunatic Asylum ; and, 
four years afterwards, to the Royal 
Crichton Institution, Dumfries, 
which appointment he held till 
1857, when the Government made 
him a Commissioner in Lunacy for 
Scotland. Dr. Browne advocated 
the non-restraint system, and his 
work, "What Asylums were, are, 
and ought to be," contributed 
largely to the reformation in the 
hospital treatment of the insane. 
His Annual Reports of the Royal 
Crichton Institution, his advocacy 
of the greatest possible liberty to 
the insane that could be consistent 
with safety, and his varied illus- 
trations of treatment by out-door 
amusements, concerts, ic, had a 
great effect in convincing the pub- 
lic of the expediency of employing 

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kindness and moral influences in the 
treatment of lunatics. He was the 
first person in this country to give a 
systematic course of lectures on in- 
sanity, and his numerous writings 
and essays "have had a marked influ- 
ence upon the study of psychology 
as a branch of medical science. He 
was (1867 ) President of the Medico- 
Psycholofpcal Association ; and in 
the same year he delivered a course 
of Lectures on Mental Diseases in 
Edinburgh University during the 
illness of Professor Laycock. In 
1870 he resigned the Conunissioner- 
ahip in Lunacy, in consequence of 
impairment of vision. He is now 
again connected with the Crichton 
Institution as Psychological Con- 

BROWXTNG, Eobebt, poet and 
dramatist, was born in 1812, at 
Camberwell, Surrey, and educated 
at the University of London. His 
father's family being dissenters, 
his mind was trained and his 
character formed under influences 
less peculiarly English than those 
to which youths are exposed in the 
great public schools and Univer- 
sities. At the age of twenty he 
went to Italy, and during his re- 
sidence in that country he diligently 
studied its mediaeval history, and 
became acquainted with the life of 
the people. His first published 
attempt in poetry was " Pauline," 
a tale in verse, to which was ap- 
pended "Paracelsus" (1835), a 
dramatic poem— dramatic in form, 
at least — in which the principal 
character is the celebrated empiric 
and alchymist of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. This work did not attract 
general attention ; but among the 
discerning few it was welcomed as 
the production of a truly original 
mind, rich in performances, and 
richer still in promise. In 1837 
Mr. Browning's tragedy of " Straf- 
ford " was presented on the stage 
in London, but it met with very 
moderate success, in spite of 
MacreadVs masterly personification 
of the hero. In 1&*0 Mr. Browning 

published " Sordello," a poem, the 
subject of which was drawn from 
the supposed life of the Provencal 
poet, mentioned in the sixth canto 
of Dante's " Purgatorio." The 
public pronounced this work to be 
an unintelligible rhapsody, and the 
author himself omitted " Sordello" 
from the edition of his collected 
poems. Between 1842 and 1846 
there appeared from his pen several 
successive numbers of a collection 
of dramatic and lyric poems, to 
which he gave the title of " Bells 
and Pomegranates." Among these 
was a tragedy of striking poetical 
power, called "A Blot on the 
Scutcheon," which was produced at 
Drury Lane Theatre in 1843, but 
without marked success. Another 
play of his, "The Duchess of 
Cleves," was subsequently brought 
out at the Haymarket, Miss Cush- 
man personating the heroine. In 
Nov., 1846, he married* Miss Eliza- 
beth Barrett, the distinguished 
poet (who died in 1861), and after 
his marriage he resided for some 
years in Italy, chiefly at Florence, 
m a k in g occasional visits to France 
and England. In 1849 his collected 
poems were published in two vols, 
in London, and reprinted in the 
United States. His "Christmas 
Eve and Easter Day" (1850), a 
poem embodying his impressions 
of the religious and spiritual as- 
pects of the age, was followed by 
a collection of poems, entitled " Men 
and Women" (1855), one of the 
most powerful of his works. In 
addition to the above works, Mr. 
Browning has published "King 
Victor and King Charles ;" " Dra- 
matic Lyrics;" "Return of the 
Druses j" "Colombe's Birthday;" 
" Dramatic Bomances ;" " The 
Soul's Errand;" a new volume of 
Poems (1864); "The Ring and 
the Book," 4 vols. ; " Balaustion's 
Adventure, including a Transcrip- 
tion from Euripides/ 1871 ; " Prince 
Hohenstiel-Schwangau, Saviour of 
Society," 1871; "Fifine at the 
Fair," 1872; "Bed Cotton Night- 
n 2 

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cap Country ; or, Turf and Towers," 
1873 ; and" Aristophanes' Apology," 
including a Transcript from Euri- 
pides, being " The Last Adventure 
of Balaustion," 1875; "The Aga- 
memnon of JEschylus, transcribed," 
1877 ; " La Saisiaz : the Two Poets 
of Croisic,"1878j "Dramatic Idyls/' 
1879; and " Joco-Seria," 1883. Mr. 
Browning has specially cultivated 
the arts of music and painting, 
with the history of both of which 
he is minutely and widely ac- 
quainted. The honorary degree of 
D.C.L. was conferred upon him by 
the University of Oxford in 1882. 
The " Browning Society," estab- 
lished in London, held its first 
meeting Oct. 28, 1881. Accordinjg 
to its programme, " This Society is 
founded to gather together some, 
at least, of the many admirers of 
Robert Browning, for the study 
and discussion of his works, and 
the publication of Papers on them, 
and extracts from works illustrating 
them. The Society will also en- 
courage the formation of Brown- 
ing Reading-Clubs, the acting of 
Browning's dramas by amateur 
companies, the writing of a Brown- 
ing Primer, the compilation of a 
Browning Concordance or Lexicon, 
and, generally, the extension of the 
study and influence of the poet." 
The second edition, enlarged, of 
"A Bibliography of Robert Brown- 
ing, from 1833 to 1881," compiled 
by Mr. Frederick J. Furnivall, was 
published at London, in 1882. 

BRUCE, The Rev. John Col- 
linowood, LL.D., F.S.A., born at 
Newcastle in 1805, was educated at 
his father's school, at Mill Hill 
Grammar School, and at the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow. In 1826 he 
took the degree of M.A., and be- 
came LL.D. in 1853. In 1882 he 
received the degree of D.C.L. from 
the University of Durham. Though 
educated for the ministry of the 
Presbyterian Church, he did not 
enter orders, but joined his father 
in the management of his school. 
During the year 1881 he held the 

office of "Moderator" or Presi- 
dent of the Presbyterian Church 
of England. He has written " A 
Handbook of English History," 
which has gone through four edi- 
tions. All the recent editions of 
the "Introduction to Geography 
and Astronomy," of which his 
father was the principal author, 
were prepared by him. In 1851 
he published an historical and 
descriptive account of the " Roman 
Wall," in the north of England, 
a third edition of which appeared 
in 1866. Dr. Bruce, in 1856, pub- 
lished "The Bayeaux Tapestry 
elucidated," containing a copy, on 
a reduced scale, of the entire tapes- 
try. More recently he has pub- 
lished " A Handbook to Newcastle," 
and a "Wallet Book" for the 
use of Pilgrims to the Roman 
Wall. He has edited for the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne the "Lapidarium Sep- 
tentrionale," a work in folio, which 
contains an account of all the 
monuments of Roman rule found 
in the North of England. This 
book was undertaken at the request 
of the late Algernon, fourth Duke 
of Northumberland, and is pro- 
fusely illustrated by the liberality 
of that nobleman and others. 

BRUCH, Max, musical composer, 
born at Cologne, Jan. 6, 1838, re- 
ceived his first musical instruction 
from his mother (nte Almenrader), 
who was a highly esteemed teacher 
of music, and who often in her 
young days sang at the Rhenish 
musical festivals. At the age of 
eleven Bruch, then a pupil of Karl 
Breidenstein, attempted composi- 
tions on a large scale, and at the 
age of fourteen he had already 
brought out a Symphony at Co- 
logne. From 1853 to 1857 he held 
the Mozart scholarship at Cologne, 
and in that capacity he was a 
special pupil of Ferdinand Hillier 
in the theory of music and com- 
position; and of Karl Reinecke 
(till 1854), and of Ferdinand Breun- 
nung in playing the piano. After 

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a short stay in Leipzig, be resided 
from 1S5& to 1861 as musical teacher 
at Cologne, and was very assiduous 
in composing. On the death of his 
father, in 1861, he set out on an 
extensive tour of study, which 
after brief stays at Berlin, Leip- 
zig, Vienna, Dresden, and Munich, 
ended at Mannheim, where his opera 
"Lorelei" (after the text written 
by Geibel for Mendelssohn) was 
produced in 1863. At Mannheim 
also, between 1862 and 1864, he 
wrote the chorus- works, "Frith- 
jof," " Bdmischer Triumphgesang," 
** Gesang der heiligen drei K6nige," 
and " Flucht der heiligen Familie." 
In 1864-63 he was again on his tra- 
vels, visiting Hamburg, Hanover, 
Dresden, Breslau, Munich, Brussels, 
and Paris. Then he brought out 
bis •' Frithjof " with extraordinary 
success at Aix-la-Chapelle, Leipzig, 
and Vienna. Prom 1865 to 1867 
be was musical director at Coblenz, 
and from 1867 to 1870 director of 
the court choir at Sondershausen. 
At Coblentz he wrote, among other 
things, his well-known first con- 
certo for the violin, and at Sonders- 
hausen two symphonies and portions 
of a Mass. The opera " Hermione," 
which was produced in 1872 at 
Berlin, where Bruch resided from 
1871 to 1873, had only a meets d' 
titime. The chorus " Odysseus " 
likewise belongs to the period of 
the composer's residence at Berlin. 
After he had been five years (1873- 
78) at Bonn, devoting his time ex- 
clusively to composing " Arminius/* 
" The Song of the Bell," and his 
second concerto for the violin, and 
after he had paid two visits to this 
country for the purpose of pro- 
ducing some of his works, he became, 
in 1878, on the resignation of Hock- 
hausen, Director of Stern's Singing 
Academy at Berlin ; and in 1880 
he was nominated to succeed Sir 
Julius Benedict as Director of the 
Philharmonic Society at Liverpool. 
In 1881 he married the vocalist, 
Misa Tuczek, of Berlin. In 1883 
it was anno unced that be intended 

to leave Liverpool and to go to Bres- 
lau as Director of the Music there. 
Undoubtedly Bruch is one of the 
most celebrated of modern German 
composers, and in the composition 
of choruses he ranks next to 
Brahms. His great works for 
mixed choruses, solos and orchestra, 
" Odysseus," " Arminius," and the 
"Song of the Bell/' as well as 
those for a male choir, " Frithjof," 
" Salami8," and " Normannenzug," 
are the chief productions of this 
composer. His first concerto for 
the violin is highly prized by all 
players of that instrument. The 
chief characteristic of the compo- 
sitions of this master is the joy 
and beauty of tone which he never 
sacrifices for the purpose of creating 
an effect. This principle separates 
him widely from the " new German 
School," and even puts him re- 
markably in relief as compared 
with Brahms. 

BRUGSCH, Heineich Kabl, 
Ph.D., a distinguished philologist 
and Egyptologist, who by his re- 
searches on the subject of hiero- 
glyphics has attained a European 
celebrity. He was born at Berlin, 
Feb. 18, 1827, and before leaving 
the Gymnasium evinced his fond- 
ness for Egyptological studies by 
a Latin treatise on the Demotic 
writing, 1847. His early publica- 
tions procured for him the patron- 
age of King Frederick William IV., 
under whose auspices he studied 
the monuments of Egyptian anti- 
quity in the museums of Paris, 
London, Turin, and Leyden. In 
1853 he made his first visit to 
Egypt, and was present at some 
of the important excavations con- 
ducted under the supervision of the 
French archaeologist, M. Marietta. 
Beturning to Berlin, he was ap- 
pointed Keeper of the Egyptian 
Museum there in 1854. In 18G0 
he accompanied Baron Minutoli on 
his embassy to Persia, and after 
the death of the Baron he himself 
assumed the direction of the em- 
bassy. Subsequently he was ap- 

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pointed Ordinary Professor of 
Oriental Languages in the Univer- 
sity of Gottingen; and in 1868 
ordinary public Professor in the 
Philosophical Faculty of the same 
university. In Sept., 1869, Pro- 
fessor Brugsch returned to Egypt 
and succeeded M. Mariette as 
Keeper of the Egyptian collections 
at Boulak. He received the title 
of Bey and afterwards that of 
Pasha. In Sept., 1881, he left 
Egypt in order to commence a 
course of lectures upon Egyptology 
at the University of Berlin. The 
Professor has published a " History 
of Egypt ; " a " Demotic Gram- 
mar ; " a " Demotic and Hierogly- 
phic Dictionary ; " " Materials for 
the Reconstruction of the Calendar 
of the Ancient Egyptians ; " " In- 
vestigations concerning the Old 
Egyptian Bi-lingual Monuments ; " 
" Recueil de Monumens Egyptiens 
dessines sur les lieux," 4 vols. ; 
" Rhind's Two Hieratic and Demo- 
tic Bi-lingual papyri translated 
and published j " " The Geogra- 
phical Inscriptions of the Old 
Egyptian Monuments," 4 vols. ; 
" Reiseberichte aus Egypten," 
written during a journey under- 
taken in 1853 and 1854; "Reise- 
berichte aus dem Orient ; " " Jour- 
ney to Asia Minor and the Penin- 
sula of Sinai; " and numerous other 
learned works on the language, 
literature, and antiquities of 
Egypt. He took a leading part 
in the International Congress of 
Orientalists held in London in 
Sept., 1874. An English transla- 
tion of his " Jlistory of Egypt 
under the Pharaohs, derived en- 
tirely from the Monuments," was 
published at London, in 1879. 

BRUNSWICK, Duke of. (See 

BUCCLEUCH (Duke of), Wal- 
ter Francis Montagu Douglas 
Scott, K.G., K.T., D.C.L., eldest 
son of the fourth duke, born Nov. 
25, 1806, was educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated M.A. in 1827. Having suc- 

ceeded to the title whilst a minor, 
he never sat in the House of Com- 
mons. His grace, whose wealth 
gives him great influence, is High 
Steward of Westminster, a Gover- 
nor of the Charter-house, Lord 
Lieutenant of Midlothian and Rox- 
burghshire, and Captain of the 
Queen's Body-guard in Scotland. 
He supports the Conservative party, 
and held the posts of Lord Privy 
Seal and Lord President of the 
Council in Sir Kobert Peel's second 
administration in 1842-46. WeU 
known as a generous patron of the 
arts and of literature, his grace 
received the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. from the University of 
Oxford in 1831 ; and the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, April 22, 1874. 
He was unanimously elected Chan- 
cellor of the University of Glasgow 
in succession to the late Sir Wil- 
liam Stirling Maxwell, April 24, 

BUCHANAN, Isaac, formerly a 
member of the Canadian Parlia- 
ment and President of the Board 
of Trade in the city of Hamilton, 
was born at Glasgow, Scotland, 
July 21, 1810, where he received 
his education. In 1831 he emigrated 
to Canada, and for many years took 
a leading part in the social and 
political movements of the Upper 
Province. His political opinions, 
which all hinge more or less upon 
the currency question, are set forth 
in a volume entitled, "The Bela- 
tions of the Industry of Canada 
with the Mother Country and the 
United States." He took an ac- 
tive part in the suppression of 
the Canadian Rebellion in 1837, 
and urged on Lord Sydenham the 
settlement of the Clergy Eeserve 
question. Elected for Toronto 
in 1841, he helped to secure respon- 
sible government for the people, and 
in procuring the reduction of the 
duty on Canadian wheat. In 1843 
he supported Lord Metcalfe's admi- 
nistration at the head of the Con- 
stitutional or Order party. Mr. 

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Buchanan at one time held a seat 
in the Executive Council of the 
Canadian Government (now the 
"* Dominion of Canada"). His resi- 
dence is in Hamilton, Ontario. 

BUCHANAN, Robert, poet, born 
Aug. 18, 1841, was educated at the 
High. School and the University of 
Glasgow. His first work, " Under- 
tones/' appeared in 1860, and was 
followed by " Idyls and Legends of 
Lnverbum" in 1865, and "London 
Poems'' in 1866. Mr. Buchanan 
edited " Wayside Posies," and trans- 
lated the Danish Ballads in 1866. 
His later works are "North Coast 
Poems," 1867; "Napoleon Fallen: 
a Lyrical Drama," 1871 ; " The Land 
of Lome; including the cruise of 
the Tern to the outer Hebrides," 
1871 ; "The Drama of Kings," 1871 ; 
" The Fleshly School of Poetry," an 
attack on the poems of Mr. D. G. 
Kossetti and Mr. Swinburne, 1872; 
and " Master Spirits," 1873. Many 
years ago, his tragedy of "The 
Witchfinder" was brought out at 
Sadler's Wells Theatre ; and a 
comedy by him, in three acts, enti- 
tled " A Madcap Prince," was acted 
a.ttheHaymarketinAug.,1874. He 
has also contributed to the stage " A 
Nine Days' Queen," in which his 
sister-in-law, Miss Harriett Jay, 
the novelist, first appeared as an 
actress; and dramatic versions of 
"The Queen of Connaught" and 
" Paul Clifford." At the commence- 
ment of 1869, Mr. Buchanan gave 
in the Hanover Square Booms a 
series of "Beadings" of selections 
from his own poetical works. A 
collected edition of his poems was 
published in 3 vols., 1874. In 1876, 
Mr. Buchanan published his first 
novel, "The Shadow of the Sword," 
which has been since followed by 
"A Child of Nature," 1879; "God 
and the Man/' 1881; and "The 
Martyniom of Madeline," a novel, 
IS®. A new volume of poems, 

entitled "Ballad* °*^ e l% Y >?£** 
Euwor/'and a 'Selection ^m 

wnvlteneously in iv°*- 

"Love me for ever," appeared in 
1883, and his comedy, " Lady 
Clare," was brought out at the 
Globe Theatre on April 12th in the 
same year. Mr. Buchanan has been 
for many years closely connected 
with the Contemporary Review, in 
which publication many of his poems 
and essays have first appeared. 

BDCHNER, Frederick Charles 
Christian Louis, a German philo- 
sopher, born at Darmstadt, March 
29, 1824, the son of a distinguished 
physician in that town. After a 
preliminary education, he was sent 
in 1843 to the University of Gies- 
sen, where he studied philosophy, 
though he subsequently turned his 
attention to medicine at Strasburg, 
in compliance with the wishes of his 
family. He took his doctor's de- 
gree at Giessen in 1848, and then 
continued his studies in the univer- 
sities of Wurzburg and Vienna. 
After practising medicine for some 
time in his native place, he settled 
at Tubingen, as a private lecturer, 
being also appointed Assistant 
Clinical Professor. He was de- 
prived of this position, however, by 
the authorities, in consequence of 
the philosophical doctrines pro- 
pounded in his famous book on 
"Force and Matter," 1855. Ho 
thereupon returned to Darmstad*- 
and resumed practice as a physician 
In the work referred to — which is 
entitled in German "Kraft and 
Stoff " (Frankfort, 1855 ; 8th edition, 
| 1864), and which has been trans- 
| lated into most European lan- 
guages — Dr. Buchner explains the 
I principles of his system of philo- 
sophy, which, he contends, is in 
harmony with the discoveries of 
modern science. He insists on the 
eternity of matter, the immortality 
of force, the universal simultane- 
ousness of light and life, and the 
infinity of forms of being in time 
and space. Dr. Buchner has fur- 
ther explained his system in " Na- 
ture and Spirit" ("Natur und 
Geist ") , 1859 ; " Physiological 
Sketches" ("Phis. Bilder"), 18G1; 

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and " Nature and Science " (" Natur 
und Wissenschaft"). 1862. He 
has also contributed to periodical 
publications various treatises on 
physiology, pathology, and medical 

(Duke op), The Eight Hon. 
Richard Plantaoenet Campbell 
Temple Nugent Bridges Chan- 
dos Gbenville, Marquis op Buck- 
ingham and Chandob, &c, was 
born Sept. 10, 1823, and succeeded 
his father as third duke July 29, 
1861 . He represented Buckingham 
from 1846 to 1857; was a Junior 
Lord of the Treasury in 1852; 
Keeper of the Prince of Wales' 
Privy Seal, and Deputy Warden of 
the Stannaries. He was elected 
chairman of the London and North- 
western Railway Company in 1853, 
and resigned in 1856. His grace 
was appointed Lord President of 
the Council under Earl Derby's 
third administration, in July, 1866, 
and succeeded the Earl of Carnar- 
von as Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, March 2, 1867. He held 
the latter office until Mr. Gladstone 
came into power in December, 1868. 
In July, 1875, he was appointed 
Governor of Madras, and he held 
that post till 1880. 

BUCKLEY, Miss* Arabella 
Burton, daughter of the Rev. 
J. W. Buckley, Vicar of St. Mary's, 
Paddington, was born Oct. 24, 1840, 
at Brighton. For many years she 
acted as secretary to the well- 
known geologist, Sir Charles Lyell. 
Miss Buckley is the author of " A 
Sho *t History of Natural Science," 
" lhe Fairyland of Science," "Life 
and her Children," " The Winners 
in Life's Race," and editor of the 
ninth edition of Mrs. Somerville's 
" Physical Sciences." 

BUCKMAN, James, F.L.S., 
F.G.S., F.S.A., son of Mr. John 
Buckman, born at Cheltenham in 
1816, and educated at a private 
school, was appointed Curator and 
Resident Professor at the Birming- 
ham Philosophical Institution in 

1846, and from 1818 to 1863 held 
the post of Professor of Geology 
and Botany at the Royal Agricul- 
tural College at Cirencester. At 
an early age he was articled to a 
surgeon-apothecary at Cheltenham, 
and afterwards studied chemistry, 
botany, and geology in London. He 
was for many years Hon. Secretary 
and Lecturer at the Cheltenham 
Philosophical Institution, and he 
was presented with a handsome 
testimonial on leaving for Birming- 
ham in 1846. He has since received 
two valuable testimonials, one from 
the inhabitants of Cirencester and 
his scientific friends, and the other 
from his pupils on resigning his 
appointment at the Royal Agricul- 
tural College. Professor Buckman 
is the author of "The Pittville 
Spa, Cheltenham: Analysis of its 
Waters, Ac. ; " " Chart of the Cot- 
teswold Hills ; " " Our Triangle : 
Letters on the Geology, Botany, 
and Archaeology of the Neighbour- 
hood of Cheltenham," 1842 ; " The 
Flora of the Cotteswolds" 1&44 ; 
" The Geology of the Cotteswolds," 
1845; "The Ancient Straits of 
Malvern ; or, an Account of the 
former Marine Conditions which 
separated England from Wales;" 
"The Remains of Roman Art," 
1850 ; " History of British Grasses," 
1858 ; and " Science and Practice 
in Farm Cultivation," 1863. He 
has contributed several papers to 
the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, and to the 
Geological Society ; many published 
notes on Geology, Zoology, and 
Botany, and several Prize Essays 
in the Journal of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society; papers in the 
Bath and West of England Society's 
Journal; articles in Morton's 
" Cyclopaedia of Agriculture," and 
articles (nearly 300) in the Agricul- 
tural Gazette and other journals. 
Mr. Buckman has enriched Ciren- 
cester with a fine museum of Roman 
antiquities, mostly collected by 
himself, and with a large collection 
of fossils. The former are deposited 

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in the Coriniuni Museum and the 
latter at the Boyal Agricultural 
College. Mr. Buckman occupies 
a large farm in Dorsetshire, which 
U conducted upon model principles, 
and with such success that he has 
already received cups for his root- 
eultivatkm, and other prizes. For 
the last few years he has devoted 
himself to the study and illustra- 
tion of some of the more important 
agricultural questions which con- 
tinually arise, and there are few 
of the higher agricultural journals 
that have not articles from his pen. 
BUFFET, Louis Joseph, a 
French politician, born at Mire- 
court (Vosges), Oct. 26, 1818, prac- 
tised as an advocate before the 
revolution of 1848, when, being 
returned as a representative of the 
people by the department of the 
Yoages, he voted as a rule with the 
old dynastic Left, which became 
the Right of the Constituent As- 
sembly, and distinguished himself 
by his zealous opposition to 
socialism. He accepted the repub- 
lican constitution, and declared 
that General Cavaignac had de- 
served well of his country. After 
the election of Dec. 10, he gave in 
his adhesion to the Government of 
Lrotiis Napoleon, who entrusted him 
with the portfolio of commerce and 
agriculture after the dismissal of 
M . Bbrio. Both as minister and as 
representative he supported the 
party of order, but he refused to 
follow completely the policy of the 
illysee, and accordingly he quitted 
the Ministry with the late M. 
Odilon Barrot, Dec. 31, 1849. Re- 
elected by his department, at the 
bead of the poll, he exercised a 
great influence in the Legislative 
Assembly. After the crisis which 
followed the dismissal of General 
Ghangnrnier, he returned to office 
wiin M. L6on Foucher, April 10, 
1851, and in that parliamentary 
cabinet he represented the ideas of 
the majority. He **&&"£ with 
his colleagues (Oct. 14, 1851), when 
the President declared in favour of 

the withdrawal of the law of May 31 . 
A few days later he was nominated 
a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 
After the coup d'ttat of Dec. 2, 1851, 
M. Buffet declined to accept any 
public appointment for several 
years, except that of member of the 
Conseil-General for the canton of 
Thillot. In 1863, however, he came 
forward as an opposition candidate 
in the first circonscription of the 
Vosges, and was elected. M. Buffet 
quickly became one of the most 
prominent members of the Corps 
Legislatif, where he was one of 
the leaders of a "Tiers Parti," 
which endeavoured to reconcile 
Liberal reforms with loyalty to the 
dynasty. He was re-elected for his 
department in May, 1869, and in 
the short session which commenced 
in the following month, he greatly 
contributed to the victory of the 
Liberal centre, and was one of the 
promoters of the famous demand 
of interpellation, signed by 116 
deputies, which elicited the message 
and the project of the senatut eon- 
suite, containing the promise of a 
return to parliamentary govern- 
ment. After the prolonged nego- 
tiations in connection with which 
his name was so constantly men- 
tioned, respecting the formation of 
the first parliamentary ministry, 
M. Buffet became a member, as 
Finance Minister, of the cabinet 
formed by M. Emile Ollivier, on 
Jan. 2, 1870. His financial policy 
gave general satisfaction ; but when 
M. Ollivier consented to the plebis- 
cite, M. Buffet deemed it his duty 
to resign at the same time as his 
colleague, M. Durer (April 10). 
After the disaster of Sedan, and 
the revolution of Sept. 4, he retired 
for a short time into private life. 
However, at the elections of Feb. 8, 
1871, he was returned by his de- 
partment — again at the head of the 
poll — to the National Assembly. 
M. Thiers offered him the portfolio 
of Finance, but he declined it, for 
fear of the susceptibilities which 
might be wounded on account of 

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his having held office under the 
Empire. M. Buffet took his seat in 
the Eight Centre, and soon assumed 
an attitude of marked hostility 
towards M. Thiers. On April 4, 

1873, he was elected President of 
the National Assembly in the place 
of M. Grevy, resigned ; and he was 
re-elected to that office May 13, 

1874. He was again elected, and 
for the last time, to the same office, 
March 1, 1875, although at that 
date he was officially engaged in 
the formation of a new cabinet to 
replace the Chabaud-Latour Minis- 
try. On March 10, 1875, M. Buffet 
was appointed Vice-President of 
the Council, and Minister of the 
Interior. While holding this office 
he made himself extremely ob- 
noxious to the Republican party. 
At the elections of Jan., 1876, he 
did not succeed in obtaining a seat 
in the Assembly, his candidature 
failing at Mirecourt, Bourges, Cas- 
telsarrasin, and Commercy. He 
therefore resigned the Vice-Presi- 
dency of the Council of Ministers. 
On June 16, 1876, the Senate 
elected him a Life Senator by 144 
votes against 142. 

BULLER, Colonel Sir Redvebs 
Henry, V.C., K.C.M.G., C.B., son 
of the late Mr. James Wentworth 
Buller, M.P., of Downes, Crediton, 
Devonshire, was born in 1839, 
entered the 60th Rifles in 1858, and 
attained the rank of colonel in 
1879. He served successively in 
China (1860), with the Red River 
expedition (1870), in the Ashantee 
war (1875), in the Kaffir war (1878), 
and in the war in Zululand (1878-9), 
where he greatly distinguished 
himself, and won the Victoria Cross. 
He was created a Knight Com- 
mander of the Order of SS. Michael 
and George in Nov., 1882, for the 
services he rendered as Head of the 
Intelligence Department in Egypt. 

BULLOCK, The Rev. Charles, 
B.D., was born in 1829, and edu- 
cated at St. Bee's College, Cum- 
berland. He was ordained in 1855 
to the curacy of Rotherham, York- 

shire. He removed, in 1856, to 
Ripley, near Harrogate, and after- 
wards held the sole charge of Christ 
Church, Luton, in Bedfordshire. In 
1859 he became curate of St. Nicho- 
las', Worcester, of which parish the 
late Canon Havergal was rector; 
and on his retirement, in 1860, 
Bishop Pepys appointed Mr. Bul- 
lock as his successor. He held this 
post for fourteen years, during 
which period the fine old church 
was restored, at a cost of more than 
.£3000, and a rectory house built. 
In 1874 he removed to Blackheath, 
in order to devote himself to the 
dissemination of pure literature. 
In recognition of his services in 
this direction the Archbishop of 
Canterbury conferred on him the 
degree of B.D. The magazines 
edited by him are The Fireside (first 
published in 1864), Home Words, 
which in its localized form is known 
throughout the country, and The 
Day of Days, for Sunday reading. 
In 1876 he founded Hand and Heart, 
as a penny illustrated Church of 
England newspaper. Recently its 
title has been changed to The 
Church Standard, as more in keep- 
ing with its distinctive features, 
Hand and Heart still appearing as 
a monthly social and temperance 
paper. Mr. Bullock has written 
" The Way Home ; or, the Gospel 
in the Parable," which has been 
translated into Norwegian ; " Eng- 
land's Royal Home ; " " The Home 
Life of the Prince Consort ; " 
"Doubly Royal ; " " What Church? 
or, The Only Faith and Fold;" 
" Words of Ministry ; " " The Best 
Wish;" "Earthly Stories with 
Heavenly Meanings ; " " The 
Syrian Leper ; " " The Parents' 
Gift : a Help to Early Prayer and 
Praise ; " " Heart Cheer for Home 
Sorrow ; " " The Forgotten Truth ; " 
"Hugh Stowell: a Life and its 
Lessons ; " " The Sunday-School 
Gift ;" " What do we owe Him ? " 
" Can Nothing be Done ? " " Within 
the Palace Gates;" and "Robin's 
Carol, and what came of it." 

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BTJNSEN, Eobiet Wilhilm 
Ebeea&d, chemist, born March 13, 
1811, at Gottingen, where his 
father was professor of Occidental 
literature; studied in the university 
the physical and natural sciences, 
and completed his education at 
Paris, Berlin, and Vienna. Having 
taken his degrees for teaching che- 
mistry at Gdttingen in 1833, he 
succeeded Wohler three years later 
as professor of this science in the 
Polytechnic Institution at Cassel. 
In 1838 he was appointed Assistant 
Professor in the University of Mar- 
burg" ; became Titular Professor in 
18-11, then Director of the Chemical 
Institute. In 1851 he passed to 
the University of Breslau, and in 
1852 to the University of Heidel- 
berg. Some years ago Professor 
Bunsen declined a call to Berlin 
which he received at the same time 
as Professor Kirchhoff, with whom 
he is the founder of stellar che- 
mistry. He has made many im- 
portant discoveries, and the charcoal 
pile which bears his name is in very 
extensive use. From the spectrum 
analysis down to the simplest mani- 
pulations of practical chemistry, his 
luminous discoveries have rendered 
the most distinguished services to 
the science which he adorns ; but 
he possesses at the same time the 
rare gift of being an eminent and 
most inspiring teacher, and his 
lessons are attended by students 
from England and all parts of the 
Continent- The University of Ley- 
den conferred on him the honorary 
degree of M.D. in Feb., 1875. In 
July, 1877, the University of Hei- 
delberg commemorated the 25th 
anniversary of Professor Bunsen *s 
election to the Chair of Experi- 
mental Chemistry. Students of 
all faculties joined in a torchlight 
procession, which was followed by 
the traditional symposium, while a 
deputation presented the congratu- 
htdons of the Academical Council. 
In /an., 1883, he was appointed 
one of the ei^ht Foreign Associates 
of the Paris Academy of Sciences. 

Hon. Angela Georgin a, Baroness, 
is the youngest daughter of the late 
Sir Francis Burdett, Baronet, and 
grand-daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Coutts. In 1837 she succeeded to 
the great wealth of Mr. Coutts, 
through his widow, once the fasci- 
nating Miss Mellon, who died 
Duchess of St. Albans. The exten- 
sive power of benefiting her less 
fortunate fellow-creatures thus con- 
ferred, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts 
has wisely exercised, chiefly by 
working out her own well-considered 
projects. A consistently liberal 
churchwoman in purse and opinions, 
her munificence to the Establish- 
ment is historical. Besides contri- 
buting large sums towards building 
new churches and new schools in 
various poor districts throughout 
the country, Miss Coutts erected 
and endowed, at her sole cost, the 
handsome church of St. Stephen's, 
Westminster, with its three schools 
and parsonage ; and more recently, 
another church at Carlisle. She 
endowed, at an outlay of .£50,000, 
the three colonial bishoprics of 
Adelaide, Cape Town, and British 
Columbia ; besides founding an es- 
tablishment in South Australia for 
the improvement of the aborigines. 
She also supplied the funds for Sir 
Henry James's Topographical Sur- 
vey of Jerusalem ; and offered to 
restore the ancient aqueducts of 
Solomon to supply that city with 
water — a work, however, which the 
Government promised to (but did 
not) fulfil. In no direction are the 
Baroness's sympathies so fully ex- 
pressed as in favour of the poor and 
unfortunate of her own sex. The 
course taught at the national schools 
and sanctioned by the Privy Council 
included many literary accomplish- 
ments which a young woman of 
humble grade may not require on 
leaving school ; but the more fami- 
liar arts essential to her after-career 
were overlooked. By her ladyship's 
exertions the teaching of common 
things, such as sewing and other 

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household occupations, was intro- 
duced. In order that the public 
grants for educational purposes 
might reach small schools in remote 
rural as well as in neglected urban 
parishes, Miss Coutts worked out a 
plan for bringing them under Go- 
vernment inspection by means of 
travelling or ambulatory inspecting 
schoolmasters, and it was adopted 
by the authorities. Miss Coutts's 
exertions, in the cause of reforma- 
tion, as well as in that of education, 
have been no less successful. For 
young women who had lapsed out 
of well-doing, she provided a shelter 
and a means of reform, in a " Home " 
at Shepherd's Bush. Nearly half 
the cases which passed through her 
reformatory during the seven years 
it existed resulted in new and pros- 
perous lives in the colonies. Again, 
when Spitalfields became a mass of 
destitution, Miss Coutts began a sew- 
ing-school there for adult women, 
not only to be taught, but to be fed 
and provided with work ; for which 
object Government contracts are 
undertaken and successfully exe- 
cuted. Nurses are sent daily from 
this unpretending charity in 
Brown's Lane, Spitalfields, amongst 
the sick, who are provided with 
medical comforts ; while outfits are 
distributed to poor servants, and 
clothing to deserving women. In 
1859 hundreds of destitute boys 
were fitted out for the Royal Navy, 
or placed in various industrial 
homes. As a preliminary test of 
their fitness and characters, she had 
them first tried in a shoe-black 
brigade, which she established for 
the purpose. Many of these boys 
go into the army, and are in request 
as temporary porters at goods rail- 
way stations. In the terrible winter 
of 1861 the frozen-out tanners of 
Bermondsey were aided, and at the 
same time she suggested the forma- 
tion of the East London Weavers' 
Aid Association, by whose assist- 
ance many of the sufferers from 
decaying trade were able to remove 
to Queensland. One of the black 

spots of London in that neighbour- 
hood, once known to and dreaded 
by the police as Nova Scotia Gar- 
dens, was bought by Miss Coutta, 
and, upon that area of squalor and 
refuse, she erected the model dwell- 
ings called Columbia Square, con- 
sisting of separate tenements let at 
low weekly rentals to about two 
hundred families. Close to it is 
Columbia Market, one of the hand- 
somest architectural ornaments of 
North-Eastern London. In Victoria 
Park stands one of the handsomest 
drinking fountains in London ; a 
similar work of art for the use of 
both man and beast adorns the 
entrance to the Zoological Gardens 
in Regent's Park; and a third 
stands near Columbia Market itself. 
These, with a fourth presented to 
the City of Manchester, and at the 
opening of which the citizens gave 
her ladyship a most enthusiastic 
reception, are all gifts to the public 
from the same munificent donor. 
The Baroness takes great interest 
in judicious emigration. When a 
sharp cry of distress arose some 
years ago in the town of Girvan, 
in Scotland, she advanced a large 
sum to enable the starving families 
to seek better fortune in Australia. 
Again, the people of Cape Clear, 
Shirkin, close to Skibbereen, in 
Ireland, when dying of starvation, 
were relieved from tne same source, 
by emigration, and by the estab- 
lishment of a store of food and 
clothing; by efficient tackle, and 
by a vessel to help them in their 
chief means of livelihood — fishing. 
Miss Coutts materially assisted Sir 
James Brooke in improving the con- 
dition of the Dyaks of Sarawak, and 
a model farm is still entirely sup- 
ported by her, from which the 
natives have learnt such valuable 
lessons in agriculture that the pro- 
ductiveness of their country has 
been materially improved. Taking 
a warm interest in the reverent 
preservation and ornamental im- 
provement of our town churchyards, 
and having, as the possessor of the 

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great tithe* of the living of Old 
St Pancras, a special connection 
with that parish, the Baroness, in 
1877, laid out the churchyard as a 
garden for the enjoyment of the sur- 
rounding poor, besides erecting a 
memorial sun-dial to its illustrious 
dead. In the same year, when ac- 
counts were reaching this country 
of the sufferings of the Turkish and 
Bulgarian peasantry flying from 
their homes before the Russian in- 
vasion, Lady Burdett-Coutts insti- 
tuted the Turkish Compassionate 
Fund, a charitable organization by 
means of which the sum of nearly 
X30,000, contributed in money and 
stores, was entrusted to the British 
Ambassador for distribution, and 
saved thousands from starvation 
and death. This is but an imper- 
fect enumeration of the Baroness's 
good works as a public benefactress. 
The amount of her private charities 
it is impossible to estimate. She is 
a liberal and discriminating pa- 
troness of artists in every depart- 
ment of art ; being herself accom- 
plished in many of them. Her hos- 
pitality is as comprehensive as her 
charity, not only to the great world, 
but to the poor. The beautiful gar- 
dens and grounds of her villa at 
Highgate are constantly thrown 
open to school children in thousands. 
In July, 1867, the Baroness received 
at Holly Lodge one of the largest 
dinner parties upon record. Up- 
wards of 2,000 Belgian volunteers 
Were invited to meet the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, and some five 
hundred royal and distinguished 
guests. All partook of her large 
and gracious hospitality with as 
much comfort and social enjoyment 
as if they had met at a small social 
gathering. In June, 1871, Miss 
Coutts was surprised by the prime 
minister with the offer from her 
Majesty of a peerage. The honour 
was accepted with the title that 
commences this memoir. Her lady- 
ship was admitted to the freedom 
of the City of London, July 11, 1872, 
and to the freedom of the City of 

Edinburgh, Jan. 15, 1874. On Nov. 
1, 1880, the Haberdashers' Company 
publicly conferred their freedom and 
livery on the Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts in recognition of her judi- 
cious and extensive benevolence and 
her munificent support of educa- 
tional, charitable, and religious in- 
stitutions, and efforts throughout 
the country. The Baroness was 
married on Feb. 12, 1881, to Mr. 
William Lehman Ashmead Bartlett, 
who obtained the royal licence to 
use the surname of Burdett-Coutts 
in addition to and before that of 

BURDON, The Right Rev. John 
Shaw, D.D., son of Mr. James 
Burdon, of Glasgow, was born in 
1826, and educated at the Church 
Missionary College, Islington. He 
was a missionary in Shanghai from 
1852 till 1874, when he was ap- 
pointed Bishop of Victoria, Hong 
Kong, in succession to Dr. Alford. 
His episcopal jurisdiction extends 
over the Anglican congregations in 
South China and Japan. 

BURGESS, The Rev. Hbnbt, 
LL.D., of Glasgow, was born in 
1808, and educated at the Dissent- 
ing College at Stepney, where he 
obtained a high standing in Hebrew 
and classical learning. After minis- 
tering to a Nonconformist congre- 
gation, he received orders from the 
Bishop of Manchester in 1850. He 
held the perpetual curacy of Clifton 
Reynes, Bucks, from 1854 to 1861, 
was for some years editor of the 
Clerical Journal and the Journal of 
Sacred Literature, and is known as 
the author of some translations 
from the Syriac language, including 
two volumes of the " Metrical 
Hymns and Homilies of St. Ephrem 
Syrus, with Philological Notes and 
Dissertations on the Syrian Metrical 
Church Literature," 1835, and a 
translation of the " Festal Letters 
of St. Athanasius," 1852, a work 
which, after being long lost in the 
original Greek, was recovered in an 
ancient Syriac version, and edited 
for the Oxford "Library of the 

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Fathers " by the Rev. H. G. Wil- 
liams. Dr. Burgess's other works 
are, " The Bible Society vindicated 
in its decision respecting the Bengal 
New Testament," 1836; "The 
Country Miscellany," 2 vols., 
1836-37 ; " Truth or Orthodoxy : to 
which shall we Sacrifice?" 1848; 
" Poems," dedicated to the Mar- 
chioness of Bute, 1850; "The 
Amateur Gardener's Year-Book," 
1855 ; " The Revision of Transla- 
tions of Holy Scripture ;" "Luther, 
his Excellences and Defects," 1857. 
His later works are "The Reformed 
Church of England in its Principles 
and their Legitimate Develop- 
ment," 1869; "Essays, Biblical 
and Ecclesiastical, relating chiefly 
to the Authority and Interpretation 
of the Holy Scriptures," 1873 ; and 
" Disestablishment and Disendow- 
ment," 1875. Dr. Burgess also pre- 
pared the second edition of Kitto's 
"Cyclopaedia of Biblical Litera- 
ture." He ceased to be editor of 
the Clerical Journal at Christmas, 
1868, after having conducted it for 
fourteen years. His principal 
modern work is "The Art of 
Preaching and the Composition of 
Sermons," 1881. In 1861 he was 
appointed by the Lord Chancellor 
to the vicarage of St. Andrew, 
Whittlesea, near Peterborough, in 
recognition of his services to theo- 
logical learning. Dr. Burgess is 
Ph.D. of Gdttingen. 

BURGESS, John Baonold, 
A.R.A., was born Oct. 21, 1830, at 
Chelsea, and received his artistic 
education at the Royal Academy, 
of which he was elected an Asso- 
ciate, June 18, 1877. Among his 
pictures are " Bravo Toro ; " " The 
Presentation : English ladies visit- 
ing a Moor's house," 1874; "The 
Barber's Prodigy," 1875; "Feli- 
ciana: a Spanish Gipsy," 1876; 
"Licensing the Beggars: Spain," 
1877; "Childhood in Eastern Life," 
1878; "Zulina," "The Student in 
Disgrace : a Scene in the Univer- 
sity of Salamanca," and "The 
Convent Garden," 1879; "Zehra," 

and " The Professor and his Pupil," 
in 1880; "The Genius of the 
Family," " Ethel," and " Guarding 
the Hostages," in 1881; "The 
Letter Writer," and "Zara," in 
1882 ; " The Meal at the Fountain : 
Spanish Medical Students," 1883. 

BURGON, Thk Very Rev. John 
William, B.D., son of a merchant 
of London, was born about 1819 ; 
entered Worcester College, Oxford, 
at a rather advanced age, and 
graduated there in 1848, having 
gained the Newdegate prize for 
English verse (subject Petra) in 
1845. He was elected to a fellow- 
ship at Oriel College in 1848. He 
became vicar of the parish of St. 
Mary the Virgin, Oxford (1863-76) 
and Professor of Divinity in Gre- 
sham College, London (1868). In 
Nov. 1875 he was appointed Dean 
of Chichester in succession to the 
late Dr. Hook. Mr. Burgon took 
an active part in the movement for 
supplying rural labourers with reli- 
gious prints of good and tasteful 
design for their cottage walls ; and 
in the year 1876 he made a spirited 
attack on the Oxford lodging-house 
system. Before going to Oxford, 
he prepared a translation of the 
Chevalier Brdnsted's "Memoir on 
the Panathenaic Vases," 1833; 
" The Life and Times of Sir Thomas 
Gresham," chiefly compiled from 
his correspondence in the State- 
Paper Office, 1839. Since then he 
has published " A Plain Comment- 
ary on the Four Gospels;" "Re- 
marks on Art with reference to the 
University Studies ; " " Oxford Re- 
formers," 1854; "A Century of 
Verses in honour of the late Rev. 
Dr. Routh," 1856; "Historical 
Notices of the Colleges of Oxford," 
1857 ; a memoir of the late Patrick 
Fraser Tytler, Esq., under the title 
of a "Portrait of a Christian 
Gentleman," 1861 ; " Inspiration 
and Interpretation : Seven Sermons 
preached before the University of 
Oxford," being an answer to 
"Essays and Reviews," 1861; 
" Letters from Rome to Friends in 

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England," 1862 ; " Treatise on the 
Pastoral Office/' 1864; "Ninety- 
rate Short Sermons/* 2 vols., 1867 ; 
"The Lambeth Conference and the 
Encyclical," 1867; " Disestablish- 
ment, the Nation's Formal Rejec- 
tion of God and Denial of the 
Faith," 1868; "England and 
Borne," three letters to a convert, 
1869 ; " The Roman Council," 1869 ; 
" Protest of the Bishops against the 
Consecration of Dr. Temple," 1870 ; 
" Dr. Temple's Explanation Exam- 
ined," 1870; "The Last Twelve 
Verses of the Gospel according to 
St. Mark Vindicated against Recent 
Critical Objectors and Established," 
1872; "The Athanasian Creed to 
be retained in its Integrity, and 
Why ? " 1872 ; " Plea for the Study 
of Divinity in Oxford," 1875; 
"Home Missions and Sensational 
Religion : Humility," two sermons 
ad clerum, 1876 ; and " The Prayer- 
Book, a Devotional Manual and 
Guide," 1876. His two remarkable 
sermons, published early in Dec. 
1873, on "Romanizing within the 
Church of England " — two months 
before Mr. Gladstone's sudden and 
singular dissolution of Parliament — 
may be said to have been the fore- 
runner of the Public Worship Regu- 
lation Act of 1874. 

BURKE, Sib John Bernard, 
C.B., LL.D., M JLI.A., second son 
of the late John, and grandson of 
the late Peter Burke, Esq., of Elm 
Hall, county Tipperary, born in 
London in 1815, was educated at 
the College of Caen, Normandy, 
and called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple in 1839. He edited (for 
many years in conjunction with his 
father, and since his death solely) 
the "Peerage" which bears his 
name, an invaluable work to the 
lawyer and the antiquary. Sir 
Bernard is the author of " The 
Commoners of Great Britain and 
Ireland," afterwards published 
nnder the title of "The Landed 
Gentry," a "General Armory," 
"Visitation ot Seats," "Family 
Romance/' "Anecdotes of the 

Aristocracy," " The Historic Lands 
of England," " Vicissitudes of 
FamiUes," and " The Rise of Great 
Families." He has written many 
other books on heraldic, historical, 
and antiquarian subjects. In 1853 
he was appointed to succeed the 
late Sir William Betham as Ulster 
King of Arms, and Knight At- 
tendant of the Order of St. Patrick ; 
in 1854 he received the honour of 
knighthood ; in 1862 the University 
of Dublin conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. ; and on 
Dec. 7, 1868, he was created a Com- 
panion of the Bath. He was ap- 
pointed the successor of the late 
Chief Baron Pigott as Governor of 
the National Gallery of Ireland in 
Oct. 1874. 

BURKE, The Rev. Thomas N., 
was born in the town of Galway, Ire- 
land, in 1830. At the age of seventeen 
he went to Rome and from thence 
to Perugia, where he entered the 
Order of St. Dominic, commencing 
his novitiate and the study of philo- 
sophy. From Perugia he was again 
sent to Rome, where he studied theo- 
logy at the College of the Minerva 
and Santa Sabina. After having 
thus spent five years in Italy he was 
sent by the superior of his Order to 
England, where he was ordained 
priest. He spent four years on the 
English mission in Gloucestershire, 
and was then sent to Ireland to 
found a novitiate and house of 
studies for his Order at Tallaght 
near Dublin. This he successfully 
accomplished, and for the next 
seven years he was busily employed 
in the care of the new establish- 
ment and in giving missions in dif- 
ferent parts of Ireland. He was 
next sent to Rome as Superior of the 
monastery of Irish Dominicans at 
San Clemente. After the death of 
Cardinal Wiseman, Father Burke 
succeeded Dr. Manning as preacher 
of the Lenten Sermons in English 
in the church of Santa Maria del 
Popolo. He continued to preach 
these sermons for five years. After 
his return to Ireland ho was at- 

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tached to St. Saviour's Dominican 
Church in Dublin. In 1872 he 
visited the United States, having 
been appointed visitor to the houses 
of the Dominican community on the 
American continent. He delivered 
sermons and lectures in all parts of 
the Union and acquired extraordi- 
nary popularity as an orator. His 
celebrated series of lectures in an- 
swer to Mr. Froude the historian 
on the relations between England 
and Ireland caused much excite- 
ment and produced an animated 
controversy. The first of these lec- 
tures was delivered Nov. 12, 1872, 
in the Academy of Music, New York. 
Father Burke has since returned to 
his native country. His works are -. 
"English Misrule in Ireland," a 
course of lectures in reply to Mr. 
Froude, 12mo, New York, 1873 ; 
" Ireland's Case stated in Reply to 
Mr. Froude," New York, 1873; 
" Lectures and Sermons," New 
York, 1873 ; " Lectures on Faith 
and Fatherland," 1874. 

BURMEISTER, Hermann, natu- 
ralist, was born at Stralsund, Prus- 
sia, Jan. 15, 1807. While a student 
of medicine at Halle, he was en- 
couraged by Professor Nitzch to 
study zoology, and particularly en- 
tomology. Becoming a doctor in 
1829, he made his first appearance 
as an author in the domain of natu- 
ral history, with a "Treatise on 
Natural History," published at 
Halle in 1830. On the death of 
Professor Nitzch, in 1842, he suc- 
ceeded him in the chair of zoology 
in the University of Halle. He 
has written numerous articles on 
zoological subjects in the scientific 
journals of Germany j several mono- 
graphs in a distinct form, such as 
" The Natural History of the Ca- 
landra Species," published in 1837, 
and a "Manual of Entomology." 
Professor Burmeister has occupied 
himself in disseminating correct 
notions of geology among the edu- 
cated classes ; and with this view 
delivered a series of lectures, which 
wore well attended. They were col- 

lected and published in two works, 
" The History of Creation," Leipsic, 
1843, and " Geological Pictures of 
the History of the Earth and its In- 
habitants," 1851, both of which were 
well received. During the revolu- 
tionary fervour of 1848, Professor 
Burmeister was sent by the city of 
Halle as Deputy to the National 
Assembly, and subsequently by the 
town of Leignitz to the first Prus- 
sian Chamber. He took his place 
on the Left, and remained until the 
end of the session, when, on account 
of failing health, he was obliged to 
demand leave of absence, which he 
turned to account by two years' 
travel in the Brazils, and he pub- 
lished " The Animals of the Brazils," 
1854-56. On his return to Europe 
he resumed his post in the Uni- 
versity of Halle. In 1861 he re- 
signed his chair and repaired to 
Buenos Ayres, where he became 
Director of the Museum of Natural 
History founded by himself, and in 
1870 Curator of the newly estab- 
lished University of Cordova. 

B U B N A B Y, Lieut.-Colonrl 
Frederick, Commanding Royal 
Horse Guards, son of the late Rev. 
G. Burnaby, by Harriet, sister of 
the well-known Harry Villebois, 
Esq., of Marham House, Norfolk, 
was born at Bedford, March 3, 1842, 
and received his education at Har- 
row School and in Germany. He 
entered the Royal Horse Guards, 
Blues, Sept. 30, 1859. So passion- 
ately fond was he of fencing and 
gymnastics that he became very 
muscular at the expense of his vi- 
tality and broke down. He was 
now recommended to travel, and ac- 
cordingly visited South America, 
Central Africa, and most parts of 
Europe. In 1875 he determined to 
go to Khiva, although the journey 
was beset by almost insurmountable 
obstacles. Captain Burnaby was 
exceptionally qualified for this par- 
ticular journey by his acquaintance 
with the Russian and Arabic lan- 
guages, and he was, besides, as 
much at home on a camel as in a 

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canoe, a sledge, or a balloon — as in 
a railway carriage or a steamer. 
Moreover, be delighted in grappling 
with a difficulty, and his determina- 
tion to penetrate Central Asia was 
much stimulated by the assurance 
that it was impossible. At more 
than one station the passage of 
foreigners was absolutely prohi- 
bited, and he only got through by 
his knowledge of the language or 
the inability of the inspectors to 
read his passport. On arriving at 
Kazala, near the mouth of the Syr 
Daria, he was allowed by the com- 
mandant to proceed, it being as- 
sumed that he would go at once to 
the fort of Petro-Alexandrovsk, near 
the river Oxus, in the territory 
lately acquired by Russia. Had he 
done so he would never have reached 
the capital ; but suspecting this, he 
made a dJiour, crossed the Oxus 
into the Khanate, and found his 
way to the capital. He had in- 
tended to proceed thence to Bo- 
khara, but his further progress was 
arrested by a message from the 
Russian authorities " inviting " him 
to recross the river and go to Petro- 
Alexandrovsk, where he found a 
telegram awaiting him from the 
Duke of Cambridge, Field-Marshal 
Commanding - in - Chief, requiring 
his immediate return to European 
Russia. In the winter of 1876-/7, 
Captain Burnaby went on horse- 
back through Turkey in Asia and 
all the way from Scutari to Khoi in 
Persia, returning by Kars, Ardahan, 
Batoum, and Trebizond, to Con- 
stantinople. He was military cor- 
respondent of the Times with the 
army of Bon Carlos in Spain. At 
the general election of 1880 Major 
Burnaby contested Birmingham in 
the Conservative interest ; and, al- 
though his opponents included two 
gentlemen, Messrs. J. Bright and 
Chamberlain, who were afterwards 
Cabinet Ministers, yet no fewer than 
15,716 votes were given in his fa- 
vour. Lieut.-Colonel Burnaby was a 
member of the Council of the Aero- 
nautic Society <* Oreat Britain, and 

| he has made 19 balloon ascents, 
being on several occasions unac- 
companied by any professional aero- 
naut. In March, 1882, he ascended 
alone in the " Eclipse " balloon, 
from Dover, and, after some vicissi- 
tudes in mid-air, descended near 
Chateau de Montigny, near Enver- 
meu, in Normandy. His works are : 
"A Ride to Khiva: Travels and 
Adventures in Central Asia. With 
Mapa and an Appendix, containing, 
amongst other information, a series 
of March-Routes, translated from 
several Russian works ; " 3rd ed. 
Lond., 1876 ; " On Horseback 
through Asia Minor/' 1877 ; 7th ed. ; 
and "A Ride across the Channel, 
and other Adventures in the 
Air/' 1882. A brief account of 
the life of Lieut.-Colonel Bur- 
naby, written by Mr. R. K. Mann, 
has lately been published. 

BURNAND, Fbancis Cowley, 
born in 1837, and educated at Eton 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
was called to the bar in 1862. Mr. 
Burnand, who is the author of 
about a hundred dramatic pieces, 
principally burlesques, is on the 
Punch "staff/* for which periodical 
his chief work has been the now well- 
known serial "Happy Thoughts/' 
His burlesque of Douglas Jerrold's 
nautical drama, " Black-eyed Su- 
san/' achieved a " run " of 400 
consecutive nights at the Royalty 
Theatre, Dean Street, Soho. In 
1879 he published " The ' A.D.C/ ; 
being Personal Reminiscences of 
the University Amateur Dra- 
matic Club, Cambridge ; " and in 
July, 1880, he became editor of 
Punch on the death of Mr. Tom 

BURNETT, Mas. Frances, nte 
Hodgson, born at Manchester, Eng- 
land, Nov. 24, 1849. There she 
passed the first fifteen years of her 
life, acquired her education, and 
gained her knowledge of the Lanca- 
shire dialect and character. At the 
close of the American Civil War re- 
verses of fortune led her parents to 
leave England for America, where 

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they settled at Knoxville, Tennessee. 
She has contributed several love- 
stories to American magazines. In 
1872 her dialect story, « Surly Tim's 
Trouble," was published in Scrib- 
ner*s Monthly (now The Century), 
and in book form in 1877. " That 
Lass o* Lowrie's" was first pre- 
sented, serially, in Scribner, and its 
remarkable popularity demanded 
its immediate separate issue, 1877. 
In 1878-79 some of her earlier 
magazine stories were reprinted, 
viz., " Kathleen Mavourneen," 
"Lindsay's Luck," "Miss Cres- 
pigny," "Pretty Polly Pember- 
ton," and " Theo." Since then she 
has published three new stories, 
" HaworthV 1879 ; " Louisiana," 
1880 j " A Fair Barbarian," 1881 ; 
and a fourth, now running in 
The Century, "Through One Ad- 
ministration," will appear shortly. 
Miss Hodgson was married in 1873 
to Dr. Burnett, and she now resides 
at Washington, D.C. 

BURNOUF, Emile Louis, philo- 
logist, born at Valognes, Manche, 
Aug. 25, 1821, was a pupil at the 
Lycee, Saint-Louis ; being received 
into the Normal School in 1841, 
took his degree of Doctor-in-letters 
in 1850, and was appointed Profes- 
sor of Ancient Literature to the 
Faculty of Nancy. Afterwards he 
was Director of the French School 
at Athens, a post which he vacated 
in 1875. In 1878 he received the 
title of Honorary Director of the 
School at Athens. He is the author 
of the following theses and works : 
— " Des Principes de TArt d'apres 
la methode et les doctrines de 
Platon ; " " De Neptuno ejusque 
Cultu, praBsertim in Peloponneso" 
(1850, theses) ; a translation, "Ex- 
traits du Novum Organum de 
Bacon," 1854; "Essai sur le V6da, 
ou Introduction a la Connaissance 
43 l'Inde," 1863 j "Methode pour 
etudier la Langue Sanscrite sur le 
plan des Mdthodes de J. L. Burnouf " 
(in conjunction with M. Leupol), 
2859 j " Dictionnaire Classique 
S an scrit-Fran9ais," 1863-65} "La 

Science des Religions," 3rd ed., 
1876; "L'Indigo Japonais," 1874; 
and " La Mythologie des Japonais," 

BURROWS, Sib George, Bart., 
M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., is a 
son of the late George Manns Bur- 
rows, M.D., F.R.C.P., and was 
educated at Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. as 
10th Wrangler in 1825, being im- 
mediately afterwards elected Fel- 
low and Mathematical Tutor of his 
college. He took the degree of 
M.B. in 1826, that of Licentiate in 
Medicine in 1829, and that of M.D. 
in 1831. In 1832 he became a 
Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians, of which institution 
he afterwards became the Presi- 
dent, being elected for the fifth 
time in March, 1875. He resigned 
the office of President in 1876. 
He held successively the Guls- 
tonian, Croonian, and Lumleian 
lectureships; has been four times 
elected censor, and five times a 
member of the College Council ; 
and was the representative of the 
Royal College of Physicians in the 
General Medical Council of Great 
Britain, of which important body 
he was the President for five years. 
He is a member of the Senate of 
the University of London ; and he 
was formerly President of the Royal 
Medico - Chirurgical Society. He 
obtained the appointment of Phy- 
sician to St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital in 1834, long held the Lecture- 
ship on the Principles »of Medicine 
in that medical school, and is con- 
sulting Physician to St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital. In July, 1870, 
he was appointed one of the Phy- 
sicians-Extraordinary, and in Nov., 
1873, one of the Physicians in 
Ordinary, to Her Majesty the 
Queen. He was created a Baronet 
in Feb., 1874, on the recommenda- 
tion of Mr. Gladstone, who desired 
to pay a compliment to the medical 
profession through one of its most 
distinguished members. Sir George 
Burrows contributed to the "I** 

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brary of Medicine " the articles on 
" HaxDorrhage," and several papers 
on professional subjects to the Me- 
dical Gazette, Medical Times, and to 
"The Transactions of the Medico- 
Chirurgical Society." He is the 
author of a learned work on " The 
Cerebral Circulation and the Con- 
nection of Diseases of the Heart 
and Brain." Sir George married a 
daughter of the celebrated John 
Abernethy. (She died March, 
1882 ) 

BURROWS, Montagu, R.N., 
M.A., third son of Lieut.-General 
Burrows, was born at Badley, Mid- 
dlesex, Oct. 27, 1819, and educated 
at the Royal Naval College, Ports- 
mouth, where he obtained the 
" First Medal " in 1834. He served 
continuously in the Royal Navy till 
he obtained the rank of Commander 
in 1852, and became a retired Cap- 
tain in 1867. He matriculated at 
Oxford University, 1853 ; took the 
degree of M.A. there, and that of 
Hon. M.A. of Cambridge, in 1859 ; 
was elected to the CWchele Pro- 
fessorship of Modern History in 
1862; became a Fellow of All 
Souls in 1870 ; and member of the 
Hebdomadal Council of his Uni- 
versity in 1876. During his service 
in the navy he was engaged in 
several actions with Malay pirates, 
under Captain Chads, and received 
medals from the English and 
Turkish Governments for the cap- 
ture of St. Jean d'Acre in 1840. 
He was made Commander for his 
services in H.M.S. Excellent. He 
is the author of " Pass and Class : 
an Oxford Guide-book through the 
courses of Liter® Humaniores, Ma- 
thematics, Natural Science, Law, 
and Modern History," 3rd edition, 
1866; "Constitutional Progress, a 
series of Lectures delivered before 
the University of Oxford/' 1869 ; 
"A Memoir of Admiral Sir H. 
Chads, G.C.B./' 1869 ; " Worthies 
of All Souls : Four Centuries of 
English History illustrated from 
the College Archives," 1874 ; "Par- 
liament and the Ctyurch of Eng- 

land," 1875 ; " Imperial England," 
1880; "Oxford during the Com- 
monwealth " (Camden Society), 
1881 ; " Wiclifs Place in History," 
1882. He married, in 1849, Mary 
Anna, daughter of Sir James W. S. 
Gardiner, Bart., of Roche Court, 

BURT, Thomas, M.P., was born 
Nov. 12, 1837, atMurton Row, near 
Percy Main, Northumberland, being 
the son of Peter Burt, a coal-miner. 
While he was yet a child, seventeen 
months old, his parents went to 
Whitley, whence they had to re- 
move about a year afterwards, when 
the pit was thrown out of gear by 
an explosion. Their next place of 
abode was New Bow, Seghill, now 
styled Blake Town, where they re- 
mained five years, and at a later 
period they settled at the Seaton 
Delaval colliery. Young Burt, who 
had been working in the coal-pits 
from an early age, here began that 
course of self-culture which has 
gone so far to supply the deficiencies 
of his previous education. In 1860 
he removed to Choppington, and 
married Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Weatherburn. In 1865 he was 
appointed Secretary to the North- 
umberland Miners Mutual Asso- 
ciation. In this cape city he rendered 
himself so popular among the miners 
that it was determined to nominate 
him as the working class candidate 
for the representation of Morpeth 
at the general election of Feb., 1874. 
He was returned by 3332 votes 
against 585 given for Captain Dun- 
can, the Conservative candidate. 
The Northumberland miners have 
voluntarily taxed themselves to the 
extent of J2500 a year, in order to 
supply him with the means of sup- 
porting the honour of a seat in the 
House of Commons. In June, 1880, 
he was elected a member of the 
Reform Club by the Political Com- 
mittee, under the rule empowering 
the body to elect two candidates 
in each year for marked and 
obvious services to the Liberal 
cause. Mr, Burt presided aver the 

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Miners' Conference, held at Man- 
chester in Sept., 1882. 

BUETON, Captain Richabd 
Francis, son of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Joseph Netterville Burton, of Tuam, 
Galway, was born in 1821. He be- 
gan life at Oxford, and was destined 
for the Church, but he yearned so 
much after military service that 
his father procured him a commis- 
sion in the Indian Army, and sent 
him out to India in 1842 at the end 
of the Affghan War. He was nine- 
teen years in the Bombay Army, 
eight years in active service, chiefly 
on the staff of Sir Charles Napier, 
who soon discovered his merits, and 
turned them to account. He quickly 
passed examinations in eight Orien- 
tal languages — Hindostani, Persian, 
Arabic, and others. He now speaks 
and knows thoroughly twenty-nine 
languages, both European and 
Oriental, not counting dialects. As 
a horseman, swordsman, and shot, 
he became unsurpassed, and re- 
ceived from France a brevU de pointe 
for his swordsmanship. He pub- 
lished in 1853 a system of bayonet 
exercise, which was adopted by 
the Horse Guards. During the 
times when he was not on active 
service he was serving his country, 
humanity, science, and civilization 
in other ways, by opening up lands 
hitherto unknown. He made an 
expedition to Mecca and Medina in 
1853. His talents for mixing with 
and simulating natives of all coun- 
tries, but especially Oriental cha- 
racters, and of becoming as one of 
themselves, without anyone ever 
doubting his origin; his perfect 
knowledge of their language, and 
his being gifted by nature with an 
Arab head and face, favoured his 
first great enterprise. He next 
explored Harar, in Moslem Abys- 
sinia, and went to Somali-Land, in 
East Africa. He commanded the 
expedition, taking with him the 
gallant Speke and Lieutenants 
Heme and Stroyan. The explorers 
were attacked in the night by the 
natives. All fought their way 

bravely through the enemy; Cap- 
tain Burton and Captain Speke 
were both desperately wounded, 
and poor Stroyan was killed, while 
Heme's fate was to be untouched. 
In the Crimea he was chief of the 
staff to General Beatson, and he 
was the principal organiser of the 
irregular cavalry. Lord Palmer- 
ston was going to send Captain 
Burton to raise a large body of 
Kurdish horse, when peace was 
proclaimed. In 1856 he set out for 
his great explorations of the lake 
regions of Central Africa, again 
taking with him his comrade in 
arms and travel, Speke, who was 
afterwards in his turn commander 
of a subsequent expedition with 
Grant. Then it was that Burton 
discovered Tanganyika. The ex- 
pedition was absent three years. 
In 1860 Burton went to the United 
States, visited California and Salt 
Lake City, and travelled during 
that expedition 25,000 miles. In 
1861, when the Indian Army 
changed hands his military career 
terminated. The same year Earl. 
Russell sent him to Fernando Po, 
on the West Coast of Africa. The 
Bight of Biaf ra, 600 miles in extent, 
was his jurisdiction. He did good 
service here for three years. He 
thoroughly explored from Bathurst, 
on the Gambia, down to San Paulo 
de Loanda, in Angola, marched up 
to Abeokuta, and ascended the 
Cameroon Mountains. He visited 
the cannibal Mpangwe, the Fans 
of Du Chaillu ; he went to Benin 
City, unknown to Europe since the 
death of Belzoni ; he ascended the 
Congo River, and explored the Yel- 
lalah Rapids, the Elephant Moun- 
tains, and the whole line of lagoons 
between Lagos and the Volta rivers. 
Then he was sent on a dangerous 
mission — a three months' mission to 
the King of Dahomey, with pre- 
sents, to induce King Gelele to 
abolish his "customs." Captain 
Burton was then transferred to Sao 
Paulo (Brazil), where he was active 
and useful for four years, both on 

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the coast and in the interior. He 
thoroughly explored his own pro- 
vince, which is larger than France, 
the »old and diamond mines of Minas 
Geraes, canoed down the great 
riTer San Francisco, 1500 miles, 
visited the Argentine Republic, 
the Hirers La Plata and Paraguay, 
for the purpose of reporting to the 
Foreign Office the state of the Para- 
guayan War. He crossed the Pam- 
pas and the Andes to Chili and 
Peru, and visited all the Pacific 
Coast. Returning by the Straits 
of Magellan, Buenos Ayres, and Rio 
to London, he found himself ap- 
pointed to Damascus. While hold- 
ing that position he explored various 
parts of Syria. In 1871 the consu- 
late of Damascus was reduced to a 
vice-consulate, and Captain Burton 
was recalled. In 1872 he set out 
for Iceland, and thoroughly studied 
and explored it, returning the same 
year to find himself posted at 
Trieste. In 1876 Captain Burton 
visited Midian, and wrote an ac- 
count of his travels in that country. 
At the close of the year 1877 he 
started again for Midian, purposing 
to organise a new exploration and 
partial exploitation of the mines 
which he discovered there. The 
second expedition left Suez, Dec. 
10, 1877, and returned there on 
April 10, 1878. During four months 
of hard travelling and voyaging 
they lost only one soldier, who diea 
of fever. They brought home some 
twenty-five tons of geological speci- 
mens to illustrate the general geolo- 
gical formation of the land; six 
cases of Colorado and Negro ore; 
five cases of ethnological and an- 
thropological collections — such as 
Midianite coins, inscriptions in 
Nabathean and Cufic, remains of 
worked stones, fragments of smelted 
metals, glass and pottery ; upwards 
of 200 sketches in oil and water 
colours, photographs of the chief 
ruins, including catacombs, and of 
a classical temple, apparently of 
Greek art ; and, finally, maps and 
plans of the whole country, includ- 

ing thirty-two ruined cities, some 
of whose names can be restored by 
consulting Strabo and Ptolemy, be- 
sides sketches of many ateliers 
where perambulating bands like the 
gipsies of ancient and modern times 
seem to have carried on simple min- 
ing operations. The caravan con- 
sisted of eight Europeans, three 
Egyptian officers of the staff and 
two of the line, twenty-five soldiers 
and thirty miners, ten mules, and 
about one hundred camels. In 1882 
Captain Burton and Commander 
V. L. Cameron undertook a journey 
of exploration in the country lying 
at the back of the Gold Coast Colony. 
Captain Burton has written some 
thirty volumes, which describe 
his travels. Among them are: 
"The Lake Regions of Central 
Africa ;" "Abeokuta; or, an Ex- 
ploration of the Cameroon Moun- 
tains," 1803; "A Narrative of a 
Mission to the King of Daho- 
mey," 1861; "Explorations of the 
Highlands of the Brazil, with a full 
account of the Gold and Diamond 
Mines ; " also, " Canoeing down 1500 
miles of the great river Sao Fran- 
cisco, from Sahara to the Sea," 2 
vols., 1868; "Vikram and the Vam- 
pire, or tales of Hindu Devilry," 
1869; "Zanzibar, City, Island, and 
Coast/' 2 vols., 1872 ; and (in colla- 
boration with Mr. Charles F. Tyr- 
whitt Drake) "Unexplored Syria: 
Visits to the Libanus, the Tulul el 
Saf a, the Anti-Libanus, the Northern 
Libanus, and the 'Alan;" "Two 
Trips to Gorilla Land and Cataracts 
of the Congo," 2 vols., 1875 ; " Ultima 
Thule, or a Summer in Iceland," 2 
vols., 1875; "Etruscan Bologna: 
a Study," 1876; "Sind Revisited; 
with Notices of the Anglo-Indian 
Army; Railroads, Past, Present, 
and Future, &c," 2 vols., 1877; 
"The Gold Mines of Midian and 
the Ruined Midianite Cities. A 
Fortnight's Tour in North Western 
Arabia," 1878; a translation of 
"Camoens's Lusiads," 1880; "Ca- 
moens : his Life and his Lusiads ; 
a Commentary;" 2 vols., 1881; 

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" A Glance at the Passion Play," 
1881 ; and "To the Gold Coast for 
Gold : a Personal Narrative " (con- 
jointly with Commander Verney 
Lovett Cameron), 1882. Captain 
Burton has received the gold medals 
of the French and English Geogra- 
phical Societies. 

BUEY (Viscount), The Eight 
Hon. William Coutts Keppel, 
Lord Ashford, K.C.M.G., called by 
courtesy Viscount Bury, son of 
the Earl of Albemarle, born in 1832, 
and educated at Eton ; entered the 
Scots Fusilier Guards in 1849, and 
was private secretary to Lord John 
Eussell in 1850-51. He afterwards 
went to India as aide-de-camp to 
the late Lord F. Fitz-Clarence, but 
returned home on sick leave, and 
retired from the army. In Dec, 
1854, he was nominated Civil Secre- 
tary and Superintendent-General 
of Indian Affairs for the province 
of Canada ; entered Parliament in 
1857, was appointed Treasurer of 
the Eoyal Household on the return 
of Lord Palmerston to office in 
1859 j and first elected M.P. for 
Norwich, as a Liberal, in April, 
1857. On taking office in 1859, his 
re-election was declared void. In 
Nov., 1860, he was elected for the 
Wick district of burghs, which he 
ceased to represent at the general 
election of 1865, when he was a 
defeated candidate for Dover. Lord 
Bury, who is married to a daughter 
of Sir Alan N. M'Nab., Bart., is 
the author of " The Exodus of the 
Western Nations," "A Eeport on 
the Condition of the Indians of 
British North America," and other 
political and historical papers. He 
has taken an active part in pro- 
moting the Volunteer movement, 
isLieut.-Colonelof the Civil Service 
regiment of Volunteers, and was 
sworn a Privy Councillor in 1859. 
In 1868 he was elected M.P. for 
Berwick-on-Tweed, but he was de- 
feated at the general election of 
Feb., 1874. He unsuccessfully con- 
tested Stroud in Feb., 1875, when 
he polled 2577 votes, 2783 being 

recorded for Mr. Marling, the 
Liberal candidate. He was sum- 
moned to the House of Peers in 
his father's barony of Ashford in 
1876, and was appointed Under- 
Secretary of State for War in suc- 
cession to Lord Cadogan in March, 
1878. He held that office until the 
Conservatives went out of office in 
1880. Lord Bury joined the Roman 
Catholic Church in 1879. 

BUSK, Miss Rachel H., is the 
youngest daughter of the late Hans 
Busk, Esq., of Great Cumberland 
Place, London, a man of elevated 
tastes and attainments, which were 
devoted to the education of his 
family. Since the death of her 
father Miss Busk has directed her 
attention to literary and artistic 
pursuits. Frequent residences and 
travels in the South of Europe not 
only gave a direction to her literary 
labours, but afforded opportunities 
of close and critical observation 
which have been turned to good 
advantage. Her power of graphic 
description has been well shown in 
her contributions to current litera- 
ture. Miss Busk has also published 
" Contemporary Annals of Rome ; ** 
a collection of stories from Spanish 
Folklore and Eomanceros under 
the title of "Patranas" (the 
Spanish designation for them); a 
similar collection from the Tyrol 
called *' Household Stories from the 
Land of Hofer ; " " Sagas from the 
far East," being the first complete 
version published in English of the 
" Siddhi-kur " and " Ardschi-Bord- 
schi" Tales; "The Folklore of 
Rome, collected by Word of Mouth 
from the People ; T ' and " The Val- 
leys of Tirol : their Traditions and 
Customs, and How to Visit Them/' 

BUTE (Marquis of), The 
Most Honourable John Patrick 
Crichton Stuart, K.T., son of the 
second marquis, born at Mount- 
stuart House, in the Isle of Bute, 
Sept. 12, 1847, succeeded to the 
title on the death of his father in 
1848, and received his education 

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at Harrow School, whence he 
proceeded to Christ Cnurch, Ox- 
ford. He was admitted, into the 
Catholic Church \>y Monsignor 
Capel at Nice, on I>ec. 24, 1868, 
and since that period, he has dis- 
played great zeal and liberality in 
promoting the cause of Catholic 
education, and in advancing the 
interests of the Church in England. 
In order, as far aa possible, to put 
within the reach of Scotch Catholics 
the benefits of University teaching 
of the first order, he subsidized, in 
1879, the College of St. Benedict, 
Fort Augustus, with J6500 a year, 
to enable it to secure the assistance 
of two professors from our national 
universities in teaching classics 
and mathematics. His lordship 
married in 1872 the Hon. Gwen- 
doline Mary Anne, eldest daughter 
of Lord Howard of Glossop. He 
was created a Knight of the Order 
of the Thistle in Feb., 1875. The 
Marquis published "The Early 
Days of Sir "William Wallace," a 
lecture delivered at Paisley in 
1876 ; "The Burning of the 
Barns of Ayr/* 1878; "The Boman 
Breviary : reformed by order of 
the Holy CEcumenical Council of 
Trent ; published by order of Pope 
St. Pius V., and revised by Clement 
VIII. and Urban VIII., together 
with the offices since granted. 
Translated out of Latin into Eng- 
lish/* 1879 ; and " The Coptic 
Morning Service for the Lord's 
Day, translated into English/' 

BUTLB"B, Benjamin jmianklin, 
born at Deerfield, New Hampshire, 
Nov. 5, 1818. He graduated at 
Waterville College in 1838, and in 
lHkl commenced the practice of 
law at Ifowell, Massachusetts. He 
early took a prominent part in 
politics on the Democratic side, and 
in 1853 was elected to the Massa- 
chusetts House of ^Representatives, 
and in 1859 to the State Senate. 
In I860 be was a delegate to the 
National Democratic Convention, 
which met at Charleston, South 

Carolina. The Convention broke 
up without making any nomination 
for the Presidency, and when a por- 
tion of the delegates reassembled 
at Baltimore, Mr. Butler announced 
that a majority of the delegates 
from Massachusetts would take no 
further part in the proceedings of 
the Convention, for the reason, 
among others, that they •' would 
not sit in a Convention in which the 
slave trade, which by law was piracy, 
was advocated." In that year he 
! was the Democratic candidate for 
| Governor of Massachusetts. He 
j had before held a commission as 
Brigadier-General of Militia. On 
| April 17, 1861, he marched to Anna- 
I polis, Maryland, with his regiment, 
I and was soon afterwards placed in 
I command at Baltimore, and subse- 
, quently at Fortress Monroe. While 
I here, some slaves who had come 
within his lines were demanded by 
their masters. He refused to de- 
liver them up, on the ground that 
they were " contraband of war ; " 
whence originated the term " con- 
trabands," by which slaves were 
frequently designated during the 
civil war. Early in Feb., 1862, a 
combined naval and military attack 
upon New Orleans was planned, 
Butler to command the land force. 
The naval force, under Farragut, 
passed the forts below, and were 
virtually in possession of the city 
on May 1, when the troops came up, 
and Butler took formal possession, 
and governed there with great 
vigour until November, when he 
was recalled. Late in 1863 he was 
placed in command of the depart- 
ment of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina, and the forces here were 
designated the army of the James. 
When General Grant was moving 
towards Richmond in July, 1864, 
Butler made an unsuccessful effort 
to capture Petersburg. In Dec., 
1864, he made an ineffectual at- 
tempt upon Fort Fisher, near Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, and was 
then relieved of his command. In 
1866 he was elected to Congress by 

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the Republicans of Massachusetts, 
and he has been repeatedly re- 
elected until 1878. In 1871 and in 
1873 he was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for the Republican nomination 
for Governor of Massachusetts. 
In 1877 he left the Republican 
party to re-enter that of the Demo- 
crats, and was their candidate for 
Governor of Massachusetts in 1878 
and 1879, but was defeated. Again 
their nominee in 1882, he was suc- 
cessful in the general Democratic 
victory of that year. 

BUTLER, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Southerden, daughter of the late 
Mr. Thomas J. Thompson, by 
Christina, daughter of Mr. T. B. 
Weller, was born at Lausanne, in 
Switzerland. Her parents removed 
to Prestbury, near Cheltenham, 
where, at the age of five years, Miss 
Thompson first began to handle the 
pencil. After two or three years' 
sojourn at Prestbury, Mr. and Mrs. 
Thompson went to live in Italy, and 
the young artist continued her 
studies at Florence. In 1870 the 
family returned to England, and 
took up their abode at Ventnor, 
where they remained till the great 
success of Miss Thompson's picture 
of the " Roll Call " made a removal 
to London desirable. At one period 
she studied in the Government 
School of Art, Kensington. For 
some years she exhibited at the 
Dudley and other galleries. Her 
first picture at the Royal Academy 
was " Missing," 1873. It was fol- 
lowed in 1874 by the "Roll Call," 
a picture which attracted universal 
attention, and which was purchased 
by the Queen. "The 28th Regi- 
ment at Quatre Bras" was exhi- 
bited at the Academy in 1875 ; 
•' Balaklava " in Bond Street in 
1876 ; and " Inkermann " in Bond 
Street in 1877. More recently she 
has painted: — "'Listed for the 
Connaught Rangers : recruiting in 
Ireland," 1879 j "The Defence of 
Rorke's Drift," 1881 ; " Floreat 
Etona ! " 1882, an incident in the 
attack on Lain g 'a Nek ; and a pic- 

ture representing the famous charge 
of the Scots Greys at Waterloo 
(1882). Miss Thompson became 
the wife of Major William Francis 
Butler, C.B., June 11, 1877. 

BUTLER, The Rbv. Gkorok, 
M.A., is the eldest son of the late 
Rev. George Butler, head master of 
Harrow School and afterwards 
Dean of Peterborough, and brother 
of the Rev. Dr. Butler, the present 
head master of Harrow. He was 
born in 1820, and educated at 
Harrow and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, but migrated thence to 
Oxford, and entered at Exeter Col- 
lege, where he obtained the Hert- 
ford University Scholarship, in 
1841. He was subsequently elected 
to a Fellowship at his college and 
took his Bachelor's degree as a first- 
class in classics in 1843, proceeding 
M.A. in 1846. He was ordained 
deacon in 1854 and priest in the 
following year, by Dr. Wilberforoe, 
Bishop of Oxford. He was for- 
merly Vice-Principal of Cheltenham 
College, and was Principal of Liver- 
pool College from 1867 to 1882. 
Mr. Butler was Public Examiner in 
the University of Oxford in 1852, 
Classical Examiner to the Secretary 
of State for War in 1855, and 
Examiner for the East India Com- 
pany's Civil Service in 1856. In 
June, 1882, Mr. Gladstone conferred 
on him a canonry of Winchester 
which had become vacant by the 
elevation of the Rev. Ernest Wilber- 
force to the bishopric of Newcastle. 
Mr. Butler is the author or editor 
of the following works: — "Prin- 
ciples of Imitative Art," 1852; 
" Descriptio Antiqui Codicis Virgi- 
liani," privately printed 18&; 
" Essay on the Raphael Drawings 
in the University Galleries," con- 
tributed to the " Oxford Essays," 
1856; "Cheltenham College Ser- 
mons," 1$62; "Family Prayers," 
1862; "The Public Schools Atlas 
of Modern Geography," 1871 ; and 
" The Public Schools Atlas of An- 
cient Geography," 1876. 

BUTLER, The Rbv. Hbnbt 

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Montaqtj, Head Master of Harrow 
School, youngest son of the late 
Rev. George Butler, D.D., Head 
Master of Harrow, and afterwards 
Dean of Peterborough, was born in 
1833, and educated at Harrow, 
under Dr. Vaughan, and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He was 
elected Bell University Scholar in 
1852, and Battie University Scholar 
in 1S53. In 1853 he won Sir W. 
Browne's medal for the Greek ode, 
and in 185 A the Porson Prize, the 
Greek ode, the Camden medal for 
Latin Hexameters, and the Mem- 
bers' Prize for a Latin essay. In 
1855 he graduated B.A. as Senior 
Classic, and in the same year was 
elected Fellow of his college. On 
the retirement of Dr. Vaughan, at 
Christmas, 1859, he was elected to 
the head mastership of the school, 
over which his father had presided 
for twenty-four years, from 1805 to 
1829. He was honorary chaplain 
to the Queen, 1875-77 ; chaplain in 
ordinary, 1877 ; prebendary of St. 
Paul's and examining chaplain to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
1879. He has been several times 
select preacher at the Universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge. He 
published in 1861 and in 18G9 
volumes of " Sermons preached in 
the Chapel of Harrow School." 

BUTLER, Major William 
Fbakcis, C.B., was born in the 
county of Tipperary, Ireland, in 
1838, and educated at Dublin. He 
was appointed Ensign of the 69th 
Regiment, Sept. 17, 1858; Lieu- 
tenant, Nov., 1863 ; Captain, 1872 ; 
Major, 1874 ; and Deputy- Adjutant- 
Quarter - Master - General, Head 
Quarter-Staff, 1876. Major Butler 
served on the Bed River Expedition ; 
was sent on a special mission to the 
Saskatchewan Territories in 1870- 
71 ; and served on the Ashanti Ex- 
pedition in 1873, in command of the 
West Akim native forces. He was 
several times mentioned in de- 
spatches of Sir Garnet Wolseley, 
and in the House of Lords by the 
Field - Marshal Commanding - in- 

Chief. He was appointed a Com- 
panion of the Bath in 1H71. In 
Feb., 1879, he was despatched to 
Natal to assume the responsible* 
post of Staff Officer at the port of 
disembarcation. Major Butler is 
the author of "The Great Lone 
Land," 1872; "The Wild North 
Land," 1873; "Akinifoo," 1875; 
and " Far out : Rovings retold," 
1880. He married, June 11, 1877, 
at the church of the Servite Fathers, 
Fulham Road, London, Miss Eliza- 
beth Thompson, the painter. 

BUTT, The Hon. Charles 
Parker, was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in 185 4, and joined 
the Northern circuit. He obtained 
a silk gown in 186S. He unsuc- 
cessfully contested Tamworth in 
Feb., 1874, and sat for Southamp- 
ton, in the Liberal interest, from 
I April, 1880, till March, 1883, when 
! he was appointed to the judgeship 
in the Admiralty division of the 
High Court of Justice, vacant by 
the resignation of Sir Robert Phil- 

BUTTERFIELD, William, ar- 
chitect, was born Sept. 7, 1814. 
Having been brought up as an 
architect, he devoted himself more 
especially to a scientific study of 
the various Gothic styles, into 
which, since entering on his pro- 
fession, he has imported variety by 
the use of coloured stone, brick, 
and marble, both in churches and 
domestic buildings. His chief works 
are St. Augustine's College, Canter- 
bury; All Saints' Church and 
Schools, Margaret Street, London ; 
Baldersby Church, Yorkshire ; 
Yealmpton Church, Devonshire ; 
the new chapel at Balliol College, 
Oxford; St. Alban's Church, Bald- 
win's Gardens, Gray's Inn Lane ; 
Winchester County Hospital ; Win- 
chester and Rugby School Build- 
ings ; and Keble College, Oxford. 

BYLES, The Right Hon. Sir 
John Barnard, son of the late Mr. 
John Byles, of Stowmarket, Suffolk, 
born in 1801, and called to the bar 
at the Inner Temple in 1831 ; went 

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for some years the Norfolk circuit, 
and in 1810 was appointed Recorder 
of Buckingham. In 1843 he re- 
ceived the coif of a serjeant-at-law, 
to which was afterwards added a 
patent of precedence. He is the 
author of several professional works 
of high repute ; amongst which may 
be mentioned one "On the Usury 
Laws," and another "On Bills of 
Exchange ;" and of a political work 
of some notoriety, entitled " The 
Sophisms of Free Trade." In 1857 
he was made Queen's Serjeant, and 
in 1858 received the honour of 
knighthood on his elevation to the 
Bench as one of the judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas. He re- 
signed his judgeship at the com- 
mencement of Jan., 1873 ; on March 
3, following, he was sworn of the 
Privy Council. He is the author 
of " The Foundation of Religion in 
the Mind and Heart of Man," 
BYR, Robert. (See Bayer.) 
BYRNE, Mrs. William Pitt, 
second daughter of the late Hans 
Busk, Esq., of Great Cumberland 
Place, and widow of William Pitt- 
Byrne, M.A., of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, proprietor of the Morn- 
ing Post, an elegant scholar and a 
man of high literary attainments, 
artistic tastes, and musical profi- 
ciency. Mrs. Pitt-Byrne contri- 
buted at an early age to many of 
the principal periodicals of the day, 
but always anonymously. One of 
her contributions to Frater was a 
detailed and comprehensive history 
of Montagu House, which appeared 
in four numbers of that Magazine : 
a companion-paper of much re- 
search, on the Hotel de Carnavalet 
was published in the People's, and, 
among others, in Macmillan, an in- 
teresting description of the archives 
of the Prefecture de Police, since 
burnt by the Communards. Mrs. 
Pitt-Byrne wrote for Once a Week, 
and contributed (July, 1866) a 
scholarly and poetical paper called 
"The Grotto of Vaucluse. ,, ' The 
first volume she published, "A 

Glance behind the Grilles," ap- 
peared in 185 1. It was followed 
by several others; the most popu- 
lar being, perhaps, the well-known 
volume of " Flemish Interiors," and 
it is as the "Author of Flemish 
Interiors" that this writer has 
always since presented her pro- 
ductions to the public. Her other 
works, all very favourably and 
generally known, bear on them 
the unmistakable stamp of artistic 
and literary culture ; those of a 
social and descriptive character have 
been illustrated by her own pencil. 
They comprise, besides those above 
named — " Realities of Paris Life," 
3 vols.; "Red, White, and Blue," 
3 vols. ; " Undercurrents Over- 
looked," 2 vols. ; " Cosas de Espaiia," 
2 vols. ; " Feudal Castles of France ; " 
" Gheel, or the City of the Simple ; " 
" The Beggynhof , or the City of the 
Single;" " Sainte Perrine, or the 
City of the Gentle;" " Pictures of 
Hungarian Life ; " and " Curiosities 
of the Search-room." Mrs. Pitt- 
Byrne has for many years written 
musical, dramatic, and literary 
critiques for several daily and 
weekly papers, and has also sup- 
plied paragraphs and papers of 
interest of another class to the 
columns of Land and Water. 

BYRON, Henry James, drama- 
tist and actor, son of Henry Byron, 
Esq., British Consul at Port-au- 
Prince, Hayti, is a native of Man- 
chester, and completed his educa- 
tion in London. He is well known 
to the play-going public as one of 
the moat skilful and prolific writers 
of burlesque extravaganzas. His 
earliest effort in this line, " Fra 
Diavolo," produced at the Strand 
Theatre on the first night of Miss 
Swanborough's season in 1858, was 
speedily followed by several success- 
ful pieces ; amongst which may be 
mentioned the " Maid and Magpie," 
"Aladdin," "Esmeralda," "The 
Lady of Lyons," and " Grin Bushes ;*' 
two farces, and a comedy entitled 
" The Old Story." Other theatres 
competed for his burlesques, and for 

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the Adelphi he wrote the " Babes 
in the Wood," " Jll-treated II Tro- 
▼atore;" for the Olympic, " Ma- 
zeppa TYavestie ; " for Drury Lane, 
" Miss Eily O'Connor ; " and for the 
Princess's, " Jack the Giant-killer, " 
and other pantomimes. At the 
Haymarket, amongst other pieces, 
was produced his " Dundreary Mar- 
ried and Done f or ; " at the Prince 
of Wales's, " La Sonnambtila Tra- 
restae," " Lncia di Lammermoor," 
" Little Don Giovanni," •' Der Frei- 
schuts," and original comedies, 
" War to the Knife " and " A Hun- 
dred Thousand Pounds." Mr. Byron 
has contributed extensively to pe- 
riodical literature, was the first 
editor of Fun, and is the author of 
a three-volume novel — " Paid in 
Pull," originally published in 
Temple Bar. He made his first 
appearance in London as an actor 
at the Globe Theatre in his own 
drama of "Not Such a Fool as 
he Looks," Oct. 23, 1869. Among 
his later pieces are, " An American 
Lady," a comedy in three acts, pro- 
duced at the opening of the Criterion 
Theatre, March 21, 1874; "Old 
Sailors," a comedy, brought out at 
the Strand later in the same year ; 
and " Our Boys," which was played 
for the 1150th time at the Vaude- 
ville Theatre on Aug. 9, 1878. Mr. 
Byron is a member of the Middle 


CABANEL, Alexandre, artist, 
was born at Montpellier, Sept. 28, 
1823 ; studied in the atelier of M. 
Pioot, and attracted attention by 
his exhibition, in the " salon " of 
1844, of a painting, the subject of 
which was the " Agony of Christ in 
the Garden of Olives," and obtained 
the second great prize for painting 
in 1845. Having returned from 
Borne, he exhibited amongst other 
works (1850-53), a " Saint John," 
and "The Death of Moses," and 
was entrusted with the execution 

of twelve medallions for the decora- 
tion of the Hotel de Ville of Paris, 
representing the twelve months of 
the year. M. Cabanel's reputation 
as a painter is high. He obtained 
a second-class medal at the exhibi- 
tion of paintings in 1852, a first- 
class medal in 1855, and the medal 
of honour at the " salon " of 1865. 
He was elected member of the 
Academie des Beaux Arts, in place 
of Horace Vernet,, Sept. 26, 1863; 
Professor in the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts at the end of that year, and 
was promoted to the rank of Officer 
of the Legion of Honour, Aug. 29, 

CABAT, Nicolas Louis, a French 
landscape painter, born at Paris 
Dec. 24, 1812 ; studied painting 
under M. Camille Flers, and visited 
the most picturesque parts of 
France. He first exhibited in the 
" salon " of 1833 some landscapes 
which the critics pronounced to be 
too realistic ; but he persevered in 
this style of painting till 1837, and 
became the founder of a school. 
From that period till 1848 he only 
contributed twice to the annual 
exhibitions (in 1840 and 1841), but 
since 1848 he has been a regular 
contributor. M. Cabat was elected 
a member of the Academy of Fine 
Arts in 1867, and unanimously 
chosen Director, in Nov., 1878, of 
the French School of Painting at 

CABLE, Gkoeoe W., novelist, 
was born in New Orleans, where he 
still resides, in 1845. At the age 
of fourteen his father died, leaving 
his family in such reduced circum- 
stances as to compel his son to leave 
school in order to aid in the support 
of his mother and sisters. From 
this time until 1863 he was usually 
employed as a clerk. In that year 
he entered the Confederate army, 
where he remained until the close 
of the civil war. Returning to 
New Orleans, he made such a 
living as he could — at first as an 
errand boy (though he was twenty- 
one years of age), then in survey- 

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ing, and finally secured a position 
in a prominent house of cotton 
factors, which he only left, in 1879, 
to devote himself exclusively to 
literature. His- first literary work 
was in the form of contributions to 
the New Orleans Picayune over the 
signature of Drop- Shot. His work, 
however, did not attract any very 
general attention until his Creole 
sketches appeared in Scribncr's 
Magazine. These were published 
in book form in 1879, under the 
title of " Old Creole Days." They 
were followed by "The Grandis- 
simes " in 1880, and by " Madame 
Delphine " in 1881. In all of these 
Mr. Cable has shown such a mastery 
of the Louisiana dialect and such a 
deep insight into the Creole charac- 
ter as to give him at once a pro- 
minence among American writers 
which few are . fortunate enough to 
obtain in so brief an experience. 
He is now engaged upon the pre- 
paration of a history of New 

CADELL, Fbanci8, the explorer 
of the river Murray, son of H. F. 
Cadell, Esq., of Cockenzie, near 
Preston Pans, Haddingtonshire, 
was born in 1822, and educated at 
Edinburgh and in Germany. While 
very young he showed a taste for 
adventure, and entered as a mid- 
shipman on board an East India- 
man. The vessel having been 
chartered by Government, the lad, 
as a volunteer, took part in the 
first Chinese war, was present at 
the siege of Canton, the capture 
of Amoy, Ningpo, &c, and received 
an officer's share of prize-money. 
At twenty-two he was in command 
of a vessel, and in the intervals 
oetween his voyages he spent much 
time in the shipbuilding yards of 
the Tyne and Clyde, where he 
gained a thorough knowledge of 
naval architecture and the con- 
struction of the steain-engine. A 
visit to the Amazons first led him 
to study the subject of river navi- 
gation ; and when in Australia, in 
1848, his attention was drawn to 

the practicability of navigating the 
Murray and its tributaries, which 
had only served for watering the 
flocks belonging to the scattered 
stations on their banks. Three 
years later, encouraged by the 
Governor of Australia, Sir H. F. 
Young, he put his project into exe- 
cution. In a frail boat, with canvas 
sides and ribs of barrel hoops, he 
embarked at Swanhill on the Upper 
Murray, and descended the stream 
to Lake Victoria at its mouth, a 
distance of 1300 miles. Having 
thus proved that the Murray was 
navigable, he succeeded in crossing 
the dangerous bar at its mouth in 
a steamer planned and constructed 
under his supervision. This vessel 
accomplished a first voyage of 1500 
miles. Other steamers were pro- 
cured, and the Murrunbidgee, the 
Edward, and the Darling were in 
like manner opened to traffic. A 
gold candelabrum was presented to 
Mr. Cadell by the settlers, the 
value of whose property has been 
greatly increased by his efforts, 
and the Legislature directed a gold 
medal in his honour to be struck 
in England by Mr. Wyon. As is 
the case with most first adven- 
turers, others are reaping the 
abundant fruits of his labour ; and 
on account of intercolonial jealousies 
he has received no substantial 
return for a fortune expended, and 
years of danger, anxiety, and toil. 
CADOGAN (Earl op), Ths 
Eight Hon. George Henry Caix>- 
gan, eldest son of the fourth Earl, 
was born at Durham in 1840. He 
succeeded to the title on the death 
of his father in 1873, having been 
for a few months previously M.P. 
for Bath. He was appointed Par- 
liamentary Under Secretary for 
War in May, 1875; and Under 
Secretary of State for the Colonies 
in March, 1878, in succession to 
Mr. J. Lowther, who had been 
advanced to the post of Chief Secre- 
tary for Ireland. He went out of 
office with the Conservative party 
in April, 1880. 

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CAIN, Augubte, sculptor, born 
in Paris, Xov. 4, 1822, worked first 
with a carpenter, and afterwards 
entered the studio of M. Rude. 
M. Cain, who has devoted his atten- 
tion to groups of animals, first 
exhibited at Paris in 1&46, and is 
the publisher of his own bronzes. 
Amongst numerous works he has 
exhibited "The Dormouse and 
Tomtit/' 1846 ; " The Frogs desir- 
ing a King," 1850; "The Eagle 
defending his Prey," 1852; "An 
Eagle chasing a Vulture," 1857; 
"Lion and Lioness quarrelling 
about a Wild Boar/' 1875 ; and "A 
Family of Tigers," 1876. Several 
of these objects appeared in the 
Great Exhibition of 1851, when 
M. Cain obtained the bronze medal. 
He has received many recognitions 
of merit ; another medal in 1864 ; 
and a third at the Universal Expo- 
tition of 1867. M. Cain was nomi- 
nated a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour in 1869. 

CAIED, Sir Jambs, K.C.B., 
FJLS., born at Stranraer, in 1816, 
was educated at Edinburgh. Dur- 
ing the Protection controversy in 
1819, Mr. Caird published a treatise 
on "High Farming as the best 
Substitute for Protection," which 
went rapidly through eight edi- 
tions, and attracted much public 
attention. In the autumn of the 
same year, at the request of the 
late 8ir Bobert Peel, he visited the 
west and south of Ireland, then 
prostrate from the effects of the 
famine, and at the desire of the 
lord-lieutenant, Lord Clarendon, 
reported to the Government on 
the measures which he deemed 
requisite for encouraging the re- 
mind of agricultural enterprise in 
that country. This report was en- 
larged into a volume, published in 
I860, descriptive of the agricultural 
resources of the country, and led 
to considerable landed investments 
being made there. During 1860 
and 1851 Mr. Caird, as the com- 
missioner of the Times, conducted 
an inquiry into the state of English 

! agriculture, in which he visited 
every county in England ; and his 
letters, after appearing in the 
columns of the Times, were pub- 
lished in a volume, which has been 
translated into the French, Ger- 
man, and Swedish languages, be- 
sides being republished in the 
United States. In 1858 Mr. Caird 
published an account of a visit to 
the prairies of the Mississippi. A 
translation of this work appeared 
on the continent. During the 
autumns of 1853, 1854, and 1855 
Mr. Caird published in the Times 
a series of letters on the corn crops, 
which were considered to have had 
a material effect in allaying a food- 
panic. Invited at the general elec- 
tion of 1852 to offer himself to re- 
present his native district in Par- 
liament, he was defeated by a 
majority of one. At the general 
election of 1857 he was elected 
member for the borough of Dart- 
mouth, as a supporter of Lord 
Palmerston, and an advocate of 
Liberal measures. In 1859 he was 
elected for Stirling without oppo- 
sition, and vacated nis seat in July, 
1865, on accepting the office of one 
of the Inclosure Commissioners. 
In 1860 he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Fishery Board, and in 
1863 became Chairman of the Royal 
Commission on the Sea Fisheries 
of the United Kingdom ; Professor 
Huxley and Mr. Shaw Lefevre, 
M.P., being his colleagues. That 
commission, after visiting the prin- 
cipal fishing ports of the kingdom, 
completed its labours in 1866 ; and 
the President of the Board of Trade, 
in the course of a discussion on the 
subject, thus expressed the opinion 
of the Government on the results 
of that inquiry : — " I may be per- 
mitted to say that I think a more 
able report than that which these 
commissioners have laid before Par- 
liament' was never made. It is 
evident that this inquiry has been 
most searching and complete, and 
conducted in a most diligent and 
judicious manner. I think the 

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ground is now laid for putting our 
fishery laws on a sound and satis- 
factory footing. It is highly satis- 
factory that an inquiry undertaken 
in the spirit of a proposal to in- 
crease the restrictions upon fishing 
should have resulted in showing 
that the supply of fish and the 
interests of fishermen would be 
best promoted by free and unre- 
stricted fishing." In 1864 Mr. 
Caird, after many years' persever- 
ance, carried a resolution of the 
House of Commons in favour of 
the collection of agricultural sta- 
tistics, which was followed by a 
vote of JB10,000 for that object. 
The returns of 1866 for Great 
Britain, the result of that vote, 
for the first time complete the 
agricultural statistics of the United 
Kingdom, and are now published 
annually. Whilst in Parliament 
he was the advocate of all measures 
bearing on the improvement of 
land, successfully opposing the pro- 
posal to place a new duty on cer- 
tain descriptions of corn used for 
feeding cattle, expounding the im- 
policy of discouraging the jjrowth 
of barley by an unmodified malt- 
tax, taking a prominent part in com- 
mittees and in the House in inqui- 
ries and discussions on Irish land 
tenure, the utilization of sewage, 
emigration, the game laws, and 
from year to year explaining the 
prospects of the country in regard 
to its supplies of corn. Retaining 
his practical connection with agri- 
culture, during his parliamentary 
career, he took a leading part at 
this time in introducing the Ched- 
dar system of cheese-making into 
the south-west of Scotland — a sys- 
tem which has greatly contributed 
to the prosperity of the dairy dis- 
tricts of that part of the country. 
In 1860 he carried a motion to 
extend the Census Inquiry in Scot- 
land to the character of the house 
accommodation of the people, and 
thus, in the census of 1861, laid 
bare the startling fact that two- 
thirds of the people were found to 

be lodged in houses of only one 
and two rooms — a condition of 
things generally thought inade- 
quate for decent accommodation. 
In 1865 he was appointed to the 
office of Inclosure Commissioner. 
In 1869 he revisited Ireland, and 
published a pamphlet on the Irish 
land question, soon after which he 
received the Companionship of the 
Bath. He has latterly taken an 
active interest in the successful 
introduction of sugar-beet culti- 
vation in this country, which he 
first recommended in 1850. In 
1868 and 1869 he published suc- 
cessive papers on the " Food of 
the People," read before the Statis- 
tical Society. In 1878 he was re- 
quested by the Government of 
India to serve on the commission 
to inquire into the subject of fa- 
mines. He was created a Knight 
Commander of the Order of the 
Bath (civil division) in 1882. Sir 
James Caird is a magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant of his native 
county, Wigton. He has been 
twice married — first, in 1843, 
to Margaret, daughter of Captain 
Henryson, R.E.; and secondly, in 
1865, to Elizabeth Jane, daughter 
of the late Mr. Robert Dudgeon. 

CAIRD, The Rev. John, D.D., a 
popular and eloquent preacher of 
the Established Church of Scotland, 
was born in 1823, at Greenock, 
where his father was an engineer ; 
studied at the University of Glas- 
gow, and in 1844 was licensed as a 
preacher. In 1845 he was ordained 
minister of Newton-on-Ayr, and in 
the same year was removed to Lady 
Tester's Church, in Edinburgh, 
to which charge he was elected by 
the town-council. In 1850 he ac- 
cepted the charge of the Estab- 
lished Church at Errol, in Perth- 
shire, whence he removed to Glas- 
gow in 1858. A sermon preached 
by him before the Queen, in the 
parish kirk of Crathie, has been 
published by command of the 
Queen, who appointed him one of 
Her Majesty's chaplains for Scot* 

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land. In Feb., 1873, he was ap- 
pointed Principal of the University 
of Glasgow in the room of the late 
Dr. Barclay. Principal Caird has 
published a volume of " Sermons/' 
1858 ; " The Universal Religion : a 
Lecture delivered in Westminster 
Abbey on the Day of Intercession 
for Missions, Nov. 30, 1874 ;" and 
"An Introduction to the Philosophy 
of Religion," 1880. 

CAIRNS (Eabl), Thb Right 
Hon. Hugh MacCalmont, second 
son of the late William Cairns, 
Esq., of Cultra, county Down, Ire- 
land, was born in 1819. He re- 
ceived his education at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he was first 
class in classics, and obtained other 
academical honours. In Jan., 184-1, 
he was called to the English bar at 
the Middle Temple, and he soon ac- 
quired an extensive practice in the 
courts of Equity. In July, 1852, 
he was returned to the House of 
Commons as one of the members 
for Belfast, and he continued to re- 
present that city in the Conserva- 
tive interest until his elevation to 
the judicial bench. He was ap- 
pointed one of Her Majesty's Coun- 
sel and a bencher of Lincoln's Inn 
in 1856. When Lord Derby formed 
his administration in Feb., 1858, he 
appointed to the office of Solicitor- 
General Mr. Cairns, who on this 
occasion received the honour of 
knighthood. It is worthy of note 
that the earliest Bill he submitted 
to Parliament related to Chancery 
Reform, on which subject he has 
since proposed several important 
measures. Sir Hugh Cairns first 
showed himself to be a great par- 
liamentary orator in the celebrated 
debate of four nights' duration in 
May, 1858, concerning Lord Ellen- 
borough's censure of Lord Can- 
ning's proclamation to the inhabi- 
tants of our Indian Empire. Many 
of his subsequent speeches in the 
House of Commons, and more re- 
cently in the House of Peers, have 
justly been regarded as master- 
pieces of eloquence. When the 

Conservative administration re- 
signed in June, 1859, Sir Hugh 
Cairns' first brief tenure of office 
came to an end. On the return of 
Lord Derby to power in June, 18C6, 
he was appointed Attorney-General, 
and he worthily occupied for a few 
months the post which Sir Roun- 
del! Palmer (now Lord Selborne) 
had held under the Liberal adminis- 
tration. The first vacancy which 
had occurred in the Court of Chan- 
cery (with the exception of the 
woolsack) for the long period of 
fourteen years, was occasioned on 
Oct. 1, 1866, by the retirement of 
Sir James Knight Bruce, and Sir 
Hugh Cairns was appointed to suc- 
ceed that veteran judge as Lord 
Justice of the Court of Appeal ; 
being in the following Feb. (1867) 
raised to the peerage as Baron 
Cairns of Garmoyle, in the county 
of Antrim. He became Lord High 
Chancellor of Great Britain in Feb., 
1868, and he continued to hold that 
office until the resignation of Mr. 
Disraeli's ministry in Dec., 1868, 
after which time, however, he con- 
tinued to take an active part in the 
legislative and judicial business of 
the House of Lords. In Feb., 1874, 
on the return of the Conservative 
party to power, he was reappointed 
Lord High Chancellor of Great 
Britain, and he held that office till 
April, 1880. In Sept., 1878, he was 
created a Viscount and Earl of the 
United Kingdom by the titles of 
Viscount Garmoyle, in the county 
of Antrim, and Earl Cairns. His 
lordship was made LL.D. of Cam- 
bridge in 1862 ; D.C.L. of Oxford 
in 1863 ; and was elected Chancel- 
lor of the University of Dublin in 

CAIROLI, Benedetto, an Italian 
statesman, born in 1826 at Gropello, 
near Pavia. His father was a sur- 
geon, who, in 1848, was elected by 
his fellow-citizens to rule their 
commune. While a student in the 
University of Pavia, Benedetto 
I Cairoli, in 1848, conspired and 
I fought as a volunteer against the 

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Austrions. In 1851 he became an 
exile in Piedmont, where he re- 
mained till 1859, in which year he 
again took up arms for the libera- 
tion of Italy as one of the "Cac- 
ciatori delle Alpi." He was also 
one of the " mille " in the expedi- 
tion in 18C0, when he was wounded 
in the leg at the siege of Palermo. 
In 18G6 he fought in the Trentino, 
and in 18G7 at Monterotondo and 
Montana. Up to the time of the 
advent of the Left to power in 1876, 
Cairoli had never explicitly de- 
clared himself to have left his old 
Republican tendencies behind him, 
and definitively accepted the Con- 
stitutional Monarchy of Italy. 
Since that time, however, perhaps 
led in some degree by his confidence 
in his friend Depretis, he accepted 
the Monarchy. Signor Cairoli has 
lived in an atmosphere of revolu- 
tion, and has always breathed de- 
fiance to the Vatican and to the 
Church. In March, 1878, when a 
new Ministry was formed, shortly 
after the accession of King Hum- 
bert, Signor Cairoli was placed at 
the head of it, being appointed 
President of the Council, without 
portfolio. On Oct. 23, in the same 
year, all the Ministers resigned, 
and Signor Cairoli, the Premier, 
was entrusted with the task of 
forming a new Cabinet. Soon 
afterwards (Nov. 17), as King Hum- 
bert, in company with the Queen 
and Signor Cairoli, was driving into 
Naples, a man named Giovanni 
Pass an a n te attempted to stab His 
Majesty with a poniard. The at- 
tempt was fortunately frustrated 
by Signor Cairoli, who received a 
severe wound, while the King es- 
caped with a mere scratch. Signor 
Cairoli received from the Chambers 
and the Italian people the warmest 
congratulations, in which the 
Sovereigns and most distinguished 
statesmen of Europe joined, but 
these ovations could not avert a 
new ministerial crisis. In the 
Chamber of Deputies a motion of 
confidence in the internal policy of 

the Government was rejected by 257 
against 183 votes (Dec. 11, 1878), 
and the Ministers thereupon re- 
signed. The Depretis ministry which 
was then formed was overthrown 
after half a year's tenure of power, 
and was succeeded by a new combi- 
nation of the Left under Signor 
Cairoli, who was in turn compelled 
(Nov., 1879) to reconstruct his ad- 
ministration and to bring in Signor 
Depretis as Minister of the In- 
terior. On May 14, 1881, the 
Ministry resigned, after the French 
expedition to Tunis, as their policy 
in regard to it had rendered thein 
highly unpopular. • 

CALCUTTA, Bishop of. (See 

CALDECOTT, Randolph, artist, 
was born in 1846, at Chester, and 
educated at Henry VIII.'s School, 
in that city. He received no art 
training. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Manchester Academy of 
Arts in 1880, and of the Institute 
of Painters in Water Colours in 
1882. Mr. Caldecott has exhibited 
works of painting and sculpture at 
the Royal Academy, and the Groa- 
venor Gallery. Among the numerous 
books illustrated by him are Wash- 
ington Irving's " Old Christmas," 
1875 ; " Bracebridge Hall," 1876 ; 
Mrs. Comyns Carr's " North Italian 
Folk," 1877; and Mr. H. Black- 
burn's "Breton Folk," 1879. In 
1878 he began a series of " Picture 
Books," with " John Gilpin," and 
" The House that Jack Built ;" and 
he has since produced two books 
each year. In 1883 he published 
" A Sketch Book," and " Some of 
JSsop's Fables with Modern In- 
stances." Mr. Caldecott has made 
many drawings of original subjects 
for the Graphic, most of which have 
been reproduced in colours; and 
he has occasionally contributed to 
Punch and other periodicals. 

CALDERON, Philip Hbbxo- 
oenbs, R.A., son of the Rev. Joan 
Calderon, was born at Poitiers in 
1833, studied at Mr. Leigh's aca- 
demy and in the atelier of M. Pioot 

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(Member of the Institute) at Paris. 
He has painted "The Gaoler's 
Daughter," exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1858 ; " French Pea- 
sants finding their Stolen Child," 
and "Man goeth forth to his La- 
bour," 1850 ; "Never More," 1860 ; 
" Releasing Prisoners on the Young 
Heir's Birthday," "La Demande 
en Manage," and "The Return 
from Moscow," 1861 ; " Queen 
Katharine and her Women at 
Work," "After the Battle," " Some- 
thing it is which Thou hast Lost," 
1862; "The British Embassy in 
Paris during the Massacre of St. 
Bartholomew," " Drink to Me only 
with Thine Eyes," 1863; "The 
Burial of Hampden " and " Women 
of Aries," 1864. Mr. Calderon was 
elected A.R.A. in 1864. In 1865 he 
did not exhibit. In 1866 he had in 
the Royal Academy Exhibition 
" Her most noble, high, and puis- 
aant Grace," " Women of Poitiers 
washing on the banks of the Clain," 
and " In the Pyrenees." In 1867 
Mr. Calderon was elected full R.A., 
and received at the Paris Interna- 
tional Exhibition the first medal 
awarded to English art. He also 
received one of the medals awarded 
to English artists at the Vienna 
Exhibition of 1873. In 1867 he ex- 
hibited in London "Home after 
Victory,* and " Evening ; " in 1868, 
"The Young Lord Hamlet riding 
on Yorick's Back," " (Enone," and 
" Whither ? " (this last his diploma 
picture) ; in 1869, " Sighing his Soul 
into his Lady's Face," " The Duch- 
ess of Montpensier urging Jacques 
Clement to Assassinate the King," 
and a water-colour figure, size of 
life ; in 1870, " The Organs," " The 
Virgin's Bower," " Spring Driving 
away Winter," and " Mrs. Bland ; " 
in 1871, "On Her Way to the 
Throne," and " The New Pictures " 
(portraits of a well-known picture 
collector) ; in 1872, " Summer" (a 
scene on the banks of the Thames), 
"A High-Born Maiden," "In a 
Palace-Tower," "H. S. Marks, Esq., 
ABA./' and "Mrs. Cazaletj" in 

1873, " Good-Night," " Take, O take 
1 those Lips away," " The Moon-Light 
Serenade," "Victory," "W. R. El- 
wyn, Esq. ;" in 1874, "The Queen 
of the Tournaments " and " Half- 
Hours with the Best Authors ; " in 
1875, " Refurbishing (St. Trophyme, 
Aries)," "Les Coquettes, Aries," 
"Toujours Fidele," and "Great 
Sport j " in 1876, "The Nest," 
"Margaret," "Watchful Eyes," 
and "His Reverence;" in 1877, 
"Joan of Arc," "Reduced Three 
per Cents. (Bank of England)," 
and "The Fruit-seller;" in 1878, 
" The Nunnery at Loughborough," 
and " La Gloire de Dijon." In the 
same year (1878) Mr. Calderon was 
one of the English artists selected 
to exhibit an extra number of works 
at the Paris International Exhibi- 
tion, and he sent there several of 
the pictures mentioned above. At 
the close of that Exhibition he re- 
ceived a "rappel" of first-class 
medal, and was created a Knight 
of the Legion of Honour. Since 
that time he has been chiefly occu- 
pied in painting decorative panels 
in oil for the dining-room of a well- 
known lover of art, among which 
have been "The Olive, "The 
Vine" (representing the fruits of 
the earth), and "The Flowers of 
the Earth," exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1881. 

CALEDONIA, Bishop of. (See 

CALLAWAY, The Right Rev. 
Henry, M.D., D.D., who for some 
time was a missionary of the Church 
of England at Spring Vale, Natal, 
was, on a new missionary bishopric 
being formed for St. John's, British 
Kaffraria, nominated as the first 
occupant of the See. He was con- 
secrated by the Primus of Scotland 
(Bishop of Moray and Ross) in St. 
Paul's Church, Edinburgh, Oct. 30, 

CAMBRAY-DIGNY, Gtjglielmo, 
Conte di, an Italian statesman, 
born at Florence, in 1823, is the son 
of Count Louis of Cambray-Digny, 
who, from being a cobbler, rose to 

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be the minister and favourite of 
Ferdinand III., Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany. After completing his studies 
at Pisa, he returned, at the age of 
twenty-two, to his native city, where 
he was received with much favour 
by Leopold II., who reposed the ut- 
most confidence in him. He always 
exhorted the Grand Duke, but in 
vain, to make concessions to the 
liberal requirements of the times, 
instead of relying on Austrian sup- 
port ; and in 1859, when the Grand 
Duke was obliged to flee from his 
dominions, which were thereupon 
annexed to Piedmont, Signor Cam- 
bray-Digny approved this prelimi- 
nary step towards the unification of 
Italy, and was elected one of the 
deputies for Tuscany. In 1865 he 
presided, in his capacity of Lord 
Mayor ("Gonfaloniere") of Florence, 
at the sixth centenary of the birth 
of Dante, and pronounced the pane- 
gyric of the poet before the statue 
which was inaugurated on that oc- 
casion. His political celebrity, how- 
ever, does not date farther back 
than the close of the year 1867, 
when he was appointed Finance 
Minister of the kingdom of Italy, 
and found himself face to face with 
an enormous deficit, which he en- 
deavoured to reduce by various ex- 
pedients, including the unpopular 
grist tax, and the taking up by the 
State of the tobacco monopoly. 
Signor Cambray-Digny, by his per- 
severance and tact, succeeded in 
carrying this and other projects in 
spite of the energetic opposition of 
a formidable party in the Chambers. 
Towards the close of the year 1869 
the Menabrea-Cambray-Digny Cabi- 
net, as it was called, was succeeded 
by the Lanza Cabinet. Signor 
Cambray-Digny was then made a 

CAMBRIDGE (Duke of),H.R.H. 
Georoe William Frederick 
Charles, Field-Marshal, son of 
Adolphus Frederick, the first duke, 
grandson of King George III., and 
first cousin of Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria, was born at Hanover, 

March 26, 1819, and succeeded his 
father July 8, 1850. He became a 
Colonel in the army Nov. 3, 1837, 
was advanced to the rank of Major- 
General in 1845, to that of Lieut.- 
General in 1854, when he was ap- 
pointed to command the two bri- 
gades of Highlanders and Guards, 
united to form the first division of 
the army sent in aid of Turkey 
against the Emperor of Russia ; and 
was promoted to the rank of General 
in 1856. In 1861 he was appointed 
Colonel of the Royal Artillery and 
Royal Engineers, and was promoted 
to the rank of Field-Marshal Nov. 9, 
1862. His Royal Highness has been 
successively Colonel of the 17th 
Light Dragoons, of the Scots Fusi- 
lier Guards, and, on the death of 
the late Prince Consort, of the Grena- 
dier Guards. At the battle of the 
Alma his Royal Highness led his 
division into action in a manner 
that won the confidence of his men 
and the respect of the veteran offi- 
cers with whom he served. At In- 
kermann he was actively engaged, 
and had a horse shot under him. 
Shortly after this, in consequence 
of impaired health, he was ordered 
by the medical authorities to Pera, 
for change of air, and after staying 
there some time proceeded to Malta ; 
whence, his health still failing, he 
was directed to return to England. 
At a later period his Royal High- 
ness gave the results of his camp 
experience in evidence before the 
Committee of the House of Com- 
mons appointed to investigate the 
manner in which the war had been 
conducted. On the resignation of 
Viscount Hardinge in 1856 the Duke 
of Cambridge was appointed to suc- 
ceed as Commander-in-Chief, in 
which capacity his Royal Highness 
has shown his desire to introduce 
useful reforms, which tend mate- 
rially to improve the comfort of the 
soldier and the efficiency of the 
army. In June, 1878, he went to 
Malta to inspect the Indian troops 
which had recently arrived there. 
CAMERON, Gen. Sir Dukcax 

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Alexajfdkb, G.CJB., of an ancient 
Highland clan, was born about 
1808. He entered the army in 1825, 
became Captain in 1833, Major in 
1839, Colonel in 1354, and Major- 
General in 1859. He served with 
distinction in the Crimean campaign 
of 1*5-1-5, having commanded the 
42nd regiment at the battle of the 
Alma, and the Highland brigade at 
the battle of Balaklava, and was 
sent out to command the troops in 
New Zealand, with the local rank 
of Lieutenant-General, in 1863. In 
that capacity he highly distin- 
guished himself, and in 1861 he 
was nominated a Knight Com- 
mander of the Order of the Bath, 
Military Division, in recognition of 
his able services against the 
Maoris. Sir D. Cameron was 
made Colonel of the 42nd Foot 
Sept. 9, 1863 ; and he was Governor 
of the Royal Military College at 
Sandhurst from 1868 to June, 1875. 
He was created a Knight Grand 
Cross of the Order of the Bath, 
1873. He was promoted to the rank 
of General in the Army in Jan., 

CAMERON, Simon, born in Lan- 
caster co., Pennsylvania, March 8, 
1799. Left an orphan at the age 
of nine, he learned the trade of a 
printer, and in 1820 became editor 
of a country newspaper. In 1822 
he removed to Harrisburg, the 
capital of Pennsylvania, and took 
charge of the leading Democratic 
paper of the state. In 1832 he was 
president of a bank, and soon after 
at the head of two railway com- 
panies. In 1845 he was elected 
United States Senator, to fill a 
vacancy, acting throughout with 
the Democrats. In 1856 he became 
affiiliated with " the people's 
party" in Pennsylvania (subse- 
quently merged in the Republican 
party) ; and in the winter following 
was again elected United States 
Senator. He was supported by the 
Republicans of several states as a 
candidate for the Presidency in 
I860. After Mr. Lincoln's inaugura- 

tion, he nominated Mr. Cameron for 
Secretary of War. He served in this 
capacity till Jan. 11, 1862, when he 
was appointed Minister to Russia, 
but returned to the United States in 
November of the same year. In 1866 
he was again elected United States 
Senator, and in 1872 he replaced 
Mr. Sumner as Chairman of the 
Committee on Foreign Relations. 
He was re-elected m 1873, but 
resigned his seat in 1877, and was 
succeeded by his son, J. Donald 
Cameron (who still retains it). 
Since 1877 Mr. Cameron has taken 
no part in public life. 

CAMERON, Verney Lovett, 
C.B., D.C.L., son of the Rev. Jona- 
than Henry Lovett Cameron, now 
vicar of Shore ham, is a native of 
Radipole, Weymouth, Dorsetshire, 
and was educated at Bruton, 
Somersetshire. He was appointed 
Naval Cadet in Aug., 1857 ; Mid- 
shipman in Jan., i860; Sub-Lieu- 
tenant in Aug., 1863 ; Lieutenant 
in Oct., 1865 ; and Commander in 
July, 1876. He served in the Illus- 
trious from 1857 to Oct., 1858 ; then 
in the Victor Emanuel till Aug., 
1861 ; in the Liffey till July, 1862 ; 
in the Dejence till March, 1864 ; 
in the Hector till July, 1861 ; in the 
Terrible from April, 1865, to Oct., 
1865; in the Excellent from Jan., 
1866, to Oct., 1866 ; in the Star from 
Oct., 1866, to Oct., 1870, and in the 
Steam Reserve at Sheerness from 
July, 1871, to Nov., 1872. Between 
Nov., 1872, and April, 1876, Lieu- 
tenant Cameron was engaged in 
that exploration of Africa which 
has made his name so familiar to 
the British public. He is the first 
Englishman or European traveller 
who has crossed the whole breadth 
of the African continent in its cen- 
tral latitudes beyond the western 
shore of Lake Tanganyika to the 
Atlantic sea coast of Lower Guinea. 
He left England under the auspices 
of the Royal Geographical Society, 
in charge of the East Coast Living- 
tone Search Expedition. His com- 
panions were Dr. Dillon, Mr. 

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Murphy, and Mr. Moffat, but two 
of them died, and the third was 
afterwards left behind. After dis- 
covering that Dr. Livingstone's 
death had destroyed the original 
object of his journey. Lieutenant 
Cameron determined to cross, if, 
possible, the African continent. In 
performing this feat he traversed a 
distance of nearly 3000 miles on 
foot between the east and the west 
ocean shores ; but the most impor- 
tant part of his journeyings lay in 
the central interior west of the 
chain of lakes and rivers discovered 
by Dr. Livingstone, which Lieu- 
tenant Cameron found to be con- 
nected with the great river Congo 
issuing to the Atlantic between Lo- 
ango and Angola. Since his return 
to England he has served in several 
of Her Majesty's vessels. In Sept., 
1878, he started on a tour through 
Asia Minor and Persia to India, 
with the object of demonstrating 
the feasibility of constructing a 
railroad from the Mediterranean to 
India without following the course 
of the Euphrates. In 1880 he pub- 
lished a work in two volumes on the 
Euphrates Valley, entitled " Our 
Future Highway." In 1882 he and 
Captain R. F. Burton undertook a 
journey of exploration in the 
country lying at the back of the 
Gold Coast Colony, and the Council 
of the Geographical Society ac- 
corded them a loan of instruments 
to Enable them to make scientific 
observations. The two travellers 
amassed large and valuable collec- 
tions in all branches of natural 
history, and Commander Cameron 
also made extensive surveys. Some 
particulars of his former services 
deserve notice. While in the 
Terrible he jumped overboard after 
a man. He obtained a first-class 
in all subjects in passing for Lieu- 
tenant ; and he passed for French 
Interpreter in 1865. He was senior 
Lieutenant of H.M.S. Star during 
the Abyssinian campaign, for which 
he received a medal ; and he was 
employed in lighting, buoying, 

and surveying channels to Ansley 
Bay ; afterwards in the Star on the 
East Coast of Africa, he was engaged 
in the suppression of the slave 
trade, being personally engaged in 
the capture of twenty dhows. He 
was created a C.B. (civil division), 
and an hon. D.C.L. of Oxford, after 
his return from Africa. He has 
received the Founder's Medal of 
the Royal Geographical Society, 
the Grande Medaille d'Or of the 
French Geographical Society, the 
Gold Medal of the Portuguese Geo- 
graphical Society, a Gold Medal 
from the King of Italy for his dis- 
coveries in Africa ; and he is 
Officier d'Instruction (France), an 
Officer of the Crown of Italy, and a 
Fellow of several foreign Geo- 
graphical Societies. Commander 
Cameron is the author of " An 
Essay on Steam Tactics," 1865, and 
" Across Africa," 1876. 

CAMPBELL, The Hon. Sir 
Alexander, K.C.M.G., Minister of 
Justice in the Canadian Govern- 
ment, was born in 1822 at Hedon, 
near Kingston-upon-Hull. Though 
born in England he is of Scotch 
descent, and was educated and has 
always resided in Canada. He was 
called to the bar of Upper Canada 
in 1843, created a Queen's Counsel 
in 1856, and in the following year 
made a Bencher of the Law Society 
of Upper Canada. From 1858 until 
Confederation he represented Cata- 
raqui Division in the Legislative 
Council of Canada, and served for 
a time as Commissioner of Crown 
Lands. He took an active part 
in the Quebec Conference which 
resulted in Confederation, and 
became a member of the Cana- 
dian Privy Council at the time 
of the union of the British 
American Provinces, and "entered 
the Macdonald Government in 
1867, first as Postmaster-General 
and afterwards as Minister of the 
Interior. In 1878, on the forma- 
tion of the Liberal-Conservative 
Administration, Sir Alexander 
resumed the Postmaster-General- 

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ship, and for a time held the port- 
folio oi Minister of Militia. Since 
that period he has acted as leader 
of the Government side in the 
Senate, and in 1881 he exchanged 
the portfolio of Minister of Militia 
for that of Minister of Justice. On 
the 2tth of May, 1879, he was 
created a K.C.M.G. 

CAMPBELL, Sib Gbobge, M.P., 
K.C.S.I., D.C.L., eldest son of the 
late Sir George Campbell, of Eden- 
wood, elder brother of the first 
Lord Campbell, was born in 1824. 
He entered the Civil Service of 
India in 1842, and at the age of 
twenty-two he was already in charge 
of an important district in that 
distant dependency. Prom the 
manner in which he discharged his 
duties, his name was mentioned 
with especial praise by Lord Dal- 
housie, the Governor-General. Soon 
after this Mr. Campbell returned 
home, studied law, and was called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple in 
18o4. While here he published 
" Modern India/' 1852, dedicated 
to his uncle, then Lord Chief Jus- 
tice of England, and " India as it 
May Be," 1853. He was Associate 
of the Court of Queen's Bench 
from 1851 to 185 1, but in the latter 
year he returned to India, where 
he was employed for some years in 
the administration of the country 
as Commissioner of the Cis-Sutlej 
States, Commissioner of the Cus- 
toms and Excise, and Civil Com- 
missioner with the troops which 
occupied the North- West Provinces 
after the Mutiny. In 1858 Mr. 
Campbell was appointed Judicial 
and Financial Commissioner in 
Oude. He was afterwards for some 
years a Judge of the High Court of 
Judicature of Calcutta, and was 
employed as head of the Commis- 
sion to inquire into the famine in 
Orissa. In 1867 he was nominated 
Chief Commissioner of the central 
provinces of India, but returning 
to Scotland in 1868, he became a 
candidate for Dumbartonshire in 
JoJy, in the Liberal interest, but 

retired from his canditature before 
the general election. The next year 
he directed attention to Irish Land 
tenure, by publishing a book on the 
subject. In Jan., 1871, he again 
went to India as Lieutenant-Go- 
vernor of Bengal, but returned 
home early in 1874 to become a 
member of the Council of India, 
which again he resigned in 1875, 
when he was elected M.P. for the 
Kirkcaldy burghs. In 1873 he had 
been created a Knight Commander 
of the Star of India. Sir George 
presided over the Economy and 
Trade Department at the Social 
Science Congress held at Glasgow 
in Oct., 1874. He took an active 
part in the agitation on the Eastern 
Question in 1876, as a supporter of 
the policy advocated by Mr. Glad- 
stone, and published a " Handy 
Book of the Eastern Question : 
being a very recent View of Tur- 
key/' 1876. 

CAMPBELL, The Right Rev. 
James Colquhoun, D.D., Bishop of 
Bangor, son of the late Mr. John 
Campbell, of Stonefield, Argyle- 
shire, by Wilhelmina, daughter of 
the late Sir James Colquhoun, Bart., 
of Luss, Dumbartonshire, was born 
at Stonefield in 1813. Having gra- 
duated in honours at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge (B.A. 1836 ; M.A. 
1839; D.D. 1859), he was appointed 
successively Vicar of Roath, Gla- 
morganshire (1839) ; Rector of the 
populous town of Merthyr Tydvil, 
Glamorganshire (184i), honorary 
canon of Llandaff (1855), and Arch- 
deacon of Llandaff ( 1857 ) . He was 
nominated by Lord Derby to the 
see of Bangor, on the death of Dr. 
Bethell, in April, 1859. Dr. Camp- 
bell is the author of several charges 
and occasional sermons. He mar- 
ried, in 1840, Blanche (who died 
1873), daughter of John Bruce 
Pryce, Esq., of Duffryn, Glamor- 
ganshire, and has issue. 

Henry, M.P., is the second son of 
the late Sir James Campbell, of 
Stracathro, Forfarshire, by Janet, 

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youngest daughter of the late Mr. 
Henry Banner man, of Manchester, 
and was born in 1836. He was 
educated at the University of Glas- 
gow, and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge (B.A. 1858; M.A. 1861). 
In 1872 he assumed the additional 
surname of Bannerman, under the 
will of his uncle, Mr. Henry Ban- 
nerman, of Hun ton Court, Kent. 
Mr. Campbell-Bannerman, who is 
a magistrate for the counties of 
Lanark and Kent, has represented 
the Stirling district of boroughs in 
the Liberal interest since Dec., 
1808 ; he was Financial Secretary 
at the War Office from 1871 to 
1874 ; was again appointed to that 
office in 1880 ; and in May, 1882, 
was nominated to succeed Mr. Tre- 
velyan as Secretary to the Ad- 
miralty. He married in I860 
Charlotte, daughter of the late 
Major-General Sir Charles Bruce, 

CAMPHAUSEN, Otto, a Ger- 
man statesman, born at Hiinshoven, 
near Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1812. He 
studied at the Gymnasium of Co- 
logne, and the Universities of Bonn, 
Heidelberg, Munich, and Berlin. 
In 1&34 he entered the Civil Ser- 
vice ; in 1837 he became an Audi- 
tor ; in 1844 a Rath ; in 1845 a 
Geheimrath, or Privy Councillor of 
Finance. His first important legis- 
lative work was the preparation of 
the Income Tax Act, which was 
laid before the Prussian Landtag 
in 1847. In 181-8 he became a 
diplomat on a small scale, being 
attached to the Prussian delegation 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main, which 
watched over the acts of Reichsver- 
weser Archduke John of Austria. 
In 1858 he became Superior Privy 
Councillor of Finance. For a few 
years he served as President of the 
See-Handlung, an institution which 
administered funds furnished by 
the State for the support and en- 
couragement of commerce. Baron 
von der Heydt relinquished the 
portfolio of Finance in 1869, and 
Camphausen became his successor. 

He held that post till Nov., 1873, 
and from the latter date till March, 
1878* he was Vice-President of the 
Ministry of State. He was a mem- 
ber of the Prussian Landtag from 
1849 to ,1852, and of the Erfurt 
Parliament. He was created a 
member of the Chamber of Peers 
in 1860, and he became a delegate 
to the Federal Council in 1870. 

painter, born at Dusseldorf, Feb. 8, 
1810, manifested from his earliest 
years a love of drawing, and after 
completing his college studies, en- 
tered the academy of his native 
town. Being fond of painting 
horses and battles, he for some 
years joined a regiment of hussars 
to study his subjects close at hand, 
and made long tours in Belgium, 
Holland, Switzerland, Italy, and 
Germany. "The Puritans watch- 
ing the Enemy" exhibits know- 
ledge of design, able composition, 
and softness of colour. Many of 
his subjects are taken from English 
History ; such as " Eemoval of Pri- 
soners belonging to CromweU's 
Party," " Cavaliers and Bound- 
heads," "Charles II. in the Re- 
treat from Worcester," " Pillage of 
an English Castle by Cromwell's 
Soldiers," and " Charles I. at the 
battle of Naseby." He has painted 
the two pictures of " Prince Eugene 
at Belgrade " and " Godfrey de 
Bouillon at Ascalon," besides pro- 
ducing numerous drawings for il- 
lustrated publications, and among 
others for the Dusseldorf Monthly 

CANDOLLE, Alphonsk Louis 
Pierre Ptbamus de, the eminent 
botanist of Geneva, was born at 
Paris, Oct. 27, 1806, being the son 
of the celebrated Augustin de Can- 
dolle, who died in 1841. He went 
through a course of study in litera- 
ture and Science at Geneva, and 
then turned his attention to law, 
of which faculty he was admitted a 
doctor in 1829. Finally, however, 
he made botany his exclusive study, 
and became first the assistant and 

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subsequently the successor of his 
father. For eighteen years he was 
director of the Botanic Garden, and 
during the same period he gave lec- 
tures in the Academy of Geneva. 
M. de Candolle was elected a cor- 
respondent of the French Institute 
in 1851, and the following year 
was decorated with the Legion of 
Honour. In June, 1874, ne was 
elected a foreign member of the 
French Institute in the place of the 
late Professor Agassiz. His works 
are: "Monographic des Campa- 
nulees," 1830; "Introduction a 
rfitude de la Botanique," 2 vols., 
1834-35; "Surle Musee Botanique 
de M. B. Delessert," 1845; "Note 
sur une Pomme de Terre du 
Mexique," 1852; "Geographic Bo- 
tanique raisonnee," 2 vols., 1855; 
"Lois de la Nomenclature Bo- 
tanique/' 1867; "Constitution dans 
le Regne Vegetal de Groupes Phy- 
siologiques applicable^ a la Geogra- 
phic Botanique, Ancienne et Mo- 
derne," 1874. He also brought out 
a new edition of his father's 
"Theorie Elementaire de la Bo- 
tanique," and continued his "Po- 
dromu8 Systematic Naturalis Begni 

CANNING, Sib Samuel, C. E., 
upon whom the responsibility of 
laying the Atlantic Cables of 18(55, 
1866, and 1869 devolved, is the son 
of the late Robert Canning, Esq., 
of Ogbourne St. Andrew, Wilt- 
shire. He commenced his career 
as assistant to the late Mr. Joseph 
Locke, C.E., F.R.S., from 1844 to 
1849, and was resident engineer 
during the formation of the Liver- 
pool ,Ormskirk,andPreston Railway. 
Since then he has been engaged in 
the manufacture and submersion of 
the most important lines of Sub- 
marine Telegraph Cables, almost 
from their initiation in 1850. He 
was among the pioneers of Atlantic 
Cables, and achieved the submerg- 
ence of the first line of 1858, and 
that of other Atlantic lines. To 
his skill and energy the success of 
the Atlantic Expedition of 1866 is 

undoubtedly due ; he perfected the 
paying out, and the recovering and 
grappling machinery for that cable, 
which so materially aided its sub- 
mersion, and the recovery of the 
cable lost in the preceding year. 
He has also connected England 
with Gibraltar, Malta, and Alexan- 
dria, and laid other important lines 
of cable connecting various coun- 
tries in the Mediterranean, North 
Sea, &c. He received the honour 
of knighthood in 1866, a Gold 
Medal from the Chamber of Com- 
merce of Liverpool, March 14, 

1867, and the insignia of the Order 
of St. Jago d'Espada from the King 
of Portugal. 

Antonio, a Spanish statesman, born 
in 1830. He made his debut in 
1851, under the patronage of Sefiors 
Rios, Rosas and Pacheco, as chief 
editor of the Patria, in which he 
defended Conservative ideas. In 
1854 he was named deputy for 
Malaga, and since that year has 
never ceased to occupy a seat in the 
Cortes. In 1856 he was Charge 
d' Affaires at Rome, and drew up 
the historical memorandum on the 
relations of Spain with the Holy 
See, which served as a basis for the 
Concordat. He was then named 
successively Governor of Cadiz in 
1855, Director-General of the Ad- 
ministration from 1858 to 1861, and 
lastly, in that same year, Under- 
Secretary of State for the Interior. 
In 1864 the Queen called him to 
the Ministry, together with Mori; 
O'Donnell chose him in 1865 as 
Minister of Finance and the Colo- 
nies; and he had the honour of 
drawing up the law for the abolition 
of the traffic in black slaves. Lastly, 
a little before the Revolution of 

1868, he was the last to defend with 
energy in the Cortes the Liberal 
principle when all the parties which 
had supported his doctrine had 
deserted the Parliament. His 
greatest title to fame is that of 
having been the first — supported by 
Senors Elduayem, Bugallal, and 

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two others — to hoist the standard 
of legitimate and constitutional 
monarchy, in the full Constituent As- 
sembly of 1868, and in face of the 
triumphant Revolution. His fide- 
lity and capacity definitely obtained 
for him the supreme direction of 
the Alfonsist party, and on the pro- 
clamation of Alfonso XII. as King 
in Dec, 1874, Seftor Canovas del 
Castillo became President of the 
Council and Chief of the New Cabi- 
net, and he continued to hold the 
Premiership, with the exception of 
an interval of a few months, down 
to 1879, when on the return of Mar- 
shal Martinez Campos from Cuba, 
Seftor Canovas del Castillo retired 
from the Premiership and Marshal 
Campos became Prime Minister, 
accepting as his colleagues the prin- 
cipal associates of Seftor Canovas. 
The skilful resistance of the latter 
delayed and defeated the Marshal's 
free trade and emancipation pro- 
jects, so that on the reassembling 
of the Cortes (Dec. 1879) he was 
compelled to resign . Senor Canovas 
del Castillo then returned to power 
early in the year 1881; however, 
his Conservative Cabinet was over- 
ihrDwn, and a coalition between 
Seuor Sagasta and Marshal Martinez 
Campos came into office. Seftor 
Canovas del Castillo is the author 
of numerous works in moral and 
political sciences, and a History of 
the House of Austria, which is in 
great repute. These publications 
have long since gained him admis- 
sion into the Academy of Madrid. 
In 1875 Seftor Canovas del Castillo 
received the insignia of the Order 
of the Red Eagle from the Emperor 
of Germany, the Grand Cross of the 
Order of the Tower and Sword from 
the King of Portugal, and the Golden 
Fleece from the King of Spain. 

CANROBERT, Francis - Cer- 
tain, Marshal of France and a 
Senator, was born June 7, 1809, of 
a good family, not in Brittany, as 
has frequently been stated, but at 
St. Cere", in the department of the , 
Lot. He entered the military 

school at St. Cyr in 1826, and having 
distinguished himself there, joined 
the army as a private soldier, and 
was soon made sub-lieutenant of 
the 47th regiment of the line. He 
became lieutenant in 1832, and in 
1835 embarked for Africa, and took 
part in the expedition to Mascara. 
His services in the provinces of Oran 
were rewarded with a captaincy. 
He was in the breach at the attack 
on Constantine, and was wounded 
in the leg. He received the decora- 
tion of the Legion of Honour about 
thiB time. In 1846 he became 
Lieutenant-ColoneLand commanded 
the 64th regiment of the line, which 
was charged to act against the for- 
midable Bou Maza. In 1847 he 
was made Colonel of the 3rd regi- 
ment of light infantry, and in 1848 
was intrusted with the command 
of the expedition against Ahmed- 
Sghir, who had rallied the tribes of 
the Bouaounin insurrection. Colonel 
Canrobert pushed forward as far as 
the pass of Djerma, defeated the 
Arabs there, took two sheiks pri- 
soners, and then returned to Bathna. 
He left the 3rd regiment to com- 
mand a regiment of Zouaves, with 
whom he marched against the 
Kabyles, was again victorious, being 
promoted to the rank of General of 
Brigade, and at the commencement 
of 1850 led an expedition against 
Narah. The Arabs here, eagle-like, 
had their nests among the rocks. 
Canrobert advanced three columns 
to attack the enemy in his retreat, 
and so skilfully combined their fire, 
that in seven hours the Arab strong- 
hold was destroyed. Louis Napo- 
leon, when President, appointed 
Canrobert one of his aides-de-camp ; 
and, shortly after the wholesale 
proscriptions and imprisonments 
which followed the coup d'Jtat of 
Dec. 2, 1851, gave him a commission, 
and very extensive powers, to visit 
the prisons, and select objects of 
his clemency. Upon the formation 
of the Army of the East in 1854, 
he was appointed to the command 
of the first division in the Crimea. 

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His troops took part in the battle 
of the Alma, and "he was himself 
wounded by a splinter of a shell, 
which struck him on the breast and 
hand. Marshal St. Arnaud resigned 
six dajB after the first battle in the 
Crimea, and the command of the 
Army of the East was transferred 
to General Canrobert. Although 
commander-in-chief, General Can- 
robert was again in the the thickest 
of the fight at Inkerman (Nov. 5), 
and whilst heading the impetuous 
charge of Zouaves was slightly 
wounded, and had a horse killed 
under him. In May, 1855, finding 
that impaired health no longer 
permitted him to hold the chief 
command in the Crimea, he resigned 
to General Pelissier, and soon after 
returned to France. He was treated 
with great distinction by the 
Emperor Napoleon, and was sent 
on a mission to the courts of 
Denmark and Sweden. At the 
commencement of the Italian war, 
in 1859, General Canrobert received 
the command of the 3rd corps of 
the Army of the Alps. He exposed 
himself to great danger at Magenta, 
and at Solferino had to effect a 
movement which brought valuable 
assistance to General Niel. General 
Canrobert was afterwards made a 
Marshal of France, Grand Cross of 
the Legion of Honour, and an 
Honorary Knight Grand Cross of 
the Bath. In 1860 he married Miss 
Macdonald, a Scotch lady. In 
June, 1862, he commanded at the 
camp of Chalons, and succeeded 
the Marshal de Castellane in com- 
mand of the 4th corps d'armce at 
Lyons, Oct. 11. Subsequently, he 
was appointed Commander-in-Chief 
of the Army of Paris. At the time 
of the declaration of war by France 
against Prussia, in 1870, he had 
the command of an army corps. On 
the 6th of August the Crown Prince 
of Prussia attacked the united army 
corps ofQen&. Macmahon,De Failly, 
and Canrobert, drawn up in position 
at Woerth, and gained a complete 
victory over the French. Marshal 

Canrobert was soon afterwards shut 
up in Metz, with Marshal Bazaine, 
and on the capitulation of that 
fortress, he was sent prisoner into 
Germany. After the preliminaries 
of peace had been signed he re- 
turned to France, where he met 
with a favourable reception from 
M. Thiers, who did not, however, 
appoint him to any command. 
After having declined the offer of 
a candidature for the National 
Assembly in 1874, in the Gironde, 
and in 1875 in the Lot, Marshal 
Canrobert, after some hesitation, 
allowed his name to be proposed 
in the department of Lot, at the 
Senatorial elections of Jan. 30, 
1876, by the party of the Appeal to 
the People, and on the second 
scrutiny he was elected by 212 
votes out of 385 electors. His term 
of office expired in Jan., 1879, when 
he again became a candidate for 
the department of Lot, but was 
defeated. Later in the same year, 
however, he was elected Senator 
for Charente, in the room of the late 
M. Hennessy, the distiller. He ac- 
cepted this unsolicited election as 
" a homage paid to the army in the 
person of the doyen of its chiefs." 

CANTERBURY, Archbishop 
or. See Benson, De. 

CANTtJ, Cesaee, historian, was 
born at Brivio, near Milan, Sept. 5, 
1805. When only eighteen years of 
age, he became Professor of Litera- 
ture in the College of Sondrio, in 
the Valteline, from whence he went 
to Como, and thence to Milan. He 
embraced the Liberal cause, and 
his " ReflexionB on the History of 
Lombardy in the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury," published at Milan, excited 
the hostility of the Austrian Go- 
vernment, and he was imprisoned 
for three years. In his captivity 
he wrote an historical romance, 
"Margherita Pusterla," 1835, a 
work which has often been compared 
to the " Promessi Sposi" of Manzoni. 
He has composed various religious 
hymns, and his poem " Algiso, his 
" Letture Giovanelli," which have 

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passed through more than thirty 
editions, and the articles which he 
has contributed to the " Biblioteca 
Italiana " and the " Indicatore " of 
Milan, have popularized his name 
throughout Italy. He belongs to 
what has been called the Romantic 
School, founded by Manzoni and 
Silvio Pellico. This author has 
published •' Storia Universale," 
which has been translated into 
English, French, and German ; 
"History of Italian Literature/' 
1851 ; " History of the Last 
Hundred Years," 1852 j "History 
of the Italians," 1859; "Milano, 
Storia del Popolo e pel Popolo," 
1871 ; " Cronistoria della Indepen- 
denza Italiana," 3 vols., 1873; 
"Commento Storico ai Promessi 
Sposi [di Alessandro Manzoni], ola 
Lombardia nel secolo XVII." 1874 ; 
" Donato ed Ercole Silva, Conti di 
Biandrate; cenni biografici," con- 
jointly with C. Eovida, 1876 ; and 
" Caratteri Storici," 1881. 

CAPEL, The Right Reverend 
Monbignor Thomas John, D.D., 
was born Oct. 28, 1836. Having 
completed his education by six 
years' private tuition under the 
Rev. J. M. Glennie, B.A., Oxon., 
in the autumn of 1860, he was or- 
dained priest by Cardinal Wise- 
man. In Jan. 1854, he became co- 
founder and Vice-principal of St. 
Mary's Normal College at Hammer- 
smith. Shortly after ordination he 
was obliged to go to a southern 
climate to recruit his strength. 
When there, at Pau, he established 
the English Catholic mission, and 
was formally appointed its chap- 
lain. Subsequently, his health 
having improved, he returned to 
London, where his sermons and doc- 
trinal lectures in various churches, 
and more especially in the Pro- 
Cathedral at Kensington, soon 
raised him to the foremost rank 
among English preachers. During 
several visits to Rome he also de- 
livered courses of English sermons 
in that city by the express com- 
mand of the Sovereign Pontiff. 

Monsignor Capel, while labouring 
at Pau in the work of "conver- 
sions," was named private cham- 
berlain to Pope Pius IX., in 1868, 
and after his return to England 
domestic prelate in 1873. With 
returning health Monsignor Capel 
once more took to his work of pre- 
deliction — education — and in Feb. 
1873, established the Catholic Pub- 
lic School at Kensington. He was 
appointed Rector of the College of 
Higher Studies at Kensington — the 
nucleus of the Catholic English 
University — in 1874, by the unani- 
mous voice of the Roman Catholic 
Bishops, and he held that appoint- 
ment until 1878. It is said that 
the Right Rev. gentleman intended 
to avoid publishing till he was forty 
years of age, but the attack made 
on the civu allegiance of Catholics 
led him, as a born Catholic, to write 
"A Reply to the Right Hon. W. 
E. Gladstone's Political Expostu- 
lation," 1874. A passage in this 
work gave rise to an animated con- 
troversy between Monsignor Capel 
and Canon Liddon in the columns 
of the Times, respecting the alleged 
dissemination of several distinctive 
Roman Catholic doctrines by the 
Ritualistic clergy in the Anglican 

CAPERN, Edward, born at 
Tiverton, Devon, Jan. 29, 1819, is 
the author of " Poems," published 
in 1856, and now in the third 
edition, a work which attracted 
considerable attention, and pro- 
cured for the author a pension of 
«£±0 per annum (afterwards in- 
creased to J>60) from the civil list. 
In 1859 he published " Ballads and 
Songs," which was followed by 
" The Devonshire Melodist," a col- 
lection of the author's songs, in 
some instances accompanied by his 
own music. Edward Capera, who 
has long been known to the world 
as "The Rural Postman of Bide- 
ford," published "Wayside War- 
bles," in 1865, a second edition of 
which work, greatly enlarged, ap- 
peared in 1870. 

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(Alixajsdbr), a native of Constan- 
inople, belongs to one of the most 
distinguished families of the Greek 
community in the Turkish capital, 
and, through his wife, is connected 
with the noble family of the Aris- 
tarchi. He was brought up at Con- 
stantinople till he was sixteen years 
old. when he was sent to the West 
of Europe to complete his studies. 
On his return to Turkey, he was 
employed in the Government offices 
of the Sublime Porte, and soon at- 
tracted notice by his assiduity and 
intelligence. In several capitals of 
Europe he occupied the post of 
First Secretary of Embassy, and 
he was appointed, for the first 
time, Under-Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs during the Grand- 
Tizieriat of the late A'ali Pasha. 
About this period he was nominated 
Minister of the Sultan at the Court 
of Borne, where he resided for two 
years. He was recalled to occupy, 
for the second time, the post of 
Under-Secretary of State for Fo- 
reign Affairs. He was sent, as 
chief plenipotentiary of Turkey, to 
the Congress of the Great Powers 
which assembled at Berlin in 1878 
to revise the provisions of the 
Treaty of San Stefano. He had 
been previously raised to the rank 
of muchir. Afterwards he became 
Minister of Public Works, and in 
Nov. 1878 he was appointed Go- 
vernor-General of Crete. 

CARDEN, Sib Robert Walter, 
son of the late James Carden, Esq., 
of Bedford Square, London, was 
born in 1801. His mother was a 
daughter of the late Mr. John 
Walter, M.P., of the Times, in 
which journal Sir Robert is under- 
stood to possess an interest. He 
was gazetted as an officer in the 
82nd foot, but afterwards went on 
the Stock Exchange as a stock and 
share broker, became, in 1849, an 
alderman of the city of London, 
and served the office of Lord Mayor 
in 1857-8. He was the founder of 
the City Bank, was an unsuccessful 

candidate for St. Albans in 1850, 
and procured the disfranchisement 
of that corrupt constituency at his 
own expense. He was returned for 
Gloucester, as a Conservative, in 
1857, was defeated at the general 
election of 1859, though he un- 
seated his opponents on petition, 
and was defeated in a contest for 
Marylebone in April, 1801. Sir 
R. W. Carden is a magistrate for 
Middlesex and Surrey, and a de- 
I puty-lieu tenant for London. He 
| married in 1827, Pamela Elizabeth 
I Edith, daughter of the late Dr. 
Andrews, of the 19th Foot, (she 
died in 1874). 

CARDWELL (Viscount), The 
Eight Hon. Edward Cardwell, 
son of the late John Card well, Esq., 
merchant, Liverpool, and nephew 
of the late Rev. Dr. Card well, many 
years principal of Alban Hall, Ox- 
ford, and Camden Professor of An- 
cient History in that university, 
was born July 24, 1813, and educa- 
ted at Winchester. He was elected 
to a scholarship at Balliol College, 
Oxford, in 1832, graduated in 1835 
as a double first-class, and was 
elected Fellow of his college. In 
1838 he was called to the bar, but 
preferring political to legal dis- 
tinction, he entered Parliament in 
1842 as member for Clitheroe. 
Having supported Sir R. Peel in 
the financial changes of 1845-6, he 
was elected for Liverpool in 1847, 
and was defeated at the general 
election in July, 1852. In Jan. 
: 1853, he was returned for the city 
| of Oxford. Defeated at the general 
election in March, 1857, and one of 
| his opponents having been unseated 
! on petition, he was elected in July, 
| and continued to represent that 
j city until his elevation to the peer- 
I age. He was Secretary to the 
| Treasury from 18*5 to 1846, and 
I President of the Board of Trade 
under the " Coalition " ministry, 
I of which Lord Aberdeen was the 
head ; when he introduced some 
useful and valuable reforms into 
the office over which he presided. 

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Though a member of the Peelite 
party, Mr. Cardwell accepted the 
post of Chief Secretary for Ireland 
under Lord Palmerston, on his re- 
turn to office in 1859, and held the 
Chancellorship of the duchy of 
Lancaster from July, 1861, till 1864, 
when he succeeded the Duke of 
Newcastle as Secretary of State for 
the Colonies. He held the same 
appointment under Earl Russell's 
administration, and resigned with 
his colleagues in 1866. In Dec. 
1868, on the formation of Mr. 
Gladstone's Cabinet, he became 
Secretary of State for War, and 
a member of the Committee of 
of Council on Education. When 
the Liberal party went out of 
office he was raised to the peerage 
by the title of Viscount Cardwell 
(Feb. 1874). He was for some time 
an Ecclesiastical Commissioner for 
England, which office he resigned 
in Nov. 1882. While he was at 
the War Office, he proposed and 
carried through Parliament a series 
of measures, having for their object 
the entire reorganization of the 
British Army, by means of the 
Abolition of Purchase, the intro- 
duction of the " short service " 
system of enlistment, the localiza- 
tion of regiments, the transfer of 
certain powers over the militia 
from the Lords-Lieutenant to the 
Crown, and the placing the militia 
and volunteer forces directly under 
the Generals commanding districts. 
His lordship was one of the literary 
executors of the will of the late 
Sir Robert Peel, whose " Memoirs " 
he edited conjointly with the late 
Earl Stanhope (2 vols., 1856). He 
married, in 1838, Miss Anne Parker, 
youngest child of the late Mr. 
Charles Stewart Parker of Fairlie, 

C A R L E N, Madame Emilia 
Flyggare, novelist, was born in 
Stockholm, in 1810. Her maiden 
name was Schmidt, and her first 
marriage to a musician named 
Flyggare was an unfortunate one. 
After its dissolution she was mar- 

ried to M. J. G. Carlen, a lawyer 
of Stockholm, known as a poet and 
romancist. He died July 6, 1875. 
Madame Carl&i's first novel, " Wal- 
demar Klein," appeared in 1838, and 
by 1851, an interval of only thirteen 
years, she had published her twenty- 
second work. Amongst the pub- 
lications best known in this coun- 
try are, "Rose of Thistleton," 
"Woman's Life," "The Birth- 
right," "The Magic Goblet," 
" Ivar, or the Skjut's Boy," " The 
Lover's Stratagem," " Mary Louise," 
"Events of the Year," "The 
Maiden's Tower," and "John." 
This by no means exhausts the 
catalogue of this lady's produc- 
tions, for she is a most prolific 

Right Hon. Chichesteb Samuel 
Parkinson Fortescue, K.P., is the 
youngest son of the late Lieutenant- 
Colonel Chichester Fortescue, of 
Ravensdale Park, co. Louth, some 
time member for Hillsborough in 
the Irish Parliament, and brother of 
Lord Clermont, to whose Irish title 
Lord Carlingf ord stands as heir pre- 
sumptive. His mother was Martha, 
daughter of the late Mr. Samuel 
Meade Hobson, of the city of 
Waterford. He was born Jan. 18, 
1823, and educated at Eton, and 
at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A. 
1844 ; M.A. 1847). He obtained a 
first class in classical honours, and 
in 1846 gained the Chancellor's 
prize for an English essay on the 
" Effects of the Conquest of Eng- 
land by the Normans." He en- 
tered Parliament at the general 
election of 1817 as one of the mem- 
bers for the county of Louth, which 
he represented, in the Liberal in- 
terest, till Feb. 1874, when he was 
defeated. Mr. Chichester Fortescue 
held a Junior Lordship of the Trea- 
sury under Lord Aberdeen in 1854- 
55 ; the Under-Secretaryship of 
State for the Colonies in 1857-58; 
and again in 1859-65. He was 
sworn a member of the Privy Coun- 
cil in 1864. In 1865 he was made 

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Chief Secretary for Ireland, and he 
held that post down to June, 1866. 
On the formation of Mr. Glad- 
stone's Cabinet in Dec. 1868, he re- 
sumed that office, from which he 
was transferred in 1870 to the 
Presidency of the Board of Trade. 
Just before retiring from office in 
Feb. 1874, Mr. Gladstone recom- 
mended the Queen to bestow a 
peerage on Mr. Chichester Fortes- 
cue, who was accordingly created 
Baron Carlingf ord. In consequence 
of the introduction of Mr. Glad- 
stone's Irish LandBill in April, 1881, 
the Duke of Argyll resigned Mb seat 
in the Cabinet and his office of Lord 
Privy Seal. Lord Carlingf ord was 
thereupon appointed to succeed His 
Grace in that office, and towards 
the close of the Parliamentary 
Session he had charge of the Land 
Bill during its passage through the 
House of Lords. In Feb. 1882, he 
was created a Knight of the Order 
of St. Patrick in the room of the 
late Lord Lurgan ; and on March 
19, 1S83, he was nominated Lord 
President of the Privy Council, in 
succession to Earl Spencer. His 
Lordship is Lord-Lieutenant of 
Essex, a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant for the county of Louth, 
a magistrate for Somerset; and a 
member of the Historical Manu- 
scripts Commission. Lord Carling- 
ford married in 1863 Frances, 
daughter of the late Mr. John Bra- 
ham, widow of Mr. G. Harcourt 
and of the seventh Earl Walde- 
grave (she died July 5, 1879). 
There was no issue of the mar- 

CARLISLE, Bishop of. (See 

CAELOS (Don), Duke of Madrid 
(Carlos Maria db los Dolores 
Juan Isidoro Josef Francesco 
Quibjno Antonio Miguel Gabriel 
Bafaxl), who claims to be the 
legitimate King of Spain by the 
title of Charles VII., was born 
March 30, 1848. His father, Don 
Joan, was the brother of Don 
Carte (Charles VI.), known as the 

Count de Montemolin, in support 
of whose claims the Carlist risings 
of 1848, 1855, and 1860 were organ- 
ized. As Charles VI. died without 
children, Jan. 13, 1861, his rights 
devolved upon his brother, Don 
Juan, who had married, Feb. 6, 
1847, the Archduchess Maria Teresa 
of Austria, Princess of Modena. 
Their son, the present Don Car- 
los, who was educated principally 
in Austria, married, on Feb. 4, 1867, 
Margaret de Bourbon, of Bourbon, 
Princess of Parma, daughter of the 
late Duke Ferdinand Charles III., 
Mademoiselle de France, Duchess 
of Parma, and sister of the present 
Comte de Chambord (Henry V. of 
France). In Oct. 1868, Don Juan 
abdicated in favour of his son, 
whose standard was raised in the 
north of Spain by some of his par- 
tisans, April 21, 1872. On July 16, 
in that year, Don Carlos published 
a proclamation, addressed to the in- 
habitants of Catalonia, Aragon, 
and Valencia, calling upon them to 
take up arms in his cause, and 
promising to restore to them their 
ancient liberties ; and in the fol- 
lowing December Don Alfonso, the 
brother of Don Carlos, assumed the 
command of the Carlist bands in 
Catalonia. Don Carlos himself 
made his entry into Spain, July 15, 
1873, announcing that he came for 
the purpose of saving the country. 
Since that period the war was 
waged with remarkable vigour, and 
the various governments which 
came into power at Madrid strove 
in vain to dislodge the Carlists 
from their strongholds in the north 
of Spain. When the Republic 
came to an end, and the eldest son 
of the ex-Queen Isabella returned 
to Spain as Alfonso XII., Don Car- 
los issued a proclamation, dated at 
his headquarters at Vera, Jan 6, 
1875. In this document he says 
that, as " Head of the august 
family of the Bourbons in Spain, 
I contemplate with profound sor- 
row the attitude of my cousin 
Alfonso, who, with the inexperience 

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of hia age, consents to be the in- 
strument of the same men who ex- 
pelled him from his fatherland 
with his mother, overwhelmed with 
insults and outrages. Notwith- 
standing, I do not protest. My 
dignity, and the dignity of my 
army, permit no other protest than 
that uttered with irresistible elo- 
quence by the mouths of our can- 
non. The proclamation of Prince 
Alfonso, so far from closing against 
me the gates of Madrid, opens to 
me, on the contrary, the way for 
the regeneration of our beloved 
country. It is not in vain that a 
new epoch of pretorianism offends 
Spanish pride. It is not in vain 
that my invincible volunteers have 
taken up arms. They who knew 
how to conquer at Epault, at 
Alpinos, Montejura, Castelfullit, 
So minor ostro, Abuerzuzo, Castillon, 
Cordova, and Urnieta, will know 
how to prevent a new insult to our 
magnanimous Spain, another scan- 
dal to civilized Europe. Called to 
crush the revolution in our country, 
I will crush it whether it shows 
the savage ferocity of shameless 
impiety, or whether it shelters and 
conceals itself beneath the cloak of 
a pretended piety. Spaniards! 
By our God, by our Spain, I swear 
to you that, faithful to my holy 
mission, I will keep our glorious 
flag unstained. It symbolizes the 
saving principles which are to-day 
our hope, and which will be to- 
morrow our salvation." The con- 
test was carried on with great 
stubbornness and gallantry by the 
Carlists for more than a twelve- 
month after this ; but in Jan. 1876, 
Tolosa, their last stronghold, fell, 
and its defenders, flying in disorder, 
sought refuge on French territory. 
Don Carlos went to Paris, and in a 
manifesto to the Spaniards, dated 
from the capital, March 3, 1876, he 
said : — ff Being desirous of putting 
a stop to bloodshed, I forbear con- 
tinuing a glorious, but at present 
fruitless struggle. In the face of a 
great superiority of numbers, and 

in view especially of the sufferings 
of my volunteers, it became neces- 
sary to return the sword to the 
scabbard. I will never sign a eon- 
venio. My flag remains furled un- 
til the moment which God shall fix 
as the supreme hour of redemp- 
tion." On July 18, 1881, Don 
Carlos was expelled from France 
on the ground of his having osten- 
tatiously allied himself with the 
partisans of the Comte de Cham- 
bord. Don Carlos has five children 
— the Infanta Blanca, born Sept. 7, 
1868 ; the Infante Jaime, Prince of 
the Asturias, born June 27, 1870; 
the Infanta Elvira, born July 28, 
1871 ; the Infanta Beatrix, born 
March 21, 1874 ; and the Infanta 
Alix, born June 29, 1876. 
. CABLSON, Frederik Ferdi- 
nand, a Swedish historian, born in 
the province of Upland, June 13, 
1811, was educated in the Univer- 
sity of Upsala, and after graduat- 
ing there, made a tour through 
Denmark, Germany, Italy, and 
France, staying for a considerable 
time in Berlin and Rome. On his 
return in 1836 he was appointed 
Professor of History at Upsala, but 
the next year he was sent for to 
Stockholm to be tutor to the Prince 
Royal. In 1847, however, he was 
again elected to the Chair of His- 
tory at Upsala; he represented 
that University in the Diet far 
several years ; and in 1863 he re- 
signed his professorship on being 
placed at the head of the Ministry 
of Public Worship at Stockholm. 
His great work is a " History of 
Sweden," the first two volumes of 
which appeared in Swedish and 
German in 1855-6. He is a member 
of the Academy of Sweden. 

CARNARVON (Earl of), The 
Right Hon. Henry Howard Moly- 
neux Herbert, eldest son of Henry 
John George, the third earl (who was 
an accomplished scholar and poet), 
by Henrietta Anna, daughter of 
Lord Henry T. Molyneux Howard, 
born June 24, 1831, was educated at 
Eton and Christ Church* Oxford, 

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where be graduated as a first-class 
in classics in 1852, and D.C.L. in 
1859. Lord Carnarvon, who repre- 
sents a younger branch of the noble 
aooae of Pembroke, succeeded to the 
title during bis minority. Soon after 
taking his seat in the House of Peers, 
he made his maiden speech, on which 
he was highly complimented by Lord 
Derby, who, in 1859, nominated him 
High Steward of the University of 
Oxford. He was Under-Secretary 
of State for the Colonies in Lord 
Derby's second administration, 
185S-9, and was appointed Secretary 
of State for the Colonies in Lord 
Derby's third administration, June, 
1866. On Feb. 19, 1867, he moved 
in the House of Lords the second 
reading of the Bill for the Confede- 
ration of the British North American 
Provinces, which he truly described 
as one of the largest and most im- 
portant measures that for many 
years it had been the duty of any 
Colonial Minister in this country to 
submit to Parliament. Shortly after 
this (March 2) his lordship resigned 
the Colonial Secretaryship on ac- 
count of a difference of opinion re- 
specting Parliamentary Reform. At 
the same time, General Peel, War 
Secretary, and Lord Cranborne (now 
the Marquis of Salisbury) Secretary 
for India, tendered their resig- 
nations, which were accepted. Lord 
Carnarvon, in the speech he de- 
livered in the House of Peers on 
this occasion, avowed that the new 
Reform Bill would make an entire 
transfer of political power in five- 
sixths of the boroughs, and ex- 
pressed his belief that the Govern- 
ment were going too far in a demo- 
cratic direction. On the formation 
of Mr. Disraeli's cabinet in Feb. 
1874, he was for the second time 
appointed Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. He resigned his seat in 
the Cabinet, Jan. 24, 1878, in con- 
sequence of his disagreement from 
his colleagues as to the policy of 
ordering the British fleet to proceed 
to theDardanelles. His lordship 
considered this to be a departure 

from the policy of neutrality which 
the Government had pledged them- 
selves to preserve as long as neither 
of the belligerents infringed certain 
conditions which Her Majesty's Go- 
vernment itself had laid down. 
Lord Derby, Foreign Secretary, 
tendered his resignation at the 
same time, but consented to resume 
his post after the order respecting 
the fleet had been countermanded, 
and explanations had been made 
with his colleagues. Lord Carnar- 
von is the author of " The Archaeo- 
logy of Berkshire," an address de- 
livered to the Archaeological Asso- 
ciation at Newbury, 1859;" "Re- 
collections of the Druses of the 
Lebanon : and Notes on their Reli- 
gion," 1860, being notes of a visit 
to the East; and a preface and 
notes to a Report on " Prison Dis- 
cipline," adopted at the Hampshire 
Quarter Sessions, Jan. 4, 1864. He 
edited, in 1869, " Reminiscences of 
Athens and the Morea: Extracts 
from a Journal of Travels in Greece 
during 1839, by the late Earl of 
Carnarvon ; " in 1875, " The Gnostic 
Heresies of the First and Second 
Centuries," by the late H. L. Man- 
sell, Dean of St. Paul's, " with a 
Sketch of his Life, Work, and Cha- 
racter ;" and he published, in 1879, 
a translation of the " Agamemnon " 
of Jfochylus. Lord Carnarvon was 
Major in the Hampshire Yeomanry 
Cavalry, 1862-8 ; and is a Deputy- 
Lieutenant and a Magistrate for 
Hampshire, Constable of Carnarvon 
Castle, and Pro-Grand Master of the 
Freemasons of England (1875); Pre- 
sident of the Society of Antiquaries 
(1878) ; and a member of the His- 
torical Manuscripts Commission 
(1882). He married firstlv, in 186J , 
Lady Evelyn Stanhope (who died 
in 1875) ; and secondly, Dec. 31, 
1878, Elizabeth Catherine, daughter 
of the late Mr. Henry Howard, of 
Greystoke Castle, Cumberland. 

CARNOT, Lazabk Hippolytb, 
politician, son of the celebrated Car- 
not, born at Saint Omer, April 6, 
1801, studied the law, and became 

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an advocate. Later in life he ranked 
as a homme de lettres, edited the 
" Revue Encyclope*dique," and was 
at one time a disciple of St. Simon. 
He was elected deputy in 1839, and 
after the revolution of 1848 was ap- 
pointed Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion, but retired July 5. After the 
coup d'ttat, M. Carnot was elected, 
with General Cavaignac, deputy for 
Paris. Both refused the oath, and 
retired into private life. In 1863, 
however, he entered the Corps LSgis- 
latif , but at the general election of 
1869 he was defeated by M. Gam- 
betta. After the Revolution of Sept. 
4, 1870, he was appointed Maire of 
the 8th arondissement of Paris. The 
following year he was elected a re- 
presentative of the department of 
Seine-et-Oise. He voted steadily 
with the Extreme Left. On Dec. 15, 
1875, he was elected a Senator for 
Life by the National Assembly. 
Among the works written, edited, 
or translated by M. Carnot are, 
"Gumma," a novel by Van der 
Welde, 1824 ; the " Chants Hel- 
leniens" of Wilhelm Muller, 1828; 
" Expose de la Doctrine Saint-Si- 
monienne," 1830, which has been 
translated into English ; " M£moires 
de Henri Gregoire, ancien eVeque de 
Blois," 2 vols., 1837 ; " Reflexions sur 
la Domesticity," 1838; "Des Devoirs 
civiques des Militaires," 1838; M6- 
moires de BertrandBarrere,"4vols., 
1842-43, conjointly with David d' An- 
gers ; " De TEsclavage Colonial ; " 
" L'AUemagne pendant la Guerre 
de la Delivrance," fragments of 
which were published in 1843 ; 
"Memoires sur Carnot, par son 
fils," 2 vols., 1861-64; and "La 
Revolution Francaise," 2 vols., 

CARNOTA (Conde da) J. Smith 
Athelstane, born in London, May 
9, 1813, was educated at Salisbury, 
by the Rev. G. Radcliffe, D.D. In- 
tended for the law, but having lost 
his father at the age of nineteen, 
he travelled on the continent, and 
in 1835 went to Lisbon, where he 
became private secretary to the 

Marshal Duke de Saldanha, at that 
time Prime Minister of Portugal. 
He was present at and concerned in 
many important events of that 
country's history, and accompanied 
the Marshal in various missions and 
embassies at Vienna, London, Paris, 
and Rome. He has resided but 
little in England, except during the 
year 1840, when attached to the Sar- 
dinian Legation in London, of which 
the late Count Pollon was the chief. 
In 1843 he published in two volumes 
the first edition of his work, the 
" Marquis of Pombal," on which oc- 
casion the Queen of Portugal created 
him a Knight Commander of the 
Order of Christ. He married in 1850, 
and shortly afterwards purchased 
a property in Portugal, where, a 
widower since 1856, he continues to 
reside. By a decree dated Lisbon, 
Aug. 9, 1870, his present Majesty, 
Dom Luiz, was pleased to elevate 
the author to the dignity of " Gran- 
dee of Portugal," by the title of 
Conde da Carnota. In 1871 a second 
edition of the " Marquis of Pombal " 
was published in one volume. The 
Conde da Carnota has since written 
" Memoirs of the Life and Eventful 
Career of the Duke de Saldanha, 
soldier and statesman," 2 vols., 1880. 
CARPENTER, Alfred, M.D., 
wasborn at Roth well, Northampton- 
shire, May 28, 1825, his father being 
a medical practitioner of that place, 
to whom, after finishing his general 
education at Moulton Grammar 
School, in Lincolnshire, he was ap- 
prenticed at the age of 14. Two 
years later he became a pupil of Mr. 
Percival, at the Northampton In- 
firmary, where he remained for 
three years, returning at the ex- 
piration of that period to Rothwell 
to assist his father. Next he be- 
came assistant to Mr. J. Syer Bris- 
towe, at Camberwell, and in 1847 
he entered St. Thomas's Hospital. 
He was the first student who gained 
a scholarship at that institution, 
and he also held in succession the 
posts of Resident Accoucheur and 
House Surgeon. He took the 

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M.R.C.S. and L.S.A. in 1851, and in 
1852 became associated in practice 
with the Ute Dr. WeetaU, of Croy- 
don, in which town he has since 
continued to reside. Dr. Westall 
having retired in 1860, Mr. Car- 
penter entered into partnership first 
with Mr. Whitling, and afterwards 
with Dr. H. T. Lankester. Mr. 
Carpenter graduated M.B. at the 
University of London in 1855, and 
M.D. in 1859. In 1860 he became 
medical attendant upon Dr. Sumner, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and he 
was afterwards medical adviser to 
Archbishops Longley and Tait. In 
1850 Dr. Carpenter was appointed a 
member of the Croydon Local Board 
of Health, on which he continued to 
serve, acting occasionally as chair- 
man, until his election as President 
of the Council of the British Medi- 
cal Association in 1879. His con- 
nection with the Board of Health 
was fruitful of results in the in- 
terests of sanitary science. He was 
chiefly instrumental in the exten- 
sion and successful working of the 
Croydon Sewage Farm, and the 
Public Baths at Croydon were like- 
wise established by him. To his 
exertions also, was due the ventila- 
tion of the sewers. In 1870 he was 
appointed a magistrate for Surrey. 
Dr. Carpenter has filled numerous 
local offices of importance. He has 
been President of the Croydon 
Literary and Scientific Institute, of 
the Croydon School of Art, of the 
Microscopical Club and Natural 
History Society, and of the Croydon 
Temperance Society. He also took 
an active part in the establishment 
of the Croydon Cottage Hospital and 
of the Croydon Provident Dispen- 
sary. In 1878 he was Orator of the 
Medical Society of London, and took 
for the subject of his discourse 
"Alcoholic Drinks." He has also 
been a member of the Health Com- 
mittee of the Social Science Associa- 
tion, and Vice-Chairman of the 
Council of the Sanitary Institute. 
He was President of the Health Sec- 
tion at the Croydon Sanitary Con- 

gress in 1872, and in Dec. 1881 he 
presided over the Domestic Health 
Section at the Brighton Congress. 
Dr. Carpenter is Examiner in Public 
Health in the University of London, 
and a member of the Court of Ex- 
aminers at the Apothecaries' Com- 
pany. In 1881 he was nominated a 
member of the Royal Commission 
appointed to inquire into the con- 
dition of the London hospitals for 
small-pox and fever cases, and into 
the means of preventing the spread 
of infection. Among his lite- 
rary productions are: "A Historv 
of Sanitary Progress in Croydon, 
1856; " Hints on House Drainage," 
1866 ; "Physiological and Mechani- 
cal Aspect of Sewage Irrigation ; " 
a course of " Lectures on Preventive 
Medicine," delivered at St.Thomas's 
Hospital in 1877 ; " Alcoholic Drinks 
as Diet, as Medicines, and as Poi- 
sons ; " " Influence of Sewer Gas on 
Public Health;" "Causation of 
Epidemic Disease ; " " Address on 
Public Medicine," delivered before 
the British Medical Association at 
Sheffield in 1876 ; " The First Prin- 
ciples of Sanitary Work ; " a paper on 
the " Causation of Scarlatina, read 
before the Society of Medical Offi- 
cers of Health, 1881 ; the chapter on 
" Medical Etiquette " in " Glenn's 
Manual of Laws affecting Medical 
Men ; " a paper on " Fogs and Lon- 
don Smoke," read before the Society 
of Arts in Nov. 1880, which com- 
munication was initiated by a cor- 
respondence in the Timet, and which 
resulted in the establishment of an 
Exhibition now held at South Ken- 
sington ; " Health at School ; " and 
a series of articles on " School Sur- 
gery " in the Practical Teacher. 

F.R.S., F.L.S, was born at Moffat, 
Scotland, in 1830, and educated at 
the academy there, and afterwards 
at the University and New College, 
Edinburgh. He entered the British 
Museum as Assistant in the De- 
partment of Botany in 1859 ; and 
succeeded Mr. J. J. Bennett, as 
I Keeper of that Department, on his 

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retirement in 1871. Mr. Carruthers 
has conducted many original inves- 
tigations on living and fossil plants, 
and has published numerous me- 
moirs on fossil botany in the jour- 
nals and transactions of learned 
societies. He re-edited Lindley and 
Hutton's " Fossil Flora/' and was 
afterwards engaged in preparing an 
account of the fossil plants of 
Britain, supplementary to that 

CABUS, The Bbv. William, 
M.A., born in 1804, was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated B.A. in the highest 
honours both in classics and mathe- 
matics in 1827, and was elected 
Fellow of his college. He was 
Senior Fellow and Senior Dean of 
Trinity College, Incumbent of Great 
St. Mary's, and a select preacher in 
the university in 1854, 1859, and 
1866 ; was appointed a Canon Resi- 
dentiary of Winchester, Vicar of 
Bomsey, and Rural Dean in 1851 ; 
and is Proctor for the Chapter in 
Convocation. He is the author of 
" Memoirs of the late Bev. Charles 
Simeon." A Greek Testament prize, 
called the Carus Prize, in remem- 
brance of his long services there, 
has been established in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. 

Mabie Caroline, a celebrated 
French vocalist, born at Marseilles, 
Dec. 31, 1827, attended M. Duprez' 
class at the Paris Conservatoire from 
1843 to 1847, and gained the first 
prize for singing. She made her 
d4but in 1849, at the Op^ra Comique, 
where, between that date and the 
end of 1854, she either reproduced 
or created a number of well-known 
characters in " Giralda," " Le Pre* 
aux Clercs," "La Cour de C&i- 
mene," and "Les Noces de Jean- 
nette." In 1853 Mdlle. Miolan be- 
came the wife of M. L6on Carvaille 
or Carvalho, who, since 1849, had 
been a singer at the Opera Comique. 
This union was a most unhappy one. 
In 1856, whilst his wife was engaged 
as first cantatrice at the Theatre 

Lyrique, M. Carvalho happened to 
be the principal creditor of the 
management of that theatre, and 
the result was that the licence was 
transferred to him. In 1862 he was 
appointed its manager, but fortune 
was not favourable to him, and 
eventually he was made a bankrupt. 
A judicial separation was obtained 
by his wife, who, it appeared, had 
not received for four years a single 
shilling of her salary. Madame 
Carvalho- Miolan played in her hus- 
band's theatre, with great applause, 
the principal parts in "La Fan- 
chonette," " Les Noces de Figaro," 
"La Beine Topaze," "Mireille," 
and other popular pieces. During 
the season of 1860 she appeared at 
the Italian Opera in London, where 
she achieved a brilliant success. 
Since that time she has sung both 
on the stage and at concerts in this 
and other countries. Madame Car- 
valho-Miolan possesses a voice of 
wonderful flexibility and compass, 
and can render, without apparent 
effort, the most difficult musical 

CASHEL, Bishop of. (See Day, 

CASSAGNAC. (See Gbanieb de 


a Spanish politician, born in 1832, 
became notorious, early in hi6 
career, in consequence of his ex- 
treme democratic and socialistic 
opinions, which he expounded in 
various Liberal journals. For a 
time he was Professor of History 
and Philosophy in the University 
of Madrid, and in 1866 he took a 
leading part in the revolutionary 
movement, which was put down by 
Serrano. On this occasion he was 
condemned to death, but he made 
good his escape, and sought refuge 
first at Geneva and afterwards in 
France. When the revolution 
broke out in Sept. 1868, he re- 
turned to his native country, and 
was one of the most energetic 
leaders of the republican move- 
ment. He exerted himself to the 

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utmost in order to bring about the 
establishment of a republic, but at 
the general election for the Con- 
stituent Cortes in Feb. 1869, the 
republicans succeeded in returning 
only a small proportion of their 
candidates, among whom, however, 
was Senor Castelar. In the discus- 
dona respecting the new constitu- 
tion of Spain Senor Castelar advo- 
cated, but unsuccessfully, the 
principle of republican institutions. 
In June, 1869, he vigorously op- 
posed the project of a regency, and 
he was also concerned in the repub- 
lican insurrections which occurred 
in October of that year. In the 
government chosen by the Cortes 
after the abdication of King 
Amadeo, Senor Castelar was Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs. On Aug. 
24, 1873, he was elected President 
of the Cortes by 135 votes against 
73, but he vacated that post on 
Sept. 6, when he was nominated 
President of the Executive Power. 
His first measure was the proroga- 
tion of the Cortes and the assump- 
tion of dictatorial power. He next 
took energetic, but ineffectual, 
measures to suppress the Carlist 
insurrection, and despatched the 
Minister of War in person to Cuba 
to protect Spanish interests in that 
island. When, however, the Cortes 
re-assembled on Jan. 2, 1874, it re- 
fused by 120 votes against 100, to 
pass a vote of confidence in Presi- 
dent Castelar, who resigned. There- 
upon General Pavia, as Captain- 
General of Madrid, forcibly dis- 
solved the Cortes, and appointed a 
provisional government with Mar- 
shal Serrano at its head. Soon 
after the pronuneiamiento in favour 
of Alfonso XII., Senor Castelar 
quitted Madrid and proceeded to 
Geneva, Jan. 1875. While in that 
city, being disgusted at the educa- 
tional decree promulgated by the 
Spanish Government, he resigned 
the Chair of History in the Univer- 
sity of Madrid, March 6, 1875. 
Subsequently he returned to Spain, 
sod succeeded, though not without 

considerable difficulty, in obtaining 
a seat in the Cortes, as Deputy for 
Madrid, at the elections of Jan. 
1876. He was elected a member of 
the Spanish Academy in 1871, but 
he did not deliver his reception 
speech till April 25, 1880. Senor 
Castelar has written, " Ernesto, 
novela original de costumbres," 
1855 ; " Lucano, su Vida, su Genio, 
su Poema," 1857 ; " Legendas Popu- 
lares," 1857; "Ideas Democrati- 
cas," 1858 ; " La Civilizacion en los 
cinco primeros siglos del Cristia- 
nismo. Lecciones pronunciadas en 
el Ateneo de Madrid," 2 vols., 
1858-59 ; " Crenica de la Guerra de 
Africa/' 1859 ; " La Redencion del 
Esclavo," 1859 ; "Colleccion de los 
principales articulos politicos y 
literarios," 1859 ; " Cartas a un 
Obispo sobre la Libertad de la 
Iglesia," printed in " Biblioteca 
de Democracia," 1864 ; " Discurso 
pronunciado en la noche del 13 de 
Noviemhre de 1868, con motivo de 
instalarse el Comite* Eepublicano de 
Madrid," 1868 ; " Discursos Parla- 
mentarios, en la Asamblea Consti- 
tuyente," 3 vols., 1871 ; " Roma 
vieja y nueva Italia," translated 
into English by Mrs. Arthur Ar- 
nold, under the title of " Old Rome 
and New Italy," 1873 ; " Semblan- 
zas contemporaneas de los perso- 
najes mas celebres del mundo en las 
Letras, las Ciencias y las Artes ; " 
"Vida de Lord Byron;" and 
"Historia de un Corazon," a ro- 

CASTILLE, Chables - Hifpo- 
lttk, romancist and journalist, the 
son of a colonel of artillery, born 
at Montreuil-8ur-Mer, Nov. 8, 1820, 
studied at Douai and Cambrai, and 
was afterwards employed in the 
office of Public Works. Having 
been dismissed for neglecting his 
duties, he turned his attention to 
literature, his first contributions to 
which appeared in Le Mus4e des 
Families. He has written a num- 
ber of romances which have become 
popular, though, as they belong to 
the "horrible school," he charges 
Q 2 

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his pictures with the most sombre 
colours. His chief work is " Histoire 
de la Seconde Bepublique Fran- 
caise," published in 1854-5, and he is 
best known in England by a series of 
historical and political biographies, 
published in 1856-7. In 1858 he 
published "Parallele entre Cesar, 
Charlemagne, et Napoleon," and in 
1859, "Histoire de Soixante Ans 
1789-1850." He continues to write 
in the French magazines and 

CAULFIELD, Bichabd, LL.D., 
F.S.A., was born in the city of 
Cork, April 23, 1823, and educated 
at the Bandon Endowed School and 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1845, taking 
subsequently the degrees of M.A. 
and LL.D. He was appointed 
Librarian of the Boyal Institution, 
Cork, in 1864 ; and Librarian of the 
Queen's College, Cork, under the 
royal sign manual in 1876. Dr. 
Caulfield was elected a correspond- 
ing member of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Normandy in 1859 ; 
a Fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London in 1862 ; and an 
honorary member of the Boyal 
Academy of History, Madrid, in 
1882. He is editor of the Journal 
of the Royal Historical and Archwo- 
logical Association of Ireland; 
" Sigilla Ecclesis Hibernice IUus- 
trata," Cork, 1853 ; •' Eotulus Pipa 
Clonensis, ex orig. in Eegistro 
Eccles. Cath. Clonensis asservato, 
&c." Cork, 1859 j " Lecture on the 
History of the Bishops of Cork," 
Cork, 1864; "Annals of St. Fin 
Barre's Cathedral, Cork," Cork, 
1871 ; " Handbook of the Cathedral 
Church of St. Fin Barre, Cork," 
Cork, 1881 ; "Annals of the Cathe- 
dral of St. Colman, Cloyne, &c," 
Cork, 1882 ; " Autobiography of Sir 
Richard Cox, Bart., Lord Chancel* 
lor of Ireland, from the original 
MS.," Lond., I860; "Life of St. 
Fin Barre, first Bishop of Cork, 
from MSS. in the Bodleian Library, 
Archbishop Marsh's and Trinity 
College, Dublin," London, 1864} 

"Journal of the Very Bev. Bow- 
land Davies, LL.D., Dean of Cork," 
1688-1690 (Camden Society, 1857) ; 
"Council Book of the Corporation 
of Cork, 1609-1643 and 1690 to 1800, 
with annals and appendices from 
public and private records," Guild- 
ford, 1876 ; " Register of the Parish 
of Christ Church, Cork, from 1664 
to 1668," Cork, 1877 ; " CouncU Book 
of the Corporation of Youghal, 
1610-1659, 1666-1687, 1690-1800. 
with annals and appendices from 
public and private records," Guild- 
ford, 1878; "Council Book of Cor- 
poration of Einsale, 1652-1800," 
Guildford, 1879. 

CAUX, Marquise De. (See 

CAVE, The Hon. Sib Lewis 
William, was born July 3, 1832, 
at Desborough, in Northampton- 
shire, where his father owned a 
small estate. He was educated at 
Rugby, under the Archbishop of 
Canterbury (Dr. Tait), and had 
among his contemporaries there 
Mr. G. J. Goschen and Mr. Godfrey 
Lushington, the Assistant Under- 
Secretary for Home Affairs. In 
1851 he was elected to an Exhibi- 
tion at Lincoln College, Oxford, on 
the foundation of Lord Crewe, 
which he held until 1855, in which 
year he took his B.A. degree, having 
been placed in the 2nd class classics 
in the final examination. In 1856 
he was admitted as a student at 
the Inner Temple, and in August 
of the same year married Julia, 
daughter of the Bev. C. F. Wat- 
kins, Vicar of Brixworth, North- 
amptonshire. During his course 
of study he read with Mr. Tatham, 
the conveyancer, Mr. Dodgson, the 
pleader, now one of the Masters of 
the High Court, and Mr. (now Mr. 
Justice) Field. In 1859 he obtained 
a certificate of honour in the exa- 
mination of students, and in June 
of that year was called to the bar 
at the Inner Temple. In the fol- 
lowing year he joined the Midland 
circuit, the leaders of which at 
that time were the late Mr. Macau- 

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lay, Q.C., Mr. (now Sir John) 
MelloT, Q.C., and Mr. Serjeant 
(afterwards Mr. Justice) Hayes. 
When Northampton and Leicester 
were severed from the Midland 
circuit and added to the Norfolk 
circuit in 1863, Mr. Cave continued 
to go the Midland circuit, which 
was increased by the addition of 
Yorkshire j but when, in 1875, 
Yorkshire was taken from the Mid- 
land circuit, to form with North- 
umberland and Durham the new 
North-Eastern circuit, Mr. Cave, 
together with his contemporaries, 
Mr. Fitz james Stephen, Q.C., and 
Mr. Alfred Wills, Q.C., elected to 
leave the Midland and join the 
new circuit. Mr. Cave was ap- 
pointed a revising barrister in 
1865, and held the office until he 
obtained a silk gown in 1875. In 
1873 he was appointed Recorder of 
Lincoln. Mr. Cave was elected a 
Bencher of his Inn in 1877, and in 
the same year was made a Com- 
missioner of Assize for the autumn 
circuit. In 1880 he was appointed, 
together with Mr. Hugh Cowie, 
Recorder of Maldon and Saffron 
Walden, and Mr. Edward Ridley, 
formerly M.P. for South North- 
umberland, a Commissioner to in- 
quire into the existence of corrupt 
practices at Parliamentary elec- 
tions at Oxford. In March, 1881, 
Mr. Cave was appointed one of the 
Justices of the High Court, and in 
April received the honour of knight- 
hood, along with Mr. Justice Ma- 
thew. Mr. Justice Cave has edited 
several law books. Prom 1861 to 
I860, in conjunction with the Hon. 
E. Chandos Leigh, Q.C., he edited 
the reports of the Court for the 
Consideration of Crown Cases Re- 
served. In 1861 Mr. Cave, in 
conjunction with Mr. Bell, edited 
the seventh edition of Stone's 
"Practice of Petty Sessions." In 
1869 he edited the sixth edition, 
and in J 875 the seventh edition of 
Addison's " Treatise on the Law of 
Contracts/' and in 1879 he edited 
the fifth edition of the same author's 

"Law of Torts." While at the 
bar Mr. Justice Cave had the re- 
putation of being a sound lawyer 
rather than a brilliant advocate ; 
and although he had a large and 
varied business in his circuit, his 
name will not be found connected 
with any of the sensational cases of 
his time. 

CAYLEY, Arthur, F.R.S., 
D.C.L., LL.D., son of the late 
Henry Cayley, Russia merchant, a 
relative of the family of Cayley of 
Brompton, in Yorkshire, born at 
Richmond, in Surrey, in 1821, was 
educated at King's College, Lon- 
don, and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. 
in 1842 as Senior Wrangler and first 
Smith's Prizeman. He was succes- 
sively Scholar and Fellow of his 
College, was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in 1849, and has 
since practised as a conveyancer. 
In 1863, on the institution of the 
professorship, he was elected Sad- 
lerian Professor of pure mathe- 
matics in the University of Cam- 
bridge. On Oct. 8, 1875, he was 
elected to a foundation Fellowship 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
accordance with the provisions of 
the 22nd section of the College 
Statutes, which enables the Master 
and 16 Fellows whose names are 
first on the roll to elect to a Founda- 
tion Fellowship a Professor or 
Public Lecturer in the University, 
as long as he holds the Professor- 
ship. He is a Fellow of the Royal 
and of the Royal Astronomical 
Societies, the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society, the London 
Mathematical Society, and has con- 
tributed on mathematical subjects 
to the Transactions of these and 
other societies, and to various 
British and foreign mathematical 
journals. He has been chosen a 
correspondent of the French Insti- 
tute for the section of Astronomy, 
and an honorary member, associate, 
or correspondent of several other 
societies . Professor Cayley received 
the degree of D.C.L. from the Uni- 

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versity of Oxford in 1864, and that 
of LL.D., from the University of 
Dublin in 1865. He was President 
of the Eoyal Astronomical Society 
in 1872-73. He received the hono- 
rary degree of Doctor of Mathe- 
matics and Physics from the Uni- 
versity of Ley den, in Feb., 1875. 
In Nov. 1882, the Copley Medal of 
the Royal Society was awarded to 
him for his numerous profound 
and comprehensive researches in 
pure mathematics. 

CECIL, Lord Eustace Henry 
Brownlow Ga8coyne,M. P., second 
surviving son of the second Marquis 
of Salisbury , by his first wife Prances 
Mary, daughter of the late Bamber 
Ga8Coyne, Esq., was born in London 
in 1834, and educated at Harrow 
School, and at the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst. He entered the 
army as ensign in the 43rd Light 
Infantry in 1851 ; served at the Cape 
of Good Hope, in India, and in the 
Crimea; and retired as captain 
and lieutenant-colonel, Coldstream 
Guards, in 1863. He represented 
South Essex in the House of Com- 
mons in the Conservative interest 
from July, 1865, to Dec, 1868, since 
which date he has sat for the western 
division of the same county. Lord 
Eustace Cecil, since he has been in 
Parliament, has always taken a great 
interest in military education, and 
the suppression of adulteration. 
He moved for a Royal Commission 
in 1866 to inquire into the state of 
Sandhurst and Woolwich, and lost it 
only by a narrow division. He moved 
again for a Royal Commission to 
inquire into military education in 
1868, and that time was successful, 
and served as a member of the com- 
mission. He was mainly instru- 
mental, together with Mr. Muntz, 
M.P. for Birmingham, in passing the 
Adulteration Act of 1872. Lord E. 
Cecil is the author of "Impres- 
sions of Life at Home and Abroad." 
When Mr. Disraeli came into office 
in Feb. 1874, he appointed Lord 
Eustace Cecil Surveyor-General of 
the Ordnance. His lordship held 

that office till the resignation of the 
Conservative party in April, 1880. 
He married in 1860 Lady Gertrude 
Louisa, fourth daughter of the 
second Earl of Eldon. 

CERRITO, Francesca, called 
Fanny, a celebrated dancer, born 
in Naples, March 11, 1821, is the 
daughter of an old soldier of the 
Empire. While quite a child she 
was distinguished for great natural 
grace and vivacity. She made her 
first appearance in 1835, at the San 
Carlo theatre, in a ballet called 
"The Horoscope/' and created 
great enthusiasm, and afterwards 
danced at the principal theatres of 
Italy. She was at Vienna for two 
years, and was a favourite every 
season from 1840 to 1845, in Lon- 
don, where she danced the famous 
pasde quatre with Taglioni, Carlotta 
Grisi, and Lucille Grahn. About 
this time she was married to a 
distinguished dancer and violinist, 
M. A. St. Leon, from whom she was 
separated in 1850. Mdme. Cerrito, 
who was called the " Fourth 
Grace," composed jointly with M. 
Theophile Gautier, the "Gipsy/' 
" Gemma/' and other ballets. She 
is now residing in Paris. 

CESNOLA (Count), Luiqi 
Palma di, LL.D., born at Turin, 
Italy, July 29, 1832. He graduated 
at the Royal Military Academy at 
Turin in 1850, and served in the 
Italian army during the Crimean 
war. In 1860 he went to New York, 
where he gave lessons in French and 
Italian. When the civil war broke 
out, he formed classes for instruc- 
tion in military tactics and cavalry 
exercises, and was soon made 
Colonel of a volunteer regiment of 
cavalry. In June, 1863, he was 
wounded and made prisoner. After 
a captivity of nine months, he was 
exchanged, took part in the closing 
operations of the war, and was 
breveted as brigadier-general. In 
the spring of 1865, having become 
a citizen of the United States, he 
was appointed consul at Laraaca, in 
the island of Cyprus, where he corn- 

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menced the excavations which, have 
made him famous. Among the 
rains of a temple in the neighbour- 
hood he dug up a bronze vase con- 
taining some GOO coins of the time 
of Philip and Alexander of Maoedon, 
and the Ptolemies. Subsequently 
be took a summer residence at £>ali, 
twenty miles from Larnaca, occupy- 
ing the site of the ancient Idalium, 
once noted for the temple of the 
Cypriote Venus. Here he opened 
more than 15,000 tombs, and. secured 
many objects of interest. He was 
still more successful at Golgoi, 
in the immediate neighbourhood, 
where he discovered the buried 
foundation of the ancient temple of 
Venus, and exhumed nearly lOOO 
rtatues and statuettes, mostly in a 
eood state of preservation. In 1870 
his collection was examined by an 
agent for the Imperial Museum at 
St. Petersburg, who estimated the 
whole number of objects at about 
13,000. The Emperor Napoleon at 
this time made a liberal offer for the 
collection, which he proposed to pre- 
sent to the Imperial Museum of the 
Louvre ; but before Cesnola's letter 
of acceptance reached Paris, the Em- 
peror was a prisoner- In 1872 he sent 
the whole collection to London for 
sale. The vessel by which the coins 
were sent was burnt at sea, and they 
were lost. The collection was exa- 
mined by experts from the British 
Museum, who fully recognised its 
value ; but there were no funds im- 
mediately available for its purchase. 
A few American gentlemen sub- 
scribed the sum required (more 
than .£15,000), and thus secured it 
for the projected Metropolitan 
Museum of Art in New York. 
Cesnola devoted the proceeds of this 
sale to further researches, in the 
course of which he traversed almost 
every square league of the island of 
Cyprus. His most important "find" 
was on the deserted site of the an- 
cient Curium. Here he found the 
most considerable ruins yet dis- 
covered on the island. In the 
course of his excavations he dis- 

covered four subterranean cham- 
bers, in which were found a large 
number of ornaments of gold, 
armlets, necklaces, bracelets, pre- 
cious stones, rings, and engraved 
gems of the most exquisite work- 
manship, and which, taken together, 
form a complete history of the 
glyptic art from the earliest times 
to the period of its highest perfec- 
tion. The " Curium Treasures " 
have also been purchased for the 
New York Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, of which in 1879 he was 
made Director. The entire Cesnola 
Collection, the exhumation of which 
occupied nearly ten years, comprises 
nearly 40,000 distinct objects, nearly 
all of them unique, and many of 
them of the highest archaeological 
and ethnological value. General 
Cesnola has published a narrative 
of his operations, under the title 
" Cyprus : its Ancient Cities, Tombs, 
and Temples/' 1878. 

CETEWAYO, King of Zululand, 
is a son of King Umpanda, who 
long reigned over that country. In 
1856 six of Xing Umpanda's sons 
were slain in a battle with Cete- 
wayo, waged with them for the 
purpose of furthering his own 
ambitious purposes. Cetewayo 
overcame his brother Umbulazi, 
and virtually King Umpanda was 
superseded in favour of his vic- 
torious son. In 1859 a sort of 
coalition was patched up. King 
Umpanda was declared to be too 
old to work or fight, but not too 
old to think ; so that Cetewayo was 
taken in to share the duties of 
royalty, the father being termed 
the head and the son the feet of 
the nation. Umpanda died in 1873 . 
He had been thirty-five years on 
the Zulu throne, and during his 
reign peace had been constantly 
maintained with the English. After 
the term of mourning prescribed by 
Zulu etiquette for the death of his 
father, the coronation and instal- 
lation of Cetewayo, who had prac- 
tically assumed the government of 
Zululand since 1857, took place in 

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the presence of the Secretary for 
Native Affairs, Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
Theophilus Shepstone. In the year 
1878 Sir Bartle Frere, Governor of 
Cape Colony, visited Natal in his 
capacity of the Queen's High Com- 
missioner for South Africa. He 
regarded Cetewayo's military power, 
which had been built up with so 
much tyranny, as a constant menace 
to Natal and the Transvaal. There- 
fore he sent an ultimatum, which 
was delivered to Cetewayo's mes- 
sengers on Dec. 11, calling upon 
him to make reparation for certain 
alleged outrages on British subjects, 
to disband his formidable army, to 
abandon his tyrannical system of 
government, and to accept a British 
Resident. Cetewayo returned no 
answer; and on Jan. 11, 1879, the 
term of grace allowed by Lord 
Chelmsford, the commander-in- 
chief, having expired, 13,000 British 
troops entered Zululand. The war, 
which was signalised at its com- 
mencement by the terrible disaster 
at Isandhlwana, so gallantly re- 
trieved by the stubborn defence of 
the post at Rorke's Drift, was 
brought to a close by the battle of 
Ulundi (July 4), where Lord 
Chelmsford defeated and dispersed 
the Zulu army. Cetewayo escaped 
and fled into the bush, but was 
captured on Aug. 28 by Major 
Marter. The terms of peace offered 
by Sir Garnet Wolseley, who had 
superseded Lord Chelmsford in the 
chief command, were accepted by 
the chiefs and the people ; and 
Zululand was organized in thirteen 
separate governments, with a 
British Resident exercising control 
over all. Cetewayo was detained 
as an Imperial prisoner in the 
Castle at Cape Town, but in Jan. 
1881, he was removed to a farm in 
the country called Oude Molen, 
which had been purchased expressly 
for his accommodation ; the object 
being to give him all reasonable 
indulgence and freedom, subject to 
such regulations as might be neces- 
sary for his safe detention. After- 

wards he petitioned to be released, 
and it was arranged that he should 
be brought to England in the fol- 
lowing year. The ex-King arrived 
at Plymouth Aug. 3, 1882, and 
immediately came to London, where 
he occupied a private house, which 
had been prepared for him and his 
suite by the Government in Mel- 
bury Terrace, Holland Park, South 
Kensington. He visited the Earl 
of Kimberley at the Colonial Office, 
Mr. Gladstone in Downing Street, 
the Queen at Osborne, and the 
Prince and Princess of Wales at 
Marlborough House. An announce- 
ment was made in the House of 
Lords on Aug. 15 that Her Majesty's 
Government had made arrange- 
ments for the restoration of Cete- 
wayo to a portion of his former 
dominions, with certain safeguards 
and conditions. Shortly afterwards 
(Sept. 1) Cetewayo left England, 
and returned to his own country, 
but was not received with much 
enthusiasm by the natives. Dis- 
turbances arose shortly afterwards. 
de, Francois Ebxest Hbnbt, a 
French general and statesman, 
born at Nimes, Jan. 25, 1804, was 
educated in the Polytechnic School, 
and became a captain of engineers 
in 1827. He took part in the con- 
quest of Algeria in 1830, and in the 
siege of Antwerp in 1832, and he 
assisted in the fortification of Paris. 
In 1837 he entered the Chamber of 
Deputies as a staunch Conservative. 
After the Revolution of 1848 he 
withdrew from political life ; but, 
under the Empire, he commanded 
the Engineers in Algeria. He 
became a general of division in 
1857, and was placed on the reserve 
list in 1869. During the war witn 
Germany, he was principal com- 
mander of the Engineers in Paris, 
exhibiting great activity and 
promptitude in the preparations 
for the siege. On peace being 
concluded, he received the Grand 
Cross of the Legion of Honour, and 
he was elected a member of the 

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Assembly for the department of the 
Gard, while his son was returned 
br the department of tlie Cher. 
He joined the Right Centre ; and 
as he showed a warm interest in 
military questions, the Committee 
on the Fortification Scheme ap- 
pointed him their reporter. In 
Jane, 1874, he was nominated 
Minister of the Interior, and he 
held the office till May, 1875. 
General Chabaud-Latonr supported 
the late M. Guizot and the Orthodox 
party in the Protestant Synod in 
their contest with M. Athanase 
Coquerel and his adherents. M. 
le Baron de Chabaud-Latour was 
President of the Committee of For- 
tifications. He was elected Senator 
for life by the department of the 
Gard in Nov., 1877. 

CHADBOUBNE, Paul Ansel, 
D.D., LL.I>., born at Berwick, 
Maine. U.S., Oct. 21, 1823, gra- 
duated at Williams College in 
1848, and became Professor of 
Natural History and Chemistry in 
Bowdoin College, Maine, and Wil- 
liams College, Mass., Senator of 
Massachusetts 1865 and 1866. He 
became President of the University 
of Wisconsin in 1867, and held this 
position until his election as Presi- 
dent of Williams College in 1872, 
when he succeeded the distinguished 
metaphvsician, I>r. Mark Hopkins. 
J>r. Chadbourne's chief work has 
been in natural history, and he has 
spent much time and money in 
scientific pursuits. He has headed 
several scientific expeditions, and 
is perhaps the only man living who 
has gone over all those northern 
countries of the Vikings— the Faroe 
islands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, 
Iceland, Greenland, Labrador, and 
Newfoundland. He is the author 
of works on natoral history and 
natural theology ; ." The ReUtions 
of Science to BeUgion ; and In- 
stinct in Men and Animals. 

CHAD WICK, David, youngest 
son. of John and Bebecca Chadwick, 
was born at Macclesfield, Dec. 23, 
1621, He was educated at Man- 

chester, and in 1843 commenced 
business as a professional account- 
ant. In 1844 he was appointed 
Treasurer to the Corporation of 
Salford, and retained that office till 
1860. He took an active part in 
the establishment of the Salford 
Royal Free Library and Museum, 
Peel Park, and of the Salford 
Working Men's College, and was 
the first treasurer of both institu- 
tions. He was Honorary Secretary, 
and afterwards President, of the 
Manchester Statistical Society, and 
was the first President of the Man- 
chester Institute of Accountants. 
He was elected M.P. for Maccles- 
field in 1868, and was re-elected in 
1874. In 1880 he was again re- 
turned for the same constituency, 
but on petition the election was 
declared void. No new writ was 
issued, and a Royal Commission 
declared in March, 1881, that ex- 
tensive bribery had prevailed. He 
was sometime a member of the 
Council of the London Statistical 
Society, and wrote a history of the 
rate of wages in Lancashire in 200 
trades and occupations during 
twenty years, 1839 to 1859. He is 
also the author of various essays 
on Parliamentary Representation, 
Working Men's Colleges, Poor 
Rates and Principle of Rating, 
Water Meters, Financial Aspect of 
Sanitary Reform, the Equitable 
Adjustment of the Income-Tax, 
and Joint Stock Companies. He is 
a prize essayist and associate of 
the Institute of Civil Engineers, 
and head of the firm of Chad wicks, 
Collier, and Co., accountants, of 
London and Manchester. Ho 
erected and established the Mac- 
clesfield Free Library, and pre- 
sented it to the Corporation ; and 
was one of the founders of the 
Globe Cotton Spinning and Manu- 
facturing Company in that town. 
He married, first, Louisa, youngest 
daughter of William Bow, Esq., 
of Broughton, and, second, Ursula, 
eldest daughter of Thomas Sopwith, 
Esq., M.A., C,E., F.R.S., of New- 

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castle- on -Tyne and Westmins- 

CHADWICK, Edwin, C.B., 
social economist, born in 1801, was 
called to the bar in 1830. His first 
publication was an article in the 
Westminster Review, in 1828, on 
Life Assurances. He attracted the 
notice of Jeremy Bentham, who 
bequeathed to him part of his 
library and a small legacy. When 
Lord Grey's Government issued the 
Commission of Inquiry into the 
Administration of the Poor-Law, 
Mr. Chadwick was appointed As- 
sistant-Commissioner, and his in- 
vestigations in the rural districts 
were of great service. He was 
engaged on the Commission of 
Inquiry into the Labour of Young 
Persons in Factories, intended to 
protect young children engaged 
chiefly in cotton-mills from physical 
deterioration by overwork ; and 
although its object, with respect to 
the securities for an efficient system 
of half-time instruction, was de- 
feated, the foundation was laid for 
the system of Governmental inspec- 
tion, since extended to labour in 
mines and other branches of in- 
dustry. Mr. Chad wick was appointed 
one of the Commissioners for pre- 
paring the Report on the Adminis- 
tration of the Poor-Law. The 
measures adopted were chiefly 
remedial, and for the direct repres- 
sion of abuses ; but Mr. Chadwick 
urged a preventive course,including 
the industrial training of children 
separately from adult paupers in 
district schools, and the entire 
abolition of the law of settlement. 
In 1838 he obtained the consent of 
the Poor-Law Commissioners to a 
special inquiry into the local and 
preventable causes of disease, and 
the improvement of habitations in 
the metropolis. This inquiry, after- 
wards extended to the -whole of 
England and Wales, was undertaken 
by Mr. Chadwick, in addition to 
his laborious duties as Secretary to 
the Poor-Law Commission. From 
the former investigations proceeded 

the Sanitary Report, proposing a 
venous and arterial system of water- 
supply and drainage for the im- 
provement of towns, and works for 
the application of sewage to agri- 
cultural production. In 1843 he 
produced a report on interments in 
towns, which laid the foundation of 
legislative measures on that sub- 
ject. In 1839 Mr. Chadwick was 
appointed on the Constabulary 
Force Commission for the preven- 
tion of offences, the detection of 
offenders, and the organization of 
the police forces. In 1848 he was 
appointed a Commissioner of the 
General Board of Health for im- 
proving the supplies of water, and 
the sewage, drainage, cleansing, 
and paving of towns. Upon the 
reconstruction of this Board, in 
1854, when it was placed under 
political chiefs who are changed 
with the Government,Mr. Chadwick 
retired with a pension. In 1848 
he was honoured with a civil 
Companionship of the Bath ; and 
in 1854 his aid was sought by 
Government in framing measures 
for the improvement of the civil 
service. He has since published a 
paper on its reorganization, more 
especially on the results of competi- 
tive examinations for appointments* 
and on the necessity of further 
securities to insure promotion in 
the public service. He has pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the 
Statistical Society papers read there, 
and at the British Association, on 
the principles of competition for 
private as well as for public service. 
In 1858 he read a paper at the 
Liverpool meeting of the Association 
for the Promotion of Social Science, 
on the application of sanitary 
science to the protection of the 
Indian army, which led to the 
appointment of a Commission on 
that subject. In 1859-60 he 
examined, in aid of the Education 
Commission, and collected evidence 
laid before Parliament, on the 
results of good voluntary half-time 
schools, the effects of physical 

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training, inducling' the naval and 
military drill, in good district 
pauper schools on the naif -time 
system, the results of voluntary 
combinations of educational means, 
and the division of educational 
labour, on the principles of the 
district schools, and the great 
saving of time and expense and 
improvement in mental and bodily 
power obtainable thereby. In the 
Transactions of the British Asso- 
ciation he published a paper read 
at Oxford on the physiological as 
well as the psychological limits to 
mental labour. 

CHAILLTJ, Paul B. Uxj. (See 
Du Chailltj.) 

Akmakd, a Prench Senator, born at 
Avranchea ( Manche ) , May 19, 1827, 
studied at Paris in the lyceum of 
Saint Louis, entered the Normal 
School in 1H46, and was first in the 
competition for graduation in philo- 
sophv in 1849. He was sent as Pro- 
fessor of Philosophy to the lyceums 
of Pan and Limoges. Arrested and 
imprisoned after the co-wp d'etat, and 
then banished from Prance, he with- 
drew to Belgium, where he delivered 
lectures with success, and next to 
Switzerland, where he was appointed 
Professor of French Literature in 
the ** Polytechnicon ** of Zurich. 
After the amnesty he returned to 
his native country (1859), and con- 
tributed articles on literature, art, 
and philosophy to the Temps, the 
Revue National** the Revue des Court 
BeieKtijLqve* et litt&raires, the Revue 
Modern*, of which he became 
manager, and the Revue des Deux 
Monde*. In 1868 he established, in 
conjunction with Messieurs Brisson, 
AUain-Targ^, and Gambetta, the 
Revue Politique, of which he under- 
took the management, and conse- 
quently underwent a conviction for 
publishing the lists of subscnptions 
for a monument to the representa- 
tive Baudin. Appointed Prefect of 
the Rhone after the 4th of Sept., 
1870 he was called upon to admi- 
nister the affairs o£ the turbulent 

city of Lyons in circumstances of 
extreme difficulty. It is true that 
he did not succeed in preventing 
excesses there, but it is urged on 
his behalf that his authority was 
counterbalanced and held in check 
by the Committee of Public Safety. 
He resigned this office Feb. 5, 1871, 
and on Jan. 7, 1872, he was elected 
Deputy in the Radical interest for 
the Roaches -du- Rhone. In the 
Chamber he distinguished himself 
by his eloquence and his readiness 
and calmness in debate. On Jan. 
30, 1876, he was elected a Senator 
by the department of the Bouches- 
du-Rh6ne. M. Challemel-Lacour 
was mixed up at about the same 
period in two important law-suits. 
One of these was brought by the 
Brothers of Christian Doctrine of 
the commune of Caluire, in the De- 
partment of the Rhdne, whose es- 
tablishment had been occupied by 
troops during the war. After pro- 
longed arguments, and notwith- 
standing a ministerial decree of 
April 10, 1878, which declared that 
the Prefect had acted in the name 
of the State, the Court of Cassation 
sent back the case to the Court of 
Dijon, which, on Jan. 30, 1879, con- 
demned M. Challemel-Lacour and 
his associates in 97,243 francs 
damages. The second action was 
brought by M. Challemel-Lacour 
against La France Nouvelle, a Le- 
gitimist journal, which had charged 
him with cheating at play in a club, 
and the defendants were condemned , 
on Jan. 6, 1879, to pay a fine of 2000 
francs and 10,000 francs costs. A 
few day 8 afterwards (Jan. 14) he 
was sent to Berne as ambassador to 
the Swiss Confederation. On June 
11, 1880, he was nominated ambas- 
sador to the Court of St. James's, in 
succession to M. Leon Say. On his 
appointment being made known in 
this country, Mr. O'Donnell asked 
in the House of Commons whether 
he was the same person as the Citi- 
zen Challemel-Lacour who, as one 
of the Prefects of the Provisional 
Government of Sept. 4, 1870, ordered 

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the massacre of Colonel Carayon 
Latour's battalion, and had been 
condemned to pay JB3000 compensa- 
tion for his share in the plunder of 
a convent during the same period. 
Receiving an unsatisfactory reply 
from Sir C. Dilke, the Under-Sec- 
retary for Foreign Affaire, Mr. 
O'Donnell proposed to move the ad- 
journment of the House. Mr. Glad- 
stone thereupon rose to move " That 
Mr. O'Donnell be not heard/' but it 
was ruled that the motion for ad- 
journment was not out of order, 
though, in the event, that motion 
was, after an angry debate, nega- 
tived by 245 votes against 14©. M. 
Challemel-Lacour continued to be 
Ambassador in London till Feb. 
1882, when he was recalled at his 
own request. In the Cabinet formed 
by M. Jules Ferry in Feb. 1883, M. 
Challemel-Lacour held the portfolio 
of Foreign Affairs. M. Challemel- 
Lacour was one of the founders, 
and is chief editor, of the R&- 
publique Franqaise. He has pub- 
lished " La Philosophic Individua- 
liste," an essay on Humboldt, in the 
" Bibliotheque de Philosophic Con- 
temporaine, 1861 ; a translation of 
Ritter's "History of Philosophy," 
with an introduction, 3 vols., 1861 ; 
and he edited the works of Madame 
d'fipinay, 2 vols., 1869. 

eldest son of the late Mr. Joseph 
Chamberlain, a member of one of 
the City Companies, was born in 
London in 1836. His mother was 
Caroline, daughter of Mr. Henry 
Harben. He was educated at Uni- 
versity College School, and after- 
wards became a member of a firm of 
wood-screw makers at Birmingham 
(Nettlefold and Chamberlain) ,which 
his father had joined in 1854. He 
retired from business in 1874 shortly 
after the decease of his father. Mr. 
Chamberlain had at this time ob- 
tained a certain local celebrity in 
consequence of his advanced Radical 
opinions and the fluency of speech 
with which he expressed them in 
one of the Birmingham debating 

societies. In 1868 he was appointed 
Chairman of the first Executive 
Committee of the Education League, 
and in November of the same year 
a member of the Birmingham Town 
Council. In 1873 he became Chair- 
man of the Birmingham School 
Board, of which he was first elected 
a member in 1870. Mr. Chamber- 
lain is also an Alderman of Birming- 
ham, and was three times succes- 
sively elected Mayor of the Borough 
(1874-75-76). His name was first 
brought before the general public 
in Feb. 1874, when he came forward, 
at the general election, to oppose 
Mr. Roebuck at Sheffield. He was 
not successful, the numbers polled 
being 14,193 for Roebuck, 12,858 for 
Mundella, and 11,053 for Chamber- 
lain. In June, 1876, he was re- 
turned for Birmingham, to fill up the 
vacancy occasioned by Mr. Dixon's 
retirement from Parliamentary life. 
In the House of Commons Mr. 
Chamberlain chiefly attracted no- 
tice by his advocacy of the Gothen- 
burg system of licensing places 
where intoxicating liquors are sold. 
He is in favour of disestablishment 
and of compulsory secular educa- 
tion. At the general election of 
April, 1880, he was returned with 
Mr. Muntz and Mr. Bright, the 
three Liberals gaining a large ma- 
jority over the Conservative candi- 
dates, Major F. Burnaby and the 
Hon. A. G. C. Calthorpe. On the 
' formation of Mr. Gladstone's Ad- 
ministration immediately after that 
| election , Mr. Chamberlain was nomi- 
j nated President of the Board of 
i Trade, with a seat in the Cabinet. 
Mr. Chamberlain has contributed 
several articles to the Fortnightly 
Review, viz., "The Liberal Party 
and its Leaders " (Sept. 1873) ; 
" The Next Page in the Liberal Pro- 
gramme" (Oct. 1874); and "The 
Right Method with the Publicans " 
(May, 1876). He is President of 
the Birmingham School of Design 
and Chairman of the National Edu- 
cation League. 


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Bowles, K.C.B., O.C.S.I., tlie se- 
cond son of the late Sir Henry 
Chamberlain, Bart. (who was for 
aoxoe years Consul-General and 
Charge d'affaires in Brazil), born 
at Rio, Jan. 18, 1820, was appointed 
to the Indian Army in 1836. He 
served, as a subaltern with much 
distinction in A if g h an i s tan and 
Scinde, and was wounded at Kan- 
dahar and at Ghuznee. In 1842 he 
waa attached to the Governor- 
General's body-guards, and in 1843 
appointed Deputy- Assistant Quar- 
ter-master-General to the Army. 
In 1848 he was nominated by Lord 
Dalhousie one of his aides-de-camp, 
and commanded the Sth Irregular 
Cavalry, attached to the army in 
the Punjaub. In 1855, having pre- 
viously discharged some important 
civil duties as military secretary to 
the Chief Commissioner (Sir John 
JLawrence), he was placed in com- 
mand of a force of irregular troops, 
which he retained until the breaking 
out of the Indian mutiny. On the 
death of Col. Chester before Delhi, 
Col. Chamberlain (then brigadier- 
general) succeeded to the post of 
Adjutant-General of the Bengal 
Army, and was severely wounded in 
the sortie of J uly 18. He was nomi- 
nated a C.B. in 1857, and, in reward 
for his services in the mutiny, was 
appointed aide-de-camp to the 
Queen. He afterwards gained dis- 
tinction by his services against the 
hill-tribes, and has been wounded 
more frequently than any other 
officer of his years and standing in 
the service. He was advanced to 
the rank of Lieutenant-General in 
May, 1872 ; appointed Colonel of the 
Bengal Infantry in May, 1874 j a 
member of Council of the Governor 
of Madras in 1875 ; and Commander- 
in-Chief of the Madras Army in 
Bee. 1875. In Aug. 1878, he was ap- 
pointed the head of the English 
special mission to Cabul. This 
mission was abruptly stopped hy the 
refusal of the Ameer of Afghanis- 
tan's officer at Ali Musjid to permit 
it to advance (Sept. 21). 

CHAMBERS, Sib Thomas, Q.C., 
M.P., son of Mr. Thomas Chambers, 
born at Hertford, in 1814, was edu- 
cated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, 
and was called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple in 1840. He repre- 
sented the borough of Hertford in 
the House of Commons from July, 
1852, to July, 1857. In the latter 
year he was elected Common Ser- 
jeant of London, and in 1861 he 
was appointed one of Her Majesty's 
Counsel. In 1865 he was elected 
one of the members for Maryle- 
bone, which borough he has con- 
tinued to represent down to the 
present time in the Liberal interest. 
In Parliament his name has been 
principally identified with pro- 
posals to subject convents to perio- 
dical inspection by paid officials of 
the State, and with a measure for 
legalising marriage with a deceased 
wife's sister. He was knighted for 
his judicial services in 1872, and 
elected Recorder of London, Feb. 
5, 1878, in the room of Mr. Russell 
Gurney, resigned. 

CHAMBERS, The Rioht Rev. 
Walteb, D.D., was for some time 
senior missionary at Borneo, and 
subsequently archdeacon of Sara- 
wak, and commissary and exami- 
ning chaplain to Dr. Macdougall, 
the first bishop of Labuan and 
Sarawak, on whose resignation, in 
1868, he was appointed to succeed 
him in the see. He was conse- 
crated in Westminster Abbey, June 
29, 1869. He resigned his see in 

CHAMBORD, Hbnbi-Chables- 


d'Abtois, Comte de Chambobd 
and Due de Bobdeaux, head of 
the elder branch of the Bourbons, 
born in Paris, Sept. 29, 1820, is 
son of Prince Charles Ferdinand 
d'Artois, Due de Berri, who was 
assassinated in March, 1820, and of 
the Princess of the two Sicilies, the 
famous Duchesse de Berri. He was 
baptised with great pomp with 
water brought from the Jordan by 
Chateaubriand. "The child of 

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miracle," as he was called, received 
the title of Count de Chambord 
from the castle of that name, 
which was bought for him by pub- 
lic subscription. Although Charles 
X., Boon after the outbreak of the 
revolution of 1830, resolved to abdi- 
cate in his favour, and in presence 
of the troops assembled at Bam- 
bouillet, made a proclamation 
under the title of Henry V., the 
Due de Bordeaux was compelled 
to quit the country. Having spent 
some time at Holyrood, he travelled 
in Germany, Lombardy, Borne, and 
Naples, to complete his education. 
In 1843 he resided in Belgrave 
Square, where he made a kind of 
political d4but, claiming the crown 
of France, and receiving, with all 
the etiquette of a court, such legi- 
timists as Chateaubriand, de Fitz- 
James, and Berryer. In 1853 a 
compact was said to have been con- 
cluded between the Count de 
Chambord and the princes of the 
house of Orleans, by which the 
claims of the elder and younger 
branches of the house of Bourbon 
were arranged ; but no attempt 
was then made to carry out the 
arrangement by putting forward a 
candidate for the throne supported 
by both parties. In 1840 the duke 
had married the Princess Maria- 
Theresa, eldest daughter of the 
Duke of Modena. They have no 
children, and it appears probable 
that the Count will be the last of 
the elder branch of the Bourbons. 
After the disaster of Sedan, and 
the consequent fall of the empire, 
the Count de Chambord addressed 
from the Swiss frontier, under date 
Oct. 9, 1870, a proclamation to 
France, in which he promised that 
the foreigner should be expelled 
from the country and the integrity 
of its territory maintained if the 
people would rally round him, " to 
the true national government, 
having right as its foundation and 
honesty as its principle." On Jan. 
7, 1871, another proclamation, con- 
taining a protest against the bom- 

bardment of Paris, was addressed 
by him to all the governments of 
Europe. After the communist in- 
surrection, the meeting of the 
National Assembly at Versailles, 
and the excitement produced by the 
speeches of the members of the 
Extreme Bight, the Count issuea, 
on the 8th of May, a manifesto by 
which he endeavoured to dispel the 
popular prejudices against the 
" traditional monarchy/' declaring 
that so far from claiming unlimited 
power, his only wish was to labour 
for the re - organization of the 
country, and "at the head of all 
the House of France to preside 
over her destinies, while submitting 
with confidence the acts of the 
Government to the bond fide control 
of representatives freely elected." 
He admitted, besides, that "the 
independence of the Holy See was 
dear to him, and that he was re- 
solved to obtain for it efficacious 
guarantees ; " and he added, " that 
he was not a party, and that he did 
not wish to return in order to reign 
with a party ; " also that he did not 
" desire to exercise any dictatorship 
but that of clemency, because in 
his hands, and in his hands only, 
clemency was also justice." This 
manifesto ended with the cele- 
brated phrase, "The word rests 
with Franoe j the time with God." 
In another proclamation, dated 
from Chambord, July 5, 1871, he 
assumed for the first time in a pub- 
lic document the title of King. 
The repeal of the laws of exile 
having permitted the Chief of the 
House of Bourbon to return to 
France, the Count visited Paris, 
and stayed for some time at Cham- 
bord, where many supporters of the 
Legitimist cause waited upon him. 
Great expectations were now enter- 
tained of a fusion between the 
Legitimists and the Orleanists, but 
these were rudely dispelled by 
another manifesto in which the 
Count de Chambord, while admit- 
ting universal suffrage and consti- 
tutional government with the two 

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Chambers, denied the legitimacy of 
tie conquests of the Kevolution, 
wjucii he termed "a revolt of a 
minority contrary to the wishes of 
the country." Above all, he re- 
fused to "allow the standard of 
Henry IV., of Francis I., and of 
Joan of Arc, to be snatched from 
his hands ; " and in conclusion he 
said, " Frenchmen ! Henry V. can- 
not abandon the White Flag of 
Henry IV." At the same time he 
announced his intention of volun- 
tarily withdrawing into exile in 
order not to give, by his presence 
in France, new pretexts for the 
agitation of men's minds. Accord- 
ingly, he went to Geneva, and from 
thence to Lucerne. In Jan. 1872, 
the rumour of a fusion between the 
two branches of the royal family 
was again revived. Journals, sup- 
posed to be well-informed, even 
went so far as to* speak of the 
Count de Paris as " the Dauphin,"' 
and hinted that Henry V. would 
abdicate after reigning a short 
time ; but the Count de Chambord 
formally contradicted all such re- 
ports by a letter (Jan. 25, 1872), in 
which he re-affirmed his fidelity to 
his principles, and stated his deter- 
mination nevex to abdicate or to 
become * ' the Legitimist King of the 
devolution.'' In the following 
month a document, the text of 
which was kept secret, but which 
was, in fact, a programme of a con- 
stitutional government, was signed 
by 280 Deputies, and presented to 
the Count at Antwerp, whither he 
nad repaired to receive the homage 
of his subjects and the communica- 
tions of his friends ; but the Libe- 
rals in the Belgian Chamber com- 
plained of the Count's presence in 
the country, and he in consequence 
soon afterwards retired to Frohs- 
dorf . However, the fusion of the 
two branches of the family, so long 
delayed, was at last accomplished 
on Aug. 5, 1873, when the Count de 
Paris had an interview with the 
Count de Chambord at Frohsdorf, 
and acknowledged him as the Head 

of the Royal House of France. In 
that and the succeeding month the 
belief that the restoration of Henry 
V. to the throne of his ancestors 
was at hand spread all over France. 
The Count de Chambord received at 
Frohsdorf, Oct. 12, a deputation 
from the Eight Party in the 
national assembly, and the different 
I sections of that party held meet- 
I ing8 to consider the means of re- 
establishing the monarchy . But to 
the chagrin of his friends the Count 
addressed to M. de Chesnelong, 
who had been the medium of com- 
munication between him and his 
adherents, a letter in which he ex- 
pressed opinions so reactionary in 
their character as to render his 
restoration impracticable. In this 
latter, dated Salzburg, Oct. 27, he 
declined to submit to any conditions 
or to give any guarantees, and he 
concluded as follows: — "My per- 
sonality is nothing; my principle 
is everything. France will see the 
end of her trials when she is willing 
to understand this. I am a neces- 
sary pilot — the only one capable of 
guiding the ship to port, because I 
have for that a mission of autho- 
rity. You, sir, are able to do much 
to remove misunderstandings and 
prevent weaknesses in the hour of 
struggle. Your consoling words on 
leaving Salzburg are ever present 
to my mind. France cannot perish, 
for Christ still loves his Franks ; 
and when God has resolved to save 
a people, He takes care that the 
Sceptre of Justice is only put into 
hands strong enough to hold it." 
The Count de Chambord issued 
another manifesto to the French 
people July 3, 1874. Since then he 
has written several letters in sup- 
port of his principles and claims. 

CHANDLER, Charles Frede- 
rick, Ph.D., M.D., LL.D., born at 
Lancaster, Massachusetts, Dec. 6, 
1836. He studied at the Lawrence 
Scientific School of Harvard College, 
and afterwards at the Universities 
of Gdttingen and Berlin, receiving 
his degree of Ph.D. at Gdttingen in 

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1856. In 1857 he was placed in 
charge of the chemical department 
of Union College, and in 1858 was 
appointed to the Chair of Chemistry 
in the New York College of Phar- 
macy. In 1864 he was made Pro- 
fessor of Analytical Chemistry in 
the School of Mines connected with 
Columbia College, New York. In 
1865 he was appointed chemist to 
the New York Metropolitan Board 
of Health, of which he became 
President in 1873. In 1870, in 
connection with his brother, he 
established the American Chemist, a 
monthly periodical, in which the 
results of his principal investiga- 
tions have appeared. He became 
connected with the New York Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons in 
1872. He has published "The 
Inaugural Dissertation/* 1856 ; 
"Report on Water for Locomo- 
tives/' 1865 ; " Examination of 
Various Bocks and Minerals/ ' 
which appeared in the geological 
reports of Iowa and Wisconsin ; " In- 
vestigations on Mineral Waters," 
and papers on the water supply of 
cities, on petroleum, on the purifi- 
cation of coal-gas ; and has prepared 
the successive annual reports of the 
Board of Health ; and has also con- 
tributed numerous scientific articles 
to Johnson's " Universal Cyclo- 
pedia," 1874-77. 

CHANNING, William Henry, 
was born in Boston, May 25, 1810. 
He graduated at Harvard College 
in 1829, and at the Cambridge 
Divinity School in 1833, and was 
ordained at Cincinnati in 1855. He 
has been pastor of several religious 
societies in America. In 1857 he 
came to England, and succeeded 
Mr. James Martineau as minister 
of the Hope Street Unitarian 
Chapel in Liverpool. Returning to 
America about 1866, he was for a 
time minister of a Unitarian Church 
in Washington. In the winter of 
1869-70 he delivered a course of lec- 
tures before the Lowell Institute at 
Boston. Subsequently he returned 
to England. He has contributed 

largely to periodical literature ; has 
translated Jouffroy's " Ethics," 
1840 ; written a " Memoir of 
William Ellery Channing/' the 
noted Unitarian clergyman, 1848 ; 
"Memoirs of James H. Perkins," 
1851 ; in conjunction with Ralph 
Waldo Emerson and James Free- 
man Clarke, " Memoirs of Margaret 
Fuller Ossoli," 1852 ; " The Christian 
Church and Social Reform ; " and 
" The Perfect Life," a posthumous 
volume of the Sermons of William 
Ellery Channing, with a preface, 

first or principal King of Siam, 
second son of the preceding king, 
Chao Pha Mongkout, was born 
Sept. 27, 1854, and ascended the 
throne on the death of his father, 
Oct. 1, 1868. During his minority 
the regency was intrusted by the 
Royal Council to the Minister of 
War, Chao Pha Sri Sury Wongse. 

CHAPMAN, General Sir Fre- 
derick Edward, G.C.B., son of 
Richard Chapman, Esq., of Gatchell, 
Somersetshire, was born in British 
Guiana, in 1816. After passing 
through the Royal Military Aca- 
demy at Woolwich, he entered the 
corps of Royal Engineers in 1835, 
became a captain in 1846, a colonel 
in the army in 1855, and a lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Royal Engi- 
neers in 1859. At the commencement 
of the year 1854 he was sent on a 
special mission to Constantinople, 
and was employed in surveying the 
positions in Turkey previous to the 
arrival of the British army in that 
country. Colonel Chapman was 
present at the battles of the Alma 
and Inkerman, served throughout 
the siege of Sebastopol, during the 
early part of which he was director 
of the left attack, and during the 
latter part executive engineer to 
the forces. As a reward for his 
valuable services he received a 
medal with three clasps, the Sar- 
dinian and Turkish medals, the 3rd 
class of the Medjidie, besides being 
appointed a Companion of the Bath 

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and an Officer of the Legion of 
Honour. He was made a Knight 
Commander of the Order of the 
Bath in 1867* and attained the rank 
of Major-General the same year. 
Sir Frederick held the poet of Go- 
Ternor and Commander-in-Chief of 
Bemrada from 1867 to 1870, and 
that of Inspector-General of Forti- 
fications and Director of Works 
from the last date to 1875. He 
became a Lieutenant-General in the 
army, and a Colonel-Commandant 
of the Royal 'Engineers in May, 
1872; and was advanced to the 
brevet of General in Oct. 1877. 
In the latter year he was created a 
G.C.B. He was placed on the 
retired list in 1881. 

CHABD, Major John Bouse 
MnBRioTT, V.C., was born Dec. 21, 
1847, being the second son of the 
late Mr. William Wheaton Chard, 
of Pathe, Somerset, and Mount 
Tamar, Devon, by Jane, only 
daughter of the late Mr. John Hart 
Brimacombe, of Stoke Climesland, 
Cornwall. He was educated first 
at the Plymouth New Grammar 
School, and subsequently for a brief 
period under private tutors. Then 
he prosecuted his professional 
studies at Woolwich, and obtained 
his commission in the Royal 
Engineers July 15, 1868. After 
two years at Chatham he went to 
Bermuda, where he was employed 
for three years on the fortifications 
near Hamilton for the defence of 
the dockyard and naval anchorage. 
Coming on leave to England on the 
death of his father, he was sent 
to Malta to complete his foreign 
service, remaining about two years 
employed on the new forts there. 
On his return to England he was 
quartered at Aldershot, and took 
part in the Army Manoeuvres. 
After a short stay at Chatham he 
weu£ to Exeter (Western District) 
for about two years. Ordered from 
there to Aldershot to join the 5th 
company of Royal Engineers on the 
mobilization of the Army Corps for 
the East, he went with the com- 

pany to Chatham, and embarked 
with it for Natal, Dec. 2, 1878, 
arriving at Durban early in Jan. 
1879. The disastrous occurrence at 
Isandhlwna took place on Jan. 22, 
ten days after the beginning of 
actual hostilities by Lord Chelms- 
ford's army. In the afternoon of 
that day Lieutenant Gonville 
Bromhead and Lieutenant Chard, 
who, with eighty men of the 21th 
Regiment, had been left in charge 
of the commissariat post at Rorke's 
Drift, ten miles in the rear of the 
column which was intercepted at 
Isandhlwna, first received intima- 
tion of the disaster from fugitives 
making for the Drift. Lieutenant 
Coghill had come from the fight at 
Isandhlwna by order of Colonel 
Pulleine to summon reinforce- 
ments j and from Rorke's Drift he, 
with others, rode away to communi- 
cate with Helpmakaar, and was 
killed by Zulus while crossing the 
river. Seeing an attack imminent, 
a barricade was hastily thrown up 
under Lieutenant Chard's direc- 
tion ; the men using for this pur- 
pose a number of bags, biscuit tins, 
and other matters belonging to the 
commissariat stores, being part of 
the time under fire. The attack 
was made soon after dark by at 
least 3000 Zulus, and the fight was 
kept up during the greater part of 
the night. The Zulus got inside 
the barricade six times, and were 
as often driven out at the point of 
the bayonet. In the meantime 
another body of Zulu troops passed 
to the rear of the military hospital 
and set fire to it. At dawn the 
attacking force withdrew, for Lord 
Chelmsford's column was then seen 
approaching, and was enthusias- 
tically hailed by the gallant defen- 
ders. Three hundred and fifty-one 
dead Zulus were counted near the 
entrenchment, and the number 
killed since that attack was esti- 
mated at 1000. The Zulus fought 
with infuriated zeal, even going 
to the loopholes and seizing the 
muzzles of the rifles. Lieutenant 

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Chard, it should be mentioned, was 
in command on this memorable 
occasion. The defenders of Rorke's 
Drift were undoubtedly the means 
of saving Grey Town and Help- 
makaar , and also of securing time for 
effecting a retreat with the main 
column. Lieutenant Chard left 
Rorke's Drift sick with fever on 
Feb. 17 for Ladysmith, where he 
was hospitably entertained at the 
house of Dr. Hyde Allen Park. He 
left Ladysmith for the front on 
April 27, rejoined the 5th company 
of the Royal Engineers at Lands- 
man's Drift on April 29, and was 
present at the battle of Ulundi. 
On returning to St. Paul's he was 
presented with the Victoria Cross 
by Sir Garnet Wolseley. Soon 
afterwards he was ordered home. 
Arriving at Portsmouth Oct. 2, 
1879, he was met by a telegram 
from Her Majesty, and shortly 
afterwards he proceeded to Bal- 
moral, where he was graciously re- 
ceived by the Queen. For his 
services he was advanced to the 
rank of Major. 

CHARLES I. (Charles Frede- 
rick Alexander), King of Wurtem- 
berg, eldest son of the late King 
William I., was born March C, 
1823, and succeeded to the throne 
June 25, 1864. He followed the 
policy of his father on the Schleswig- 
Holstein question, and formed one 
of the Minor States party in the 
Diet. His Majesty, who is a Colonel 
of a Russian regiment of dragoons, 
married, July 13, 1846, the Grand 
Duchess Olga Nicolajewna, daugh- 
ter of Nicholas I., Czar of Russia. 
A treaty with Prussia was con- 
cluded by the King of Wurtemberg 
Aug. 13, 1866. 

CHARLES I. (Charles Eitel 
Frederick Zephirin Louis), King 
of Roumania, was born April 20, 
1839, being the second son of Prince 
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, head of 
the second of the non-reigning 
branches of the princely house of 
Hohenzollern. He was elected and 
proclaimed Prince Regnant of Rou- 

mania, with hereditary succession, 
by a plebiscite, taken April 8-20, 
1866, and definitely recognised on 
Oct. 24 in that year by the Sublime 
Porte and the guaranteeing Powers. 
The Prince had previously been a 
sub-lieutenant in the 2nd regiment 
of Prussian dragoons, and it is 
believed that his candidature for 
the throne of Roumania, which had 
become vacant by the expulsion of 
Prince Alexander John, was pro- 
posed by Prussia, and supported by 
her diplomatic action. His reign has 
been marked throughout by internal 
dissensions and parliamentary 
crises. The unwarrantable perse- 
cution of the Jews in Moldavia 
elicited indignant protests from 
various foreign governments, who 
likewise complained that bands of 
armed men were allowed to be 
formed within the Roumanian terri- 
tory, with the object of creating 
disturbances on the Lower Danube. 
The disputes in the Roumanian 
Chamber, and the incessant minis- 
terial changes, led to a dissolution 
of the Chamber of Bucharest in 
1869. A convention was concluded 
between his Government and the 
Czar, permitting the Russians to 
cross the Danube in April, 1877. 
The Roumanian army was then mo- 
bilised, and war declared against 
Turkey. In Sept. and Oct. 1877, 
Prince Charles held the nominal 
command of the Army of the West, 
and he fought at Plevna, where the 
Roumanians behaved with great 

fallantry, and suffered heavy losses, 
[e received, in acknowledgment of 
his services, the cross of St. George, 
from Alexander II., to whom he 
sent, in return, the decoration of 
the Order of the Star of Roumania. 
He had the title of " Royal High- 
ness" from 1878 till March 26, 
1881, when he was proclaimed King 
of Roumania by a unanimous vote 
of the representatives of the nation. 
The coronation ceremony took place 
on May 22. He married Nov. 15, 
1869, Pauline Elizabeth Ottilie 
Louise (born 1848), daugher of th« 

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late Prince Herman of Wied. In 
1882 the Queen of Boa mania pub- 
lished at Berlin, under her usual 
pseudonym. Carmen Sylva, a novel 
entitled " Bin Gebet." 

CHARLES VII., King of Spain, 
(Ste Carlos, Don.) 

Louisa, the daughter of the late 
Bey. John Charlesworth, B.D., 
formerly rector of St. Mildred's, 
Bread-street, London, was born in 
1819. She is the author of numerous 
■works of fiction, intended to illus- 
trate the application of religion to 
everyday life. The best known of 
her publications are " Ministering 
Children/' " The Female Visitor to 
the Poor," 1846 ; " A Book for the 
Cottage," 1848; "A Letter to a 
Child." " Letters to a Friend under 
Affliction/' 1849; "The Light of 
Life, dedicated to the Young," 
1850 ; " Sunday Afternoon in the 
Nursery," 1853; "The Sabbath 
Given : the Sabbath Lost," 1856 ; 
" England's Yeoman," 1861 ; " The 
Sailor's Choice/' 1863; "Minister- 
ing Children, a Sequel," 1867; 
"Where Dwellest Thou; or, the 
Inner Home," 1871 ; " Eden and 
Heaven," 1872; "Oliver of the 
Mill," 7th ed., 1876; and "The 
Broken Looking-Glass." 

CHARLOTTE, xx-Empbess op 
Mexico (Marie Chablottx Ak£- 
lte August* Victoibx Clemsn- 
ttnx LAopoijhnx), daughter of 
Leopold I., King of the Belgians, 
born June 7, 1840, was married 
Jnly 27, 1857, to the iU-fated Maxi- 
milian, afterwards Emperor of 
Mexico. In the midst of his 
embarrassments, Maximilian sent 
his empress to Paris in 1866 to seek 
more effectual aid from the Emperor 
Napoleon. She failed entirely in 
her mission, and proceeded to Italy, 
where her reason gave way in con- 
sequence of the troubles she had 
already undergone, and of those 
which she foresaw her husband 
would experience. Her Majesty 
was removed to the palace of 
Laeken, near Brussels, and it is said 

that during lucid intervals she has 
since employed her time in writing 
Memoirs of the History of the 
Mexican Empire. Her recovery is 
considered hopeless. 

CHABNOCK, Richard 
Stbphbn, Ph.D., F.S.A., born in 
London, on Aug. 11, 1820, is the 
son of Richard Charnock, Esq., of 
the Inner Temple, barrister-at-law. 
He was educated at King's College, 
London, and admitted an attorney 
in 1841. He has travelled through 
the whole of Europe, and has also 
visited the North of Africa and 
Asia Minor ; and has devoted much 
time to the study of anthropology, 
archaeology, and philology, espe- 
cially the Celtic and Oriental 
languages. In 1871 Dr. Charnock 
was elected President of the 
Anthropological Society of London, 
and was afterwards President of 
the London Anthropological Society. 
He is a Fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries and of the Philologi- 
cal, Royal Asiatic, and Royal 
Geographical Societies; a member 
of the Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries ; an honorary member 
of the Anthropological Society of 
Paris ; and Doctor of Philosophy of 
the University of Gottingen. 
Among very many contributions to 
philology, anthropology, and science 
in general, Dr. Charnock is author 
of " Guide to Tyrol," 1857 ; "Local 
Etymology," 1859; "Guide to 
Spain and Portugal," 1865 ; "Verba 
Nominalia," 1866; "Ludus Patro- 
nymicus," 1868 ; " The Peoples of 
Transylvania," 1870 ; " Manorial 
Customs of Essex," 1870 ; " Patro- 
nymica Cornu-Britannica," 1870 ; 
"On the Physical, Mental, and 
Philological Characters of the Wal- 
lons," 1871 ; " Le Sette Commune," 
1871 ; " Bradshaw's Illustrated 
Handbook to Spain and Portugal," 
new edition, 1876 ; a Glossary of 
the Essex dialect, 1879; and 
"Praenomina; or, the Etymology 
of the principal Christian names of 
Great Britain and Ireland," 1882. 

CHARTBES (Due de), Robbbt 
a 2 

Digitized by 




Philippe -Louis - Eugene • Ferdi- 
nand d'Orl^ans, younger son of 
the late Duke of Orleans, and 
grandson of the late Louis Philippe, 
was born at Paris, Nov. 9, 1840. 
When only two years old he lost 
his father, and six years later the 
Revolution drove him into exile. 
The young duke was carefully 
brought up at Eisenach in Ger- 
many, and afterwards joined his 
family in England. He served in 
the Federal army in the first cam- 
paign of the American civil war in 
1862. He married, June 11, 1863, 
Francoise-Marie-Amelie of Orleans, 
eldest daughter of the Prince de 
Joinville, and has issue a daughter, 
born Jan. 13, 1865, and two sons, 
born respectively Jan 11, 1866, and 
Oct. 16, 1867. After the Revolu- 
tion of Sept. 4, 1870, he returned 
incognito to France, and served in 
General Chanzy's army under an 
assumed name ; and in 1871, when 
the National Assembly had revoked 
the law of banishment against the 
Orleans family, he was appointed 
a Major, and permitted to serve 
without pay in the French army. 
In 1883 his name was struck off the 
active list of the army by a decree 
of the Republican Government. He 
was at once removed from the com- 
mand of the 12th Chasseurs and 
was peremptorily ordered to quit 
Rouen, at which city that regiment 
was stationed, within twelve hours 
(Feb. 25). 

CHASSEPOT, Antoine Al- 
phon8e, a French inventor, born 
March 4, 1833, the son of a working 
gunsmith, to which trade he was 
himself brought up. Entering the 
Government workshops, he was 
attached in 1858 to that of St. 
Thomas, at Paris, as Controller of 
the second class ; attained the rank 
of Controller of the first class in 
1861, and that of Principal in 1864. 
The result of his study of the 
mechanism of small arms, especially 
of the famous Prussian needle-gun, 
was the invention of the Chassepot 
rifle, which was adopted by the | 

French army ; and, according to 
the official accounts, "did wonders" 
against the Garibaldians at Men- 
tana. M. Chassepot was afterwards 
officially attached to the national 
manufactory of arms at Chatel- 
lerault, near Poitiers. He took 
out patents for his invention, and 
the royalty he received on the 
rifles manufactured brought him 
in a large income. He was deco- 
rated with the Legion of Honour 
in 1866. 

CHATARD, The Right Rev. 
Francis Silas, Bishop of Vin- 
cennes, U.S., born in Baltimore in 
1835, received his early education 
at Mount St. Mary's College, 
Emmet8burg, Maryland, and sub- 
sequently studied medicine at the 
University of Maryland, where he 
graduated in 1856. He commenced 
practice as a physician in Balti- 
more ; but at the end of a year he 
felt himself strongly drawn to the 
ecclesiastical state, and went to 
Rome, where he entered as a student 
in the College of the Propaganda. 
He was ordained and took his 
degree in Divinity in 1862. His 
character was thought _so highly of 
by his superiors that Pope Pius IX. 
appointed him Vice-Rector of the 
American College, which had then 
been about two years in existence. 
When the Rector, the Rev. W. 
McCloskey, was appointed to the 
bishopric of Louisville,Mgr . Chatard 
succeeded to the Rectorship of the 
College, which he filled with much 
distinction down to 1878, when he 
was appointed by his Holiness Pope 
Leo XIII. to the bishopric of Vin- 
cennes, Indiana, United States, in 
the Consistory held on March 28. 

CHATRIAN. (See Ercxmann- 

CHEETHAM, The Right Rev. 
Henry, P.P., born at Nottingham, 
April 27, 1827, was educated at 
Christ's College, Cambridge (B.A. 
1856, M.A. 1859). He was ordained 
in 1856 to the curacy of Saffron 
Walden, Essex, and in 1858 pre- 
sented to the vicarage of Quarndan, 

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Derbyshire, which he held till Sept., 
1870, when he was nominated to 
the bishopric of Sierra Leone, in 
succession to Dr. Beckles. He was 
consecrated in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
Xot. 30, 1870. Dr. Cheetham 
resigned his see in 1882, when he 
became vicar of Rotherham. He is 
the author of " Ministerial Fruit 
proportionate to Ministerial Faith;" 
and " Sermons." 

CHEEVER, Gborge Babrell, 
D.D.. born at Hallowell, Maine, 
April 17, 1807. He graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1825,atAndover 
Theological Seminary in 1830, and 
in 1832 was ordained minister of a 
congregational church at Salem, 
Massachusetts. In 1835 he published 
an allegory, entitled, " Deacon 
Giles's Distillery, " for which he 
was sentenced to a month's im- 
prisonment for libel. After that 
he travelled for two or three years 
in Europe and the East. In 1839 
he became pastor of a Presbyterian 
church in New York, and engaged 
in several public discussions on 
" Hierarchical Despotism," and on 
"Capital Punishment/' In 1814 
he again came to Europe as corre- 
spondent of a religious newspaper, 
the New York Evangelist, of which 
he became, in 1815, the principal 
editor. In 1846 he accepted the 
pastorate of the Congregational 
Church of the Puritans, in New 
York, which he retained until 1867, 
when, on the removal of the Church 
to the upper part of the city, he 
relinquished his active work in it, 
and since has been only its associate 
or honorary pastor. He resides at 
Englewood, New Jersey. Among 
the writings of Dr. Cheever are : 
•' Commonplace Books " of prose 
and poetry, 1828-29 ; " Studies in 
Poetry," 1830; the "Select Works 
of Archbishop Leigh ton," 1832; 
" Capital Punishment," 1843 ; 
" Lectures on Pilgrim's Progress," 
184-1; " Wanderings of a Pilgrim," 
1815-46; "The Hill Difficulty," 
1847 ; " Journal of the Pilgrims at 
Plymouth, New England, in 1620," 

1848; "Windings of the River of 
the Water of Life," 1849 ; " Voices 
of Nature," 1852 ; " Powers of the 
World to Come," 1853 ; " Lectures 
on Cowper," 1856 ; " God against 
Slavery," 1857 ; " A Voyage to the 
Celestial Country," I860; "Guilt 
of Slavery," 1860 ; " Voices of 
Nature with her Foster-Child, the 
Soul of Man," 1863 ; and " Faith, 
Doubt, and Evidence," 1881. 

Right Hon. Fridebick Augustus 
Thxsigeb, G.C.B., is the eldest son 
of the first Lord Chelmsford, who 
was twice Lord Chancellor in the 
Government of the late Lord 
Derby, by his wife Anna Maria, 
youngest daughter of Mr. William 
Tinling, of Southampton. He was 
born May 31, 1827, and educated 
at Eton. In 184-4 he entered the 
Rifle Brigade. He was transferred 
in the following year to the 
Grenadier Guards, as ensign and 
lieutenant, and he attained, in the 
ordinary course of promotion, the 
rank of lieutenant and captain 
(1850). He became Major in 1855 ; 
| Captain and Lieutenant-Colonel in 
1857; Lieutenant-Colonel, 95th 
Foot, in 1858 ; Colonel in 1863 ; 
Major-General in 1877; and Lieu- 
tenant-General in 1882. He servt d 
in the Crimean campaign as aide- 
! de-camp to Major-General Mark- 
| ham, including the siege and fall 
of Sebastopol, and for his services 
he was promoted to a brevet 
majority. Having exchanged into 
the 95th regiment as second Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, he served in the 
Indian Mutiny campaign, receiving 
for his services the brevet rank of 
Colonel. He succeeded Colonel 
Raines, C.B., in the command of 
the 95th regiment. As Deputy 
Adjutant-General in the Abyssinian 
campaign of 1868 he was present at 
the capture of Magdala. For his 
services in this campaign he was 
nominated a Companion of the 
Bath and one of her Majesty's 
aides-de-camp. He was Adjutant- 
General to the forces in India from 

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1868 till Dec, 1876, when he was 
made a Brigadier-General, and 
appointed to command the 1st 
. Infantry Brigade at Aldershot. In 
March, 1877, he attained the rank 
of Major-General, and in January 
of the following year he was nomi- 
nated to succeed General Sir Arthur 
Cunninghame in the command of 
the troops in South Africa. He 
completed the subjugation of the 
Kaffirs, and restored Caffraria to a 
condition of tranquillity. In 1878 
he was appointed Commander of 
the Forcesand Lieutenant-Governor 
of Cape Colony, which offices he 
resigned in 1879 ; and in August of 
that year he was created a Knight 
Grand Cross of the Order of the 
Bath. He had succeeded to the 
peerage on his father's death in 
1878. Lord Chelmsford was ap- 
pointed to the chief command of 
the British troops in the Zulu war 
of 1879. Colonel Glyn's column, 
consisting of 2,100 Englishmen and 
2,000 natives, was encamped at 
Isandhlwna, when an attack was 
made on the fortified camp by the 
Zulus, resulting in the nearly total 
annihilation of the garrison. A 
gallant defence was made the same 
(lay at Rorke's Drift, about ten 
miles from Isandhlwna, by Lieu- 
tenants Chard and Bromhead, who 
with 80 men of the 80th regiment 
held the post against the desperate 
assaults of 4,000 Zulus, until they 
were relieved by Lord Chelmsford's 
troops. On April 2 an attack was 
made by an army of 11,000 Zulus 
upon the fortified camp of the 
British troops under Lord Chelms- 
ford at Gingholova, on the road to 
Ekowe, but the Zulus were repulsed 
with great loss ; and two days later 
the British troops who had been 
surrounded at Ekowe by Zulus after 
the disaster of Isandhlwna were 
relieved by the force under Lord 
Chelmsford's command. Reinforce- 
ments were sent from England, and 
by April 15 the British General was 
free to recommence the invasion of 
Zululand. The decisive battle of 

Ulundi was fought on July 4, when 
the Zulu army was completely 
defeated. Our force numbered 
4062 Europeans and 1103 natives, 
with twelve guns and two Gatlings, 
while the number of the enemy 
Was computed at 20,000. We lost 
10 killed, the Zulus about 1000. 
The credit of the victory admittedly 
belongs to Lord Chelmsford, but 
before this battle was fought Sir 
Garnet Wolseley had landed at 
Durban, Natal, to supersede him in 
the command of the British troops 
operating against the Zulus. Lord 
Chelmsford, having resigned the 
command, arrived in England in 
Aug. 1879. He married, in 1867, 
Adria Fanny, daughter of Maior- 
General Heath, of the Bombay 

CHENERY, Thomas, M.A., was 
born in Barbadoes in 1826, received 
his education at Eton, and at Caius 
College, Cambridge, and was after- 
wards called to the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn. He was appointed the Lord 
Almoner's Professor of Arabic at 
Oxford in 1868 by Dr. Wilberforce, 
Bishop of Oxford and Lord High 
Almoner; was incorporated M.A. 
in that university, and became a 
member of Christ Church. In 1869 
the Sultan nominated him a mem- 
ber of the second class of the Im- 
perial Order of the Medjidie ; and 
in 1870 he was appointed by the 
Committee of the Convocation of 
Canterbury one of the revisers of 
the authorized translation of the 
Old Testament. Mr. Chenery is 
Honorary Secretary to the Royal 
Asiatic Society. He resigned the 
\tord Almoner's Professorship of 
Arabic in 1877, and soon afterwards 
(in Nov. of the same year) suc- 
ceeded Mr. Delane as editor of the 
Times newspaper. He attended, as 
one of the London delegates, the 
Congress of Internationalists which 
was held at Florence in Sept. 1878. 
As an Oriental scholar, he is chiefly 
known by his translation of " The 
Assemblies of Al Hariri, with notes 
historical and grammatical," 1867 ; 

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and by his edition of " Machberoth 
Ithiel. By Tehudah ben Shelomo 
Alkbarizi," 1872. He is also the 
author of various literary and poli- 
tical writings. 

CHERBULIEZ, Victob, son of 
• professor of Hebrew at Geneva, 
was born in that city in 1832. His 
first essay in literature was an an- 
tiquarian trifle, entitled " A propos 
d'un Cheval, Causeries Atheni- 
ennes," 1860, reprinted in 1864 
under the title of " Un Cheval de 
Phidias." About 1862 he settled in 
Paris, where he published a number 
of noTels, many of which appeared 
originally in the columns of the 
Rant* de$ Deux Monde*. Among 
them are "Le Comte Kostia," 1863; 
"Le Prince Vitale," 1864; " Paule 
Mere/' 1864; " Le Roman d'une 
honnete Femme," 1866 ; " Le Grand 
GEuvre," 1867; "Prosper Ran- 
doce," 1868 ; " L'Aventure de 
l4MhslasBolski, ,, 1869; "Le Fiance 
de Mademoiselle de Saint-Maur," 
1876; and "Lldeede Jean Teterol/' 
1878, which was translated into 
English under the title of " The 
Wish of his Life." M. CherbuHez 
has obtained French citizenship. 
On May 25, 1882, he was received 
into the French Academy as the 
successor of M. Dufaure. 

Charles, a French politician, was 
born at Orthez (Basses-Pyrenees) 
April, 1820, and educated at Pau. 
Formerly he was a dealer in hams 
and tissues at Bayonne, at first in 
partnership with his father, but he 
afterwards handed over the manage- 
ment of the business, though still 
retaining an interest in it, to his 
eldest son. In 1848 M. Chesnelong 
declared at a public meeting that 
"the republican form of govern- 
ment must be regarded as the only 
possible one in the present and in 
the future by all men who conscien- 
tiously take account of the move- 
ment of ideas and Providential pro- 
gress of facts." However he after- 
wards changed his sentiments and 
in 1866 became an official candi- 

date, under the Empire, for the 
representation of the second cir- 
conscription of the Basses-Pyre- 
nees. His candidature was suc- 
cessful, and he was re-elected in 
1869. At the elections of Jan. 
1872 he was again returned to the 
National Assembly for the Basses- 
Pyrenees, and he now took his seat 
among the monarchical majority. 
He acted a most prominent part in 
the monarchical negotiations in Oct. 
1873. A member of the Committee 
of Nine, he was sent to the Count 
de Chambord, at Salzburg, in order 
to arrange with him the conditions 
of a monarchical restoration. M. 
Chesnelong took back a satisfactory 
account of his interview with the 
Pretender, and preparations were 
being made for the entry of the 
King into Paris when the manifesto 
of the 27th of October cast disorder 
and carried desolation into the Legi- 
timist camp. At the general elec- 
tions of Feb. 20, 1876, he was again 
chosen as Deputy for the arron- 
di&sement of Orthez, but the Cham- 
ber invalidated the election, and 
when M. Chesnelong sought the 
suffrages of the electors a second 
time he was defeated by his Repub- 
lican opponent, M. Vignancourt 
(May 21, 1876). A few months 
later (Nov. 24, 1876) he was elected 
a senator for life. M. Chesnelong 
has taken a leading part in all 
Catholic movements, both in and 
out of Parliament. He accom- 
panied the pilgrimage to Paray-le- 
Monial, in honour of the Sacred 
Heart, and he subscribed the ad- 
dress of the Catholic Deputies to 
Pope Pius IX. He was president 
of the general assemblies of the 
Catholic Committees of France, 
held at Paris in 1874 and 1875. 
He is Vice-President of the Conseil 
General of the Basses- Pyrenees. 

CHESTER, Bishop of. (See 
Jacobson, Dr.) 

CHEVREAU, Jules Henei, was 
born at Belleville (Seine), April 28, 
1823, and educated by his father, 
who was then schoolmaster and 

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afterwards major at Saint-Mande. 
Taking to literary pursuits at an 
early age, he published in 1844 
"Les Voyageuses," a volume of 
poems written in conjunction with 
M. Laurent-Pichat. In 1848 he 
endeavoured to enter the Consti- 
tuent assembly, but his candida- 
ture was declared void, as he had 
not attained the requisite age. 
Young Chevreau was an active 
canvasser for Prince Louis Napo- 
leon at the election for the Presi- 
dency, and soon afterwards (Jan. 
10, 1849) he was made Prefect of 
the Ardeche. He applauded the 
coup d'dtat of Dec. 2, 1851, and his 
well-timed zeal was rewarded by 
the post of Secretary-General of 
the Home-Department. On resign- 
ing the Prefecture of the Ardeche, 
he was elected a member of the 
General Council of that depart- 
ment. Subsequently he became 
Prefect of Nantes (1853), of the 
Rhdne (1864), and of the Seine, in 
succession to the famous Baron 
Haussmann (Jan. 5, 1870). When 
the first disasters of France in the 
war against Germany compelled 
the cabinet of M. Ollivier to make 
way for the Palikao ministry, M. 
Henri Chevreau was nominated 
Minister of the Interior. While 
occupying this responsible position 
he laboured energetically to or- 
ganize the Garde Mobile through- 
out the country, caused 60 new 
battalions of the National Guard 
to be formed in Paris, and com- 
pleted those which already existed 
' in the provinces. After the battle 
of Sedan and the Revolution of 
Sept. 4, 1870, he fled to Brussels, 
and then joined the Empress Euge- 
nie in England, but he subse- 
quently returned to Paris. At the 
elections of Feb. 20, 1876, he un- 
successfully contested the second 
circonscription of Privas. In the 
following year at the elections of 
the 14th of October, which followed 
the dissolution of the Chamber of 
Deputies, he came forward as a 
Bonapartist and an official candi- 

date in the first circonscription of 
Privas (Ardeche) but he was again 
unsuccessful. M. Henri Chevreau 
was a senator under the Empire, 
and is a Grand Officer of the Legion 
of Honour. 

CHEVBEUL, Michel-Eugene, 
chemist, was born at Angiers, Aug. 
31, 1786. Having completed his 
studies in the Central School of 
that place, at the age of nineteen 
he went to Paris, where he was 
engaged in the chemical factory 
of the celebrated Vauquelin, who 
discovered in his young pupil such 
aptitude and sagacity, that he in- 
trusted the direction of his labora- 
tory to him. In 1810 he was pre- 
parator of the chemical course in 
the Museum of Natural History, 
and in 1813 was appointed professor 
in the Lycee Charlemagne and 
officer of the university. In 1824 
he was made director of the dye- 
ries and professor of special chem- 
istry in the carpet-manufactory of 
the Gobelins, where he had leisure 
to follow his favourite pursuits into 
detail, one of which was his inves- 
tigation of animal oils, or grease. 
In 1823 M. Chevreul published a 
work on this subject, for which the 
Society for the Encouragement of 
National Industry awarded him 
the prize of 12,000 francs. M. 
Chevreul has written various scien- 
tific works, such as " Lecons de 
Chimie appliquee a la Teinture," 
published in 1828-31 ; " De la Loi 
du Contraste, Ac," in 1839 ; 
"Theorie des Effets Optiques que 
presentent les Etoffes de Soie," in 
1848 ; " De la Baguette divina- 
toire, du Pendule, et des Tables 
tournantes," in 1854 ; and " Des 
Couleurs et de leur Application aux 
Arts Industriels, a Taide des cercles 
chromatiques," in 1864. Some of 
these have been translated into 
various European languages. M. 
Chevreul has contributed to the 
proceedings of scientific societies, 
to dictionaries and other works. 
In 1830 he succeeded his former 
master Vauquelin in the chair of 

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Chemiitry at the Museum of 
Natol History, since which time 
he has become Fellow of the Royal 
Society of "London and President 
of the Society of Agriculture. In 
1864 he was appointed IHrector of 
the Museum of Natural History for 
five years, and in 1869 re-appointed 
for another quinquennial period. 
He was made Commander of the 
Legion of Honour, Sept. 24, 1844. 
CHICHESTER, Bishop op. (See 

DufcNPORD, I>B.) 

CHICHESTER (Eabl op), The 
Right Hon. Henbt Thomas Pbl- 
ham, eldest son of the late earl, 
was born Aug. 25, 1804, and edu- 
cated at Westminster School and 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
was a Charity Commissioner, one of 
the commissioners of Pentonville 
Prison, and was appointed, in 1850, 
First Commissioner of Church 
Estates, with a salary of £1200. 
His lordship, who succeeded to the 
title as third earl, July 4, 1826, 
and is Lord- Lieutenant of Sussex, 
takes an active part in the patron- 
age and management of many of 
the leading religious and charitable 
societies connected with the Church 
of England. 

CHIGI (Cabdinal), His Emi- 
SKtcE, Flavio, was born at Rome 
of a distinguished family, May 31, 
1810, took holy orders rather late 
in life, and was appointed by Pope 
Pius IX. to be present at the coro- 
nation of the Emperor Alexander 
II ., on which occasion he was made 
Bishop of Mira. Soon afterwards 
he succeeded Mgr. di Lucca as 
Apostolic Nuncio in Bavaria, and 
at the close of 1861 he was ap- 
pointed Nuncio at Paris, in succes- 
sion to Mgr. Sacconi, being received 
in solemn audience by the Em- 
peror, Jan. 23, 1862. He was cre- 
ated a Cardinal, Dec. 22 3 1873, and 
soon afterwards was recalled from 

CHILDERS, Thje Rioht Hon. 


F.B.S., was born in Brook Street, 
London, June 25, 1827, being the 

only son of the late Rev. Eardley 
Childers, of Cantley, Yorkshire, by 
Maria Charlotte, eldest daughter of 
the late Sir Culling Smith, Bart., 
of Bedwell Park, Hertfordshire. 
His education, commenced at 
Cheam School, was completed at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated as fourteenth Senior 
Optime in 1850. In the same year 
he married Emily, third daughter 
of George I. A. Walker, Esq., of 
Norton , Worcestershire . ( She died 
in 1875.) Before the year 1850 was 
out, Mr. Childers, with his young 
wife, set sail for Australia. Imme- 
diately on his arrival there he bo- 
came a member of the then re- 
cently established Government of 
Victoria. With that Government 
he was connected till the beginning 
of 1857, having held the office of 
Commissioner of Trade and Cus- 
toms in the first cabinet, and having 
been member for Portland in the 
Legislative Assembly. He re- 
turned to England in 1857, as 
Agent-General for the colony, and 
in that year proceeded to the de- 
gree of M.A. at Cambridge. He 
also became a student of Lincoln's 
Inn, but he was never called to the 
bar. In 1859 he was an unsuccess- 
ful candidate for Pontefract. On a 
petition, which was withdrawn, and 
afterwards became the subject of 
special inquiry by a select commit- 
tee, he unseated his opponent, was 
returned at the new election in 
Feb. 1860, and has continued to 
represent this borough in the Libe- 
ral interest. Mr. Childers was 
chairman of the Select Committee 
on Transportation in 1861, and a 
member of the Commission on 
Penal Servitude in 1863; his re- 
commendations with respect to 
transportation having been eventu- 
ally adopted by the Government. 
He became a Lord of the Admi- 
ralty in April, 1864, and Financial 
Secretary to the Treasury in Aug. 
1865, retiring on the accession of 
Lord Derby's third administration 
in 1866. In 1867 he was nominated 

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childs— cflrrnr. 

a Royal Commissioner to investigate 
the constitution of the Law Courts. 
On Mr. Gladstone coming- into 
power in Dec. 1868, Mr. Childers 
was nominated First Lord of the 
Admiralty, which office he was com- 
pelled by ill-health to resign in 
March, 1871. While at the Admi- 
ralty Mr. Childers made changes, 
in 1869, which tended to subordi- 
nate the members of the Board 
more effectually to the First Lord, | 
constituting him, in effect, Minister 
of Marine ; and to render depart- 
mental officers at once more indi- 
vidually responsible and more 
intimate with the controlling mem- 
bers of the Board. In Jan. 1872, 
Mr. Childers again accepted the 
post of Agent-General in this 
country for the colony of Victoria. 
He was appointed Chancellor of 
the Duchy of Lancaster in Aug. 
1872. His re-election for Ponte- 
fract on this occasion is memorable 
as being the first Parliamentary 
election that took place in England 
by ballot. He only held the Chan- 
cellorship of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster for one year, retiring in 
Aug. 1873, when Mr. Gladstone's 
administration was remodelled. On 
the Liberals returning to power in 
April, 1880, he was appointed 
Secretary of State for War ; and on 
Dec. 16, 1882, he became Chancellor 
of the Exchequer in succession to 
Mr. Gladstone, who had held that 
office jointly with the office of First 
Lord of the Treasury. Mr. Chil- 
ders, who was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society, Jan. 16, 1873, is 
the author of pamphlets on Free 
Trade, Eailway Policy, and National 
Education. He is, or has been, the 
Chairman of the India Peninsula 
Railway Co., and a Director of the 
London and County Bank, the Bank 
of Australia, the Royal Mail Steam 
Packet Co., and the Liverpool and 
London and Globe Insurance Co. 
Mr. Childers married secondly, 
on April 13, 1879, Katharine 
Anne, daughter of the late Dr. 
Gilbert, Bishop of Chichester, 

and widow of the Hon. Gilbert 

CHILDS, Gko&ge Washington. 
born at Baltimore, Maryland, in 
1829, entered the United States 
Navy at the age of thirteen, and 
spent fifteen months in the service. 
He then settled in Philadelphia, 
where he obtained employment as 
a shop-boy in a book-store. At the 
age of eighteen, having saved a 
few hundred dollars, he set up in 
business for himself, and before he 
was twenty-one he became a mem- 
ber of the publishing firm of Childs 
and Peterson (1849). On Dec. 5, 
1864, he purchased the Philadelphia 
Public Ledger, a daily paper, which, 
under his management, became a 
very influential and widely-circu- 
lated journal. Mr. Childs is noted 
not only for his success as a jour- 
nalist and publisher, but also for his 
hospitality and liberality. 

CHINA, MID-, Bishop of. (See 


CHINA, NORTH, Bishop of. 
(See Scott.) 

CHITTY, The Hon. Sir Joseph 
William, is the second and only 
surviving son of the late Mr. 
Thomas Chitty, of the Inner 
Temple, and was born in London in 
1828. He was educated at Eton 
and Balliol College, Oxford, where 
he graduated in 1851, taking a 
first-class in classics. Subsequently 
he was elected a Fellow of Exeter 
College, and proceeded M.A. in 
1854. He was called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in 1856, and was ap- 
pointed a Queen's Counsel in 1874. 
Mr. Chitty for some years enjoyed 
a very extensive practice in the 
Bolls Court, of which he was the 
leader. He was formerly a Major 
in the Inns of Court Volunteers. 
To the general public, however, 
Mr. Chitty's name was most fami- 
liarly known in his capacity as um- 
pire at the Oxford and Cambridge 
boat-race, which post he filled for 
some years. He entered Parlia- 
ment at the general election of 
1880 as one of the Liberal members 

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for Oxford. In Sept. 1881, he was 
appointed a Judge of the Chancery 
Division of the High Court of 
Justice, in place of Sir George 
Jessel, the Master of the Bolls, who 
had been transferred to the Court 
of Appeal. Shortly afterwards he 
received the customary honour of 
knighthood. He married in 1858 
Clara Jessie, sixth daughter of the 
late Right Hon. Sir Frederick Pol- 

(8te Harper, Dr.) 

CHRISTIAN IX., Kino op Den- 
mark, fourth son of the late Duke 
William of Schleswig - Holstein- 
Sonderburg-Glucksburg, was born 
April 8, 1818. Before his accession 
to the crown, he was Inspector- 
General and Commander-in-Chief 
of the Danish Cavalry, and in 1842 
married a daughter of the Land- 
grave William of Hesse-Cassel, by 
whom he has had several children, 
and among them the Princess Alex- 
andra of Wales, and the Princess 
Dagmar, married to the Czarewitch 
in 1860. The succession was vested 
in him by the protocol of London, 
May 8, 1852, and he ascended the 
throne on the death of Frederic 
VII., Nov. 15, 1863. On his acces- 
sion, the position of affairs with 
respect to Schleswig-Holstein was 
completely changed. The son of 
the duke of Augustenburg imme- 
diately laid claim to the sovereignty 
of the duchies, although his father 
had for a compensation resigned all 
his rights in 1852. The indepen- 
dence of Holstein more especially, 
and of a portion of Schleswig, was 
warmly espoused by the German 
Diet, which forthwith ordered the 
advance of a Federal army to oc- 
cupy the debatable territory, for 
the purpose of enforcing its enfran- 
chisement from Danish rule. Be- 
fore matters had proceeded far, 
Austria and Prussia determined to 
interfere, and by a combined armed 
occupation of the disputed territory 
to bring the question to an issue 
independently of the Diet, and in 

opposition to the wishes of that 
body. They accordingly invaded 
the duchies, which, after a hotly 
contested campaign, they succeeded 
in wresting from Denmark, and 
taking temporary possession of Jut- 
land. Christian IX., disappointed 
in not obtaining assistance from 
Borne European power, after the 
failure of the conference convened 
in London in 1864, — which failure 
was in some measure attributable 
to the obstinacy of the Danish Go- 
vernment, — entered into negotia- 
tions for peace with Prussia and 
Austria, and a treaty was signed at 
Vienna, Oct. 30, 180*. The king of 
Denmark renounced all his rights 
to Schleswig-Holstein and Lauen- 
burg, and in 1866 the two German 
powers quarrelled over the spoil. 
Since then his Majesty has sought 
to develop the interior resources and 
popular institutions of his country. 
A new constitution was inaugurated 
in Nov. 1866, when the King opened 
the first Rigsdag, the members of 
which were elected in accordance 
with the new electoral law. The 
army and navy have also been 
thoroughly reorganised, agriculture 
and commerce have received a great 
stimulus, and several railways have 
been constructed. Christian IX. 
and Queen Louise visited the Prin- 
cess, of Wales at Marlborough House, 
London, in March, 1867. The mar- 
riage of the Crown Prince of Den- 
mark with the Princess Louisa, 
daughter of the King of Sweden, at 
Stockholm, on July 28, 1869, was 
hailed as a pledge of union between 
the two countries. His Majesty 
granted a new constitution to Ice- 
land, which came into operation in 
August, 1874, that being the thou- 
sandth year of Iceland's existence 
as a nation. He went to Eeikiajvik 
on the occasion of the anniversary 
being celebrated, and on his return 
paid a flying visit to Leith and 
Edinburgh (Aug. 18, 1874). 

CHRISTIAN (Prince), His 
Royal Highnbss Frederick- 
Chri8tian - Charles - Augustus, 

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known in this country ae Prince 
Christian, brother of Duke Frederick 
Christian Augustus, of Schleswig- 
Holstein - Sonderburg - Augusten- 
burg, born Jan. 22, 1831, married 
at Windsor Castle, July 5, 1866, 
Helena Augusta Victoria, Princess 
of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
Duchess of Saxony, who was born 
May 25, 1846. Prince Christian, 
who is a General in the British 
army, received the title of Royal 
Highness by command of Her Ma- 
jesty, and was made a Knight of the 
Garter in July, 1866. He received 
the Order of St. Catharine from the 
Emperor of Russia in May, 1874. 

CHRISTIAN, The Right Hon. 
Jonathan, son of the late Mr. 
George Christian, solicitor, of Dub- 
lin, was born at Carrick-on-Suir, co. 
Tipperary, in 1811. He received 
his education at Trinity College, 
Dublin; was called to the bar in 
Ireland in 1834 ; was made a Queen's 
Counsel in 1846 ; Queen's Serjeant 
in 1851 ; Solicitor-General for Ire- 
land in 1856 ; fourth Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas in Ireland 
in 1858; and Lord Justice of the 
Court of Appeal in 1867, on which 
last occasion he was added to the 
Privy Council in Ireland. He re- 
tired from the bench Nov. 11, 1878. 

CHRISTIE, William Henry 
Mahony, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal, 
was born at Woolwich, Oct. 1, 1845, 
being a younger son of the late Pro- 
fessor S. H. Christie, of the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, and 
formerly Secretary to the Royal So- 
ciety. He was educated at King's 
College School, London, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, which 
he entered in 1864, having won a 
minor scholarship ; he subsequently 
gained a foundation scholarship, 
and was afterwards elected a Fellow 
of his college. He took his B.A. 
degree in 1868 as fourth wrangler, 
and in 1871 proceeded to the degree 
of M.A. In 1870 he was appointed 
Chief Assistant at the Royal Ob- 
servatory, Greenwich. Mr. Christie 

contrived and introduced several 
valuable improvements in the scien- 
tific apparatus there in use, includ- 
ing a new form of spectroscope, an 
instrument for determining the 
colours and brightness of the stars, 
a recording micrometer, and a po- 
larizing solar eye-piece. He directed 
particular attention at the Royal 
Observatory to spectroscopy and 
to photography as a means of re- 
cording the observations. He is a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, and was 
elected Secretary of the Royal As- 
tronomical Society in 1880. In Sept. 
1881, on the retirement of Sir G. B. 
Airy, he was chosen to succeed him 
in the office of Astronomer Royal. 
To the proceedings of the Royal So- 
ciety and of the Royal Astronomical 
Society Mr. Christie has contributed 
several valuable papers. He is 
also the founder and editor of The 
Observatory, a Monthly Review of 
Astronomy ; and he is the author of 
the " Manual of Elementary Astro- 
nomy," published in 1875 by the 
Society for Promoting Christian 

CHURCH, Frederick Edwin, 
born at Hartford, Connecticut, May 
14, 1826. He early developed a 
f ondness for art, and became a pupil 
of Thomas Cole. Among his first 
notable works were some views in 
the Catskill Mountains. He visited 
South America in 1858, and again 
in 1857, and on his return from his 
second visit finished his great pic- 
ture, " The Heart of the Andes." 
In 1857 he completed a large paint- 
ing, " View of Niagara Falls from 
the Canadian Shore," which at once 
gave him a high rank among land- 
scape artists ; this was reproduced 
on a larger scale in 1868, and was 
exhibited both in England and the 
United States. He has since painted 
" Cotopaxi," " Morning," " On the 
Cordilleras," " Under Niagara," 
" The Icebergs," " Sunset on Mount 
Desert Island," and " Moonlight 
under the Tropics." In 1868 he 
visited Europe and the Holy Land ; 
among the paintings inspired by 

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this visit are " Damascus," 1869 ; 
" Jerusalem," 1870 ; and " The 
Parthenon/* 1871. His "Tropical 
Scenery/' painted from, sketches 
made during a trip in the West 
Indies, was exhibited in New York 
in 1873. He resides at Hudson, New 
York, bat has a studio in New York 
city. He has been an Academician 
since 1849. 

CHURCH, The Vest Rev. 
Eichasd William, M.A., D.C.L., 
Dean of St. Paul's, was born in 1815. 
After a distinguished career at the 
University of Oxford, he took his 
degree in first-class honours in 1836, 
and shortly afterwards became a 
Fellow of Oriel College. He was 
rector of Whatley, near Frome- 
Selwood, from 1853 to 1871. In 1854 
he published a volume of essays, 
which stamped him at once as one 
of the most cultivated scholars, and 
most graceful writers of the day. 
Two of the essays in the volume 
are a review of St. Anselm's life, and 
have since been expanded into a 
" Life of St. Anselm," and published 
as a separate volume. In 1869 Mr. 
Church published a volume of Uni- 
versity Sermons on the relations 
between Christianity and civiliza- 
tion, which attracted a good deal of 
attention. He was appointed Dean 
of St. Paul's, Sept. 6, 1871. The 
titles of his works are subjoined : — 
" The Catechetical Lectures of St. 
Cyril, translated with notes," in the 
" Library of the Fathers ;" " Essays 
and Reviews," 1854 ; " The Essays 
of Montaigne," in "Oxford Essays," 
1855 ; " Civilization and Religion," 
a sermon, 1860 ; "Sermons preached 
before the University of Oxford," 
1868; "Life of St. Anselm," in 
Macmillan's " Sunday Library," 
1871 ; " Civilization Before and 
After Christianity," two lectures, 
1872 ; " On some Influences of Chris- 
tianity upon National Character," 
three lectures, 187a ; " On the Sacred 
Poetry of Early Religions," two 
lectures delivered in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 1874 ; Introductory notice 
to the "Commentary on the Epistles 

and Gospels in the Book of Common 
Prayer," 1874; "The 'Pensees' 
of Blaise Pascal," published in the 
" St. James's Lectures," 1875 ; a 
lecture on "Lancelot Andrewes, 
Bishop of Winchester," published 
in " Masters in English Theology," 
1877 ; " The Beginning of the Middle 
Ages," 1877, a volume which must 
be considered as a general intro- 
duction or preface to the " Epochs 
of Modern History," rather than as 
an integral member of the series ; 
" Human Life and its Conditions," 
1878 ; " Dante : an Essay," to which 
is added a translation of " De Mon- 
archia," 1878 ; and " Spenser," in 
" English Men of Letters, edited by 
John Morley," 1879. 

CIALDINI, Eneico, an Italian 
general, born at Lombardina, a 
country seat in Modena, Aug. 8, 
1811, marched with Gen. Zucchi to 
aid the Romagna insurrection at 
Bologna, in 1831, and after the 
Austrian intervention into Central 
Italy he was compelled to emigrate. 
He went to Paris, where he studied 
chemistry under M. The'nard, and 
was preparing to study medicine, 
when he accepted a proposal made 
to go to Spain as a soldier, and took 
part in the war of succession. When 
the revolution of 1848 broke out, he 
was a lieutenant-colonel in the 
Spanish service. Mazzini recom- 
mended Col. Cialdini to the Pro- 
vincial Government of Milan, which 
was in want of officers, and a letter 
from the secretary of that govern- 
ment reached him in Aragon. Col. 
Cialdini obeyed the call; but on 
arriving at Milan, he found Lom- 
bardy under the rule of Charles 
Albert. It was not the moment for 
hesitating ; the king had just been 
beaten, and Italy was about to 
become a prey to Austria. Col. 
Cialdini joined the corps of Gen. 
Durando and marched on Vicenza, 
where he received three dangerous 
wounds, which for a year reduced 
him to a state of helplessness. Col. 
Cialdini was sent, in 1855, to the 
Crimea by the Sardinian Govern- 

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ment with the rank of general, and 
played a distinguished part in the 
battle of the Tchernaya. In the 
war in Italy, in 1859, Col. Cialdini 
was the first in the allied army who 
fired a shot at the enemy, executing 
the passage of the Sesia under the 
fire of the Austrians, whom he drove 
from their position. This corps 
d'armte then went into the moun- 
tains to act in the Tyrol. The peace 
of Villafranca checked him in his 
career. In 1860 he defeated the 
Papal army under Gen. Lamoriciere 
at the battle of Castelfidardo ; in 
1861 he took Gaeta after a bom- 
bardment of seventeen days, and 
captured the citadel of Messina a 
fortnight later. He had been made 
a major-general after the campaign 
of the Umbria, and after his capture 
of Messina the king nominated him 
general of the army, a rank equiva- 
lent to that of field-marshal. In 
1861 he was appointed Viceroy of 
Naples, with full power to suppress 
brigandage, a mission which he dis- 
charged successfully. Gen. Cialdini, 
who has received various orders, 
was made a senator in March, 1864, 
and took a prominent part in the 
campaign against Austria in 1866. 
In Oct. 1867, he was appointed 
Italian Minister to the Court of 
Austria, but he never proceeded to 
Vienna, and in the following Janu- 
ary he formally resigned tha ap- 
pointment. On the resignation of 
M. Batazzi, in Oct. 1867, the king 
intrusted General Cialdini with the 
formation of a cabinet on the basis 
of the strict maintenance of the Sep- 
tember Convention with France, in 
regard to the integrity of the Papal 
territory. In this undertaking, 
however, he was unsuccessful. Soon 
afterwards he was nominated Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the troops in 
Central Italy. In 1870 he was en- 
gaged in the invasion of the State 
of the Church, and its annexation 
to the kingdom of Italy. He was 
sent as ambassador to Paris in July, 
CLABETIE, Jules Abnaud 

Absbne, a French writer, born 
at Limoges, Dec. 3, 1840, was 
educated in the Bonaparte Lyceum, 
at Paris. Adopting literature as a 
profession, he contributed a very 
large number of articles to various 
French and Belgian journals, ii.- 
cluding the Patrie, the France, the 
Revue Francaise, the Figaro, and the 
Independence Beige. In 1866 he 
followed in Italy the campaign 
against Austria, in the capacity 
or correspondent of the Avenir 
National. Two series of lectures, 
delivered by him at Paris in 1865 
and 1868, were interdicted by the 
Imperial authorities. In 1869 he 
was condemned to pay a fine of 1000 
francs for having described, in the 
Figaro, under the pseudonym of 
" Candide," the double execution of 
Martin, called Bidaure, by order of 
the Prefect Pastoureau, in the 
department of the Var. The follow- 
ing year he succeeded M. Francisque 
Sarcey as dramatic critic of the 
Opinion Nationals, and subsequently 
he followed the French army to 
Metz, and sent letters from the seat 
of war to the Opinion Nationale, the 
Illustration and the Rappel. After 
the fall of the Empire he was ap- 
pointed by M. Gambetta to the post 
of secretary of the Commission of the 
papers of the Tuileries ; but he soon 
resigned this office, and he was next 
charged by M. Etienne Arago, 
Mayor of Paris, with the duty of 
organising a library and lecture- 
hall in each of the twenty arron- 
dissements of Paris. For a very 
short time he commanded the 
second battalion of the volunteers 
of the National Guard, which was 
dissolved by General Clement 
Thomas when those volunteers wer* 
replaced by the mobilised National 
Guards. M. Jules Claretie was 
present at nearly all the engage- 
ments which took place under the 
walls of Paris, and on Jan. 20, 1871* 
in the capacity of an officer of the 
staff, he negotiated with the aide- 
de-camp of the Crown Prince of 
Prussia the truce which gave an 

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opportunity for removing the dead 
from the field of battle at Busenval. 
At the general elections of Feb. 8, 
1871 , he stood as a candidate in the 
department of Haute-Vienne, in the 
republican interest; but, being 
unsuccessful, he resumed his 
journalistic and literary pursuits. 
Among his works are, " TTne Dro- 
lesse,* 1862; " Pierille," 1868; 
"Les Ornieres de la Vie/' 1864; 
"Les Victimes de Paris/' 1864; 
" Les Contemporains oublies : 
EHsa Mercosur, Georges Farcy, Al- 
phonse Robbe," 1864; "Voyages 
d'un Parisien," 1865; " Petrus 
Borel le Lycauthrope, sa vie et ses 
OBuvres," 1865 ; " L'Assassin," 
1866, afterwards republished under 
the title of "Robert Burst;" 
" Mademoiselle Cachemire," 1867 ; 
" La Libre Parole," a collection of 
lectures, 1868 ; " Madeleine Bertin," 
1868, a political novel, which was a 
great success ; " Histoire de la 
revolution de 1870-71," which first 
appeared in parts with illustrations 
(2 vols. 4to), and was republished 
in 5 vols. 8vo. (1875-76); "Les 
Derniers Montagnards," "Moliere 
et ses oBUvres ; " "La Vie Moderne 
au TheAtre," " Les Prussiens chez 
eux," "La Guerre Nationale, 
1870-71," "Ruines et Fantomes," 
1873 ; " Peintrea et Sculpteurs 
Contemporains," 1873 ; " Les 
Muscadins," a novel, 1874 ; 
" Camille Desmoulins, Lucile Des- 
mouHns, Etude sur les Dan- 
tonistes," 1875 ; " J. B. Carpeaux," 
1875; "Portraits Contemporains," 
2 vols., 1875; "Le Beau Solignac," 
2 vols., 1876; "Le Renegat," a 
novel, 1876; "Cinq Ans apres, 
1* Alsace et la Lorraine depuis 
l'Annexion," 1876 ; " Le Train, no. 
7," 1877 ; " La Maison vide," 1878 ; 
" Le Troisi£me Dessous," a novel, 
1878 ; and " Monsieur le Ministre," 
a novel, 1881. M. Jules Claretie 
has also written several pieces for 
the stage. His play "Les Mira- 
beau" was brought out at the 
Thlltre des Nations, Oct. SI, 1879 ; 
and " Monsieur le Ministre/' 

founded upon the novel with that 
title, was produced at the Gymnase 
Feb. 2, 1883. 

CLARK, Andbbw, M.D., born on 
Oct. 28, 1826, was educated first at 
Aberdeen, and afterwards at Edin- 
burgh. In the extra-academical 
Medical School of this city he gained 
the first medals in anatomy, physio- 
logy, chemistry, botany, materia 
medica, surgery, pathology, and 
practice of physic. For two years he 
assisted Dr. Hughes Bennett in the 
pathological department of the 
Royal Infirmary, and was demon- 
strator of anatomy to Dr. Robert 
Knox in the final course of lectures 
delivered by that celebrated ana- 
tomist. For four years Dr. Clarke 
had charge of the pathological 
department of the Royal Naval 
Hospital at Haslar, where he 
delivered lectures on the use of the 
microscope in practical medicine. 
In 1854 he took his degree of M.D. 
at the University of Aberdeen, 
settled in the metropolis, became a 
member of the Royal College of 
Physicians of London, and was 
elected on the staff of the London 
Hospital. In 1858 Dr. Clark was 
made a Fellow of the College of 
Physicians, in which he has held 
the offices of Croonian Lecturer. 
Councillor, and Examiner in Medi- 
cine. He has been also Lettsomian 
Lecturer and President of the 
Medical Society of London. Dr. 
Clark originally intended to devote 
himself exclusively to the cultiva- 
tion of pathology ; but turned by 
the force of circumstances from the 
course on which he had entered, he 
has been now long occupied in the 
work of a practical physician. He 
is the author of numerous essays, 
lectures, and reviews, the profes- 
sional portion of which refers for 
the most part to diseases of the 
respiratory and digestive organs. 
He is at present Senior Physician and 
Lecturer on Clinical Medicine to the 
London Hospital, President of the 
Metropolitan Counties Branch of 
the British Medical Association, 

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and Consulting Physician to the 
East London Hospital for Diseases 
of Children. Since the year 1864 
he has edited, in conjunction with 
Dr. Down, Mr. Hutchinson, and 
Mr. Maunder, a valuable series, 
still in progress, of " Clinical Lec- 
tures and Reports, by the Medi- 
cal and Surgical Staff of the Lon- 
don Hospital." His own profes- 
sional writings are : — " On the Ana- 
tomy of the Lungs," in Dr. H. 
Davies's work on " Physical Diag- 
nosis ; " " On Tubercular Sputum ;" 
"Evidences of the Arrestment of 
Phthisis ; " " Mucous Disease of the 
Colon;" Lectures on "The Ana- 
tomy of the Lung," " Pneumonia," 
and " The States of Lung compre- 
hended under the term Phthisis 
Pulmonalis " (delivered at the 
Royal College of Physicians in 
1866) ; " Fibroid Phthisis " (in vol. 
i. of the Transactions of the Clinical 
Society) ; and " The Work of 
Fibrinous Pleurisies in the Evolu- 
tion of Phthisis" (in the Medical 
Mirror for 1870). 

CLARK, The Rev. James, M.A., 
Ph.D., was born in Yorkshire, in 
1836, but is descended from an 
Essex family. He was educated in 
the University of London, graduat- 
ing in arts in 1857, and afterwards 
proceeded to the University of 
Gattingen, where he won his 
doctorate with distinction. In 1860 
he published a brochure in apolo- 

fetics, entitled " The Spurious 
!thics of Sceptical Philosophy." 
In 1862-63 he prepared for holy 
orders in Queen's College, Birming- 
ham, where he also studied botany 
and chemistry. In 1863 he was 
ordained deacon in the chapel of 
Queen's College, Cambridge, and in 
1864 was ordained a priest. Dr. 
Clark has pursued with success 
original investigations in Aryan, 
Semitic, and Turanian philology, 
and has prepared for the press 
" An Aryan and Extra- Aryan Com- 
parative Grammar." In 1866 he 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Great Britain and 

Ireland. The same year he pub- 
lished "The Church as Established 
in its Relations with Dissent," and 
"The Epochs of Language," in 
which the theory of Professors Max 
Muller and Benloew, concerning 
linguistic development, is met with 
counter-arguments. In 1867 Dr. 
Clark, after some Latin correspon- 
dence with the University of 
Gdttingen, received a rescript from 
Professor Dr. Lotze, then Dean of 
the Philosophical Faculty, in the 
name of all the deans of faculties, 
authorizing, under the seal of the 
university, the revival of academical 
hoods. In 1869 he competed success- 
fully for the prize of fifty guineas 
offered by the Anglican and Inter- 
national Christian Moral Science 
Association for the best work on 
"Christian Ethics," and was nomi- 
nated a member of council of the 
association. In 1870 Dr. Clark's 
work, entitled " What is Christian 
Moral Science ? or, the Nature and 
Province of Christian Ethics de- 
fined and determined," was pub- 
lished in " Science and the Gospel." 
Dr. Clark is also an extensive con- 
tributor of articles to the English 
periodical press. He has likewise 
contributed to the German press, 
and written several pamphlets in the 
German language. In 1869, after 
having held various important pa- 
rochial cures, Dr. Clark was nomi- 
nated British Chaplain and Incum- 
bent of the English church at 
Memel, in Prussia, and while 
occupying that position he con- 
ducted extensive correspondence 
with Dutch and German theolo- 
gians as the representative on the 
Continent of the Anglican and Inter- 
national Christian Moral Science 
Association. Dr. Clark resigned 
the British chaplaincy at Memel 
in 1874, when he was engaged by 
the Christian Evidence Society, as 
a lecturer, to conduct classes for 
the study of Christian Evidences in 
or near London. In 1876 he was 
appointed rector of St. Philip'a, 

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CUBES, Major-Gbnssal Sib 
Anww, K.C.M.G., C.B., son of 
Colonel Andrew Clarke, of Belmont, 
co. Donegal, was "born at Southsea, 
nwpshrre, in 1824, and received 
Jus education at the Royal Military 
Academy, Woolwich. He entered 
tl» Boy&l "Engineers as second 
Lisoteuant in 1844 ; became Cap- 
tekin in 1854 ; Lieutenant-Colonel 
in 1867 ; and Colonel in 1877. He 
acted as aide-de-camp to Sir W. 
Denison, the Governor of Van 
Dieman's Land, and served in New 
Zealand during the years 1847-48, 
and became a member of the Legis- 
lative Council there in 1851. In 
1853 he was appointed Surveyor- 
General of Victoria. He was elected 
to the Victorian Assembly for 
Melbourne, under the new consti- 
tution, and became Minister for 
I*ublic Lands, but he resigned 
office in 1857, and returned to this 
country in the following year. He 
commanded the Royal Engineers of 
the Eastern and Midland districts 
of England till 1863, when he went 
on special service to the West 
Coast of Africa respecting the 
A gh an tee difficulties. On his re- 
turn he was appointed in Aug. 
1864, Director of the Works of the 
Navy, which office he held till 
June, 1873. From the latter date 
till Feb. 1875, he was Governor of 
tn#% Straits Settlement, and he was 
next appointed Director of Public 
Works in India. He was Comman- 
dant of the School of Military 
Engineering at Chatham from 1881 
to 1882, when he was appointed In- 
spector-General of Fortifications. 
In Nov. 1882, he was dispatched 
to Cairo, charged with the duty of 
inquiring into the causes of the 
sickness and mortality which were 
prevailing among the British army 
of occupation, and invested with 
full power to make any alterations 
which he might consider necessary 
in the sanitary arrangements. Sir 
Andrew Clarke is the author of 
several works on engineering. 
CLARKE, Hyde, born in London 

in 1815, was engaged in the Spanish 
and Portuguese wars of succession, 
and afterwards held a diplomatic 
appointment. In 1836 he planned 
and surveyed the Morecambe Bay 
Embankment and other improve- 
ments, and the railways for the 
development of Barrow. In 1849 
he was employed to report on the 
telegraph system for India, and in 
1857 he exerted himself for the ex- 
tension of hill settlements in India, 
and for the Through Eailway to 
India. He was Honorary Agent 
for Darjeeling, and a Councillor of 
the Ottoman Government. His 
early writings from 1837 include 
numerous books, memoirs and 
pamphlets on philosophical sub- 
jects, political economy, banking, 
statistics, railways, foreign loans, 
and public works. Mr. Clarke is 
also the author of " Theory of Bail- 
way Investment," 18 16 ; " Military 
Life of Wellington," 1849 ; " En- 
glish Grammar and Dictionary," 
1853; and "Comparative Philo- 
logy," 1858. In 1848 he published, 
under the title of " Economical 
Physics," the cycle now known as 
the sunspot period. He was also 
one of the discoverers of the law of 
unconscious thought. On the Con- 
tinent and in the United States he 
is best known as a philologist. 
After a long application to the 
study of languages, of late years 
he has devoted himself as an Ori- 
entalist to the Iberian and Acca- 
dian families of languages, and to 
pre-historic and philological re- 
searches. A special branch has 
been the determination of the lan- 
guages of the American and Aus- 
tralian continents, and their rela- 
tion to the comparative philology 
and mythology of Africa and In- 
dia. His contributions in English, 
French, Italian, Spanish, and Por- 
tuguese, include " Memoirs on the 
identification of the Varini of Taci- 
tus and other points of Anglo-Saxon 
History," 1848, 1866, 1868; "The 
Ude of the Caucasus, and its rela- 
tions to Egyptian and Coptic," 

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1873 ; The Connection of the Lan- 
guages of India and Africa" ; " Pre- 
historic Comparative Philology," 
1875; "The Khita and Khita- 
Peruvian Epoch," 1877 j "The 
Mediterranean Populations from 
Antonomous Coins," 1882. He first 
identified the Khita or Hamath